Skip to main content

Full text of "Imperial Gazetteer Of India Provincial Series Bombay Presidency Vol-i"

See other formats


PRESIDENT’S SECRETARIAT 

(LIBRARY) 

Accn. No.. Class No .. 

The book should be returned on or before the date 
last stamped below. 




IMPERIAL GAZETTEER OF INDIA 


PROVINCIAL SERIES 

BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 

VOL. I 


SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING 
CALCUTTA 
1909 


Two vols. 

Price Rs. 6, or 9J.] 




PREFACE 


The majority of the articles in these volumes were 
originally drafted by Mr. R. E. Enthoven, I.C.S., but the 
extensive alterations and additions subsequently found 
necessary were contributed by Mr. S. M. Edwardes, I.C.S. 
Sections on Geology were received from the Director, 
Geological Survey of India, and on History and Archaeo- 
logy from Mr. A. M. T. Jackson, I.C.S. Professor Gammie 
revised the Botany sections and the Director of Land 
Records and Agriculture those on Agriculture, while the 
Secretary-General to the Governor- General of Goa kindly 
scrutinized the articles on the Portuguese Possessions in 
India. The articles on Districts and Native States were 
revised by the Collectors and Political Agents respectively. 
Special acknowledgement is due to Captain H. W. Berthon, 
I.A., for revising the several articles on the Kathiawar 
States ; and to Mr. E. M. Hodgson, of the Forest depart- 
ment, for a useful contribution on the Dangs. 


m 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Bombay Presidency 1-147 

Physical Aspects 1-15 

Dimensions . 1 

Boundaries ........ 1 

Natural divisions 2 

Sind 2 

Gujarat 2 

The Deccan 3 

The Carnatic 3 

The Konkan 4 

Scenery 4 

Mountains 5 

Rivers 6 

Bays and lakes 7 

Islands 8 

Harbours and lighthouses 8 

Geology . 8 

Botany 9 

Fauna x 1 

Climate, rainfall, and temperature . . . . 12 

Earthquakes, cyclones, and floods . . . . 13 

History 15-35 

Earliest period before 322 b.c 15 

The Mauryas, 321-184 b.c 15 

Andhras or Satavahanas and Greeks, 200-100 B.c. . 16 

Foreign invaders, 100 b.c. — a.d. 100 . . , 16 

Kshatrapas and Satavahanas, 100-300 . . . 16 

Guptas, Vallabhis, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Gujars, 

300-700 16 

Deccan, 600-750. The Chalukyas . . . . 17 

Gujarat and Deccan, 750-950. Gujars and Rashtra- 
kutas r8 

Gujarat, 946-1143. Solanki kingdom of Anhilvada . 19 

Deccan, 973-1156. Chalukyas of Kalyani . . 19 
Gujarat, 1 143-1 242. Decline of the Solankis . . 20 



VI 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PAGE 

Deccan, x 155-12 1 2. Yadavas of Deogiri . . 20 

Muhammadan conquest of Gujarat and the Deccan . 21 

Gujarat, 1298-1572. Kings of Ahmadabad . . 21 

Deccan, 1318-1600. The Bahmani kingdom and its 

offshoots 22 

The Portuguese, 1498-1594 2 4 

Gujarat under the Mughal empire. Maratha in- 
cursions, 1572-1740 24 

Deccan, 1600-1740. Rise of the Marathas . . 25 

Gujarat and the Deccan, 1740-74 .... 29 

Marathas and British, 1774-82 .... 30 

Break-up of the Maratha confederacy. Extension of 

British power, 1782-1803 31 

1803-27. Organization of the Bombay Presidency 

and fall of the Peshwa 32 

Mountstuart Elphinstone 32 

1827-52. Enlargement of the Presidency . . 33 

Lord Elphinstone, 1853-60 33 

Sir Bartle Frere, 1862-7 33 

Deccan famine, 1876-9 34 

Famine, plague, and disaffection, 1896-1902 , . 34 

Archaeology 35 

Population 36-5 2 

Density 3 6 

Towns and villages 36 

Growth of population . 37 

Migration 37 

Age 38 

Vital statistics. Diseases 38 

Sex 39 

Civil condition 39 

Language 4° 

Tribes and castes 42 

Marathas 44 

Lingayats 44 

Brahmans 45 

Vanis 45 

Sind tribes 46 

Caste in Sind 47 

Religion 47 

Christian missions 48 

Occupations 48 

Food 49 

Dress 49 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


vii 

PAGE 

Dwellings .50 

Amusements and festivals . 50 

Nomenclature 51 

Agriculture . 52-60 

General agricultural conditions . 52 

System of cultivation 53 

Principal food-crops 54 

Land Improvement and Agriculturists’ Loans Acts . 55 

Cotton 56 

Domestic animals 57 

Irrigation 58 

Fisheries 60 

Rent, Wages, and Prices 60-63 

Rent ... 60 

Wages 61 

Prices 62 

Material condition of the people . . . . 62 

Forests 63-66 

Classes of forests .63 

Administration 63 

Relations with the people 64 

Fire conservancy 65 

Working-plans 65 

Yield of the forests 65 

Revenue and expenditure . .66 

Mines and Minerals 66 

Arts and Manufactures ... . 66-72 

Cotton-weaving .66 

Dyeing and printing 67 

Silk-weaving 67 

Embroidery 67 

Woollen goods 68 

Fibres 68 

Gold and silver ornaments 68 

Brass- and copper-ware ... 68 

Iron and steel work 68 

Glass-making, &c 69 

Pottery : 69 

Wood-carving 69 

Carts and boats 69 

Leather 69 

Horn-ware 69 

Sugar 69 

Oil-presses 69 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


viii 


Butter . 

Salt, &c. . 

Printing presses 
Cotton-mills . 

Other factories 
Commerce and Trade . 
General character . 
Internal trade . 
External trade . 

Means of Communication 

Railways . 

Light railways . 
Tramways 

Coasting steamers . 
Roads 

Post and telegraph . 
Famine .... 
1802-3 . 

1812-3 • 

1819-20 . 

1824 

1832-3 . 

1834 

1838-9 . 

1853-4 . 

1862 

1876-7 . 

1896-7 . 

1899-1902 
Administration . 
Governor-in-Council 
Secretariat 
Divisions 
Villages . 

Taluka, subdivision, &c. 
Native States . 

Aden 

Law and Justice . 
Legislation 
High Court 
Civil courts 
Criminal courts 
Registration . 


PAGE 

70 

70 

70 

70 

71 

. 72-74 

72 

73 

73 

• 74-77 

74 

• 76 

. 76 

. 76 

77 

77 

77-84 

79 

79 

79 

80 
80 
80 
80 

80 

81 
8r 

82 
82 

• 84-88 

. 84 

. 84 

85 

• 85 

86 
86 
88 

. 88-92 
88 

. 89 

89 

90 
92 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


IX 



PAGE 

Finance 


* 92-95 

Settlement of 1871 


93 

fN 

CO 

M 


93 

1882 


93 

1887 


94 

1892 


94 

Subsequent arrangements .... 


94 

Land Revenue 


95-101 

General method of assessment . 


95 

Resulting position of the ryot . 


96 

Financial results of the settlement . 


97 

Settlement rates 


. 98 

Special tenures 


98 

Land revenue under the Marathas . 


99 

Remissions under the present system 


100 

Restrictions on the transfer of land . 


100 

Miscellaneous Revenue 


101-112 

Opium duty 


IOI 

Vend fees 


102 

Arrangements in Native States 


102 

Salt 


102 

Excise 


104 

Sources of revenue .... 


104 

Country liquor 


104 

Toddy 


106 

Country liquors excised at tariff rates - . 


107 

Foreign liquors 


107 

Intoxicating drugs .... 


107 

Total excise revenue .... 


108 

Character of local consumption . 


108 

Efforts made by Government to restrict 

con- 

sumption 


109 

Excise on cotton goods 


no 

Stamps 


no 

Income tax ..... 


in 

Customs 


. in 

Local Self-government .... 


n 2-1 15 

District and taluka boards 


. 112 

Municipalities 


• *13 

General results of local self-government . 


. 114 

Port Trusts 


. ns 

Public Works 


n 5“ IX 7 

Irrigation works 


116 



X 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Roads and buildings 



PAGE 

. ir6 

Large municipal works 



. 117 

Army 



. 117 

Police and Jails .... 



118-121 

Ordinary police 



. 1x8 

Police measures under native rule 



. 119 

Village police .... 



. 119 

Special branches 



120 

Reorganization 



1 2 1 

Jails 



121 

Reformatories .... 



. 12 1 

Education 



I 2 I-I 29 

University education 



• 123 

Secondary education 



I24 

Primary education . 



• 125 

Female education . 



126 

Special schools 



126 

Private schools 



127 

European and Eurasian education 



127 

Muhammadan education . 



127 

Fees 



128 

General educational results 



. 128 

Newspapers and books 



128 

Medical 



129-131 

Hospitals .... 



I29 

Lunatic and leper asylums 



130 

Vaccination .... 



130 

Sale of quinine 



I30 

Sanitation .... 


. 

130 

Survey 



131-132 

Topographical .... 
Revenue or cadastral 



• LU 

• I 3 1 

Forest 



132 

Bibliography .... 



. 132 

Statistics 



X 33 -I 47 

Table I. Distribution of Population, 

1901 

• 133 

„ II. Statistics of Agriculture, 

excluding Native 

States . 


. 

• 13s 

„ III. Prices of Chief Grains at six selected Centres 136 

„ IV. Foreign Maritime Trade 

for the 

years 

1890-1, 1 900-1, and 

1903-4 (exclusive 

of Government stores and treasure) 

136 


V. Trade with other Provinces and States of 


India for 1890-1, 1900-1, and 1903-4 . 138 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

xi 


PAGE 

Table VI. Principal Sources of Provincial Revenue . 139 

„ VII. Principal Heads of Provincial Expenditure . 140 

„ VIII. Annual gross yield of Import Duties on 

the Chief Articles imported (excluding 

Sind) from 1894-5 to 1902-3. 

. 141 

„ IX. Income and Expenditure of 

District 

Municipalities 

*. . * 142 

„ X. Income and Expenditure of 

District 

Boards 

142 

„ XI. Police Statistics (British Districts) 

. . 143 

„ XII. Statistics of Cognizable Crime 

(British 

Districts) .... 

• 143 

„ XIII. Jail Statistics (British Districts) . 

143 

„ XIV. Colleges, Schools, and Scholars . 

144 

„ XV. University Results 

• 145 

„ XVI. Educational Finance . 

146 

„ XVII, Medical Statistics (including Native States, 

but excluding Aden) 

• 147 

Tribes 

148-154 

Bhil Tribes, The . 

148-152 

Origin and meaning of the name . 

00 

w 

Geographical distribution 

148 

General characteristics . 

148 

Bombay ... 

149 

Central India . ... 

. 151 

Rajputana , ... 

. 151 

The Bhilalas 

. 151 

Kol!s ... 

. 152 

Mountains 

154-163 

Kirthar Range .... 

• 154 

Lakhi Hills 

• 15s 

Satpuras .... 

155-158 

Geographical position .... 

• 155 

Geological formation .... 

. 156 

Features of the plateau . 

156 

Height 

• 157 

Forests 

• 157 

Hill tribes 

• 157 

Communications 

• 157 

Ghats, The 

. . 158 

Ghats, Western 

159-163 

In Bombay Presidency .... 

• 159 

In Mysore and Coorg .... 

161 

In Madras Presidency .... 

162 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Satmala i6 3 

Rivers 163-185 

Hab 163 

Indus 164-171 

Course amid the Himalayas 164 

At Attock *65 

In the Punjab .166 

In Sind 167 

The delta 168 

Shifting channels 168 

Floods 169 

Irrigation .170 

Navigation * 7 ° 

Fish 17 1 

Banas . 17 1 

SaraswatI .172 

Sabarmati 172 

MahI . .172 

Tapti 174 

Narbada i 75 “ I 7 8 

Course of the river 176 

Drainage area, tributaries, &c 177 

Sacred character of the river 177 

Historical associations 178 

Godavari 178-181 

Course in Bombay Presidency . . . . 179 

In Hyderabad and Central Provinces . . 179 

In Madras Presidency 180 

Sacred character of the river 18 1 

Kistna 181-183 

Course in Bombay Presidency . . . .181 

In Hyderabad State 182 

In Madras Presidency 182 

BhIma 183 

Gersoppa Falls 184 

Lakes and Canals 185-192 

Cutch, Rann of 185 

Cambay, Gulf of 186 

Manchhar . 186 

Nal . . . . . . . . .187 

Nara, Eastern 187 

Jamrao Canal 188 

Begari Canal 189 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


xi ii 

PAGE 

Desert Canal ... . .189 

Fuleli Canal 190 

Mutha Canals .190 

Nira Canal 191 

Tansa Lake 191 

Lake Fife 191 

Lake Whiting 192 

Historic Areas 192-209 

Anhilvada .192 

Baglan 192 

Carnatic 194-196 

The true Carnatic 194 

The later or Madras Carnatic . . . 195 

The Bombay Carnatic 196 

Deccan 196-200 

Extent . 196 

Geology 197 

History 198 

Gujarat 200-205 

Extent 200 

Name 201 

History 20 r 

Kohistan 205 

Konkan 205-207 

Extent 205 

Physical aspects 206 

History 206 

Maharashtra 207 

Southern Maratha Country .... 209 

Bombay City 210-236 

Situation , &c. 210 

Description 210 

General aspect 210 

Bombay Island 211 

The Fort. Public buildings, &c 21 r 

Other parts of the city 213 

Climate 215 

History 215 

Early inhabitants 215 

Hindu and Muhammadan rulers . . . .216 

Portuguese rule 216 

Cession to the English, 1661 . . . .217 


Transfer to East India Company. Gerald Aungier 217 



XIV 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PAGE 

Progress during early part of eighteenth century . 218 

1740-69 . ...... 218 

1770-1817 219 

1818-39. Expansion of Bombay Presidency and 

City 220 

1840-70. The cotton boom. Development of 

the city 221 

Development up to present day . . . .223 

Population . 224 

Component races 226 

Religion and language 227 

Cultivation 227 

Manufactures 228 

Trade ......... 229 

Revenue and municipal administration . . .230 

Justice 230 

Police and jails • .231 

Military and marine 231 

Port Trust 231 

City Improvement Trust 231 

Land revenue 232 

Education . 232 

Newspapers 233 

Medical 233 

The plague 234 

Revenue account of Bombay Municipality for 1903-4 236 

Northern Division 237-387 

Ahmadabad District 238-267 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems . 238 

Geology 239 

Botany 240 

Fauna ......... 240 

Climate and temperature 240 

Rainfall . ....... 240 

History . 240 

Archaeology 241 

The people . 242 

Castes and occupations 

Christian missions 

General agricultural conditions 244 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . . 244 

Improvements in agricultural practice ... 245 

Cattle, ponies, and camels 245 

Irrigation ' 2AK 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Minerals 



XV 

PAGE 

246 

Arts and manufactures 





246 

Trade guilds .... 





246 

Commerce . 





247 

Communications 





247 

Railways and roads 





247 

Famine and natural calamities . 





248 

District subdivisions and staff . 





249 

Civil and criminal justice . 





249 

Land revenue administration . 





249 

Municipalities and local boards 





251 

Police and jails 





251 

Education .... 





251 

Hospitals and dispensaries 





252 

Vaccination .... 





252 

Viramgam Taluk a . 





252 

Parantij Taluka . 





252 

Sanand Taluka 





253 

Daskroi 





253 

Dholka Taluka . 





253 

Dhandhuka Taluka 





254 

Ahmadabad City . 





254 

Population .... 





254 

History .... 





255 

Architecture and principal remains 




256 

Dwelling-houses . 





257 

Municipality 





258 

Military .... 





258 

Arts and manufactures . 





258 

Education, &c. 





260 

Bavliari .... 





260 

Dhandhuka Town . 





260 

Dholera .... 





26l 

Dholka Town 





262 

Gogha ..... 





262 

Kharaghoda .... 





263 

Mandal . ... 





264 

Modasa 





264 

Parantij Town 





264 

Patri 





265 

Piram 





265 

Ranpur . ... 





266 

Sanand Town 

, 




267 

Viramgam Town . 

. 


. 


267 



XVI 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PAGE 

Kaira District 268-287 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems . 268 

Geology 268 

Botany . 269 

Fauna 269 

Climate and temperature 270 

Rainfall 270 

History 270 

Archaeology 271 

The people 271 

Castes and occupations . ... 272 

Christian missions 272 

General agricultural conditions 273 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . -273 

Improvements in agricultural practice . . *274 

Cattle and ponies 275 

Irrigation . . . . « . • -275 

Minerals 275 

Arts and manufactures 275 

Commerce 275 

Communications 276 

Railways and roads 276 

Famine 276 

District subdivisions and staff 277 

Civil and criminal justice 277 

Land revenue administration 277 

Municipalities and local boards . . . .278 

Police and jails 278 

Education 279 

Hospitals and dispensaries 279 

Vaccination . • 279 

Kapadvanj Taluk a 279 

Mehmadabad Taluk a 280 

Thasra . 280 

Matar 280 

Nadi ad Taluk a 280 

An and Taluka 281 

Borsad Taluka 281 

Adas 281 

Anand Town 282 

Borsad Town 282 

Chaklasi 283 

Dakor 283 

Kaira Town 283 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


xvii 

PAGE 

Kapadvanj Town . 




284 

Karamsad .... 




285 

Mahudha .... 




285 

Mehmadabad Town 




285 

Nadi ad Town 




285 

Napad 




286 

Od 




286 

Sarsa 




287 

Umreth 



, 

287 

Panch Mahals District . 


. 

287-304 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems. 

287 

Geology 




288 

Botany 




289 

Fauna 




289 

Climate and temperature . 




289 

Rainfall 




289 

History 




29O 

Archaeology .... 




29O 

The people .... 




290 

Castes and occupations . 




291 

Christian missions . 




292 

General agricultural conditions . 




292 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . 


292 

Cattle, ponies, &c. . 




293 

Irrigation .... 




293 

Forests 




293 

Mines and minerals 




294 

Commerce .... 




294 

Communications 




294 

Railways and roads 




294 

Famine 




295 

District subdivisions and staff . 




295 

Civil and criminal justice 




295 

Land revenue administration . 




295 

Municipalities and local boards. 




296 

Police and jails 




297 

Education .... 




297 

Hospitals and dispensaries 




297 

Vaccination .... 




297 

Dohad Taluka 




297 

Godhra Taluka . 




298 

Kalol 




298 

Bhimkund .... 




299 

Chakki-no-Aro 

BO I b 


* 


299 



XVlll 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Champaner 

Dohad Town .... 

Godhra Town 

Halol 

Jhalod 

Pavagarh 

Broach District .... 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and 

Geology 

Botany .... 

Fauna 

Climate and temperature . 

Rainfall 

History 

Archaeology .... 

The people 

Castes and occupations . 

Christian missions . 

Agricultural conditions 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal 

Improvements in agricultural practice 

Cattle, ponies, &c 

Irrigation 

Forests 

Minerals 

Arts and manufactures 

Commerce 

Communications 
Railways and roads 
Famine . 

District subdivisions and staff . 

Civil and criminal justice 
Land revenue administration . 
Municipalities and local boards 
Police and jails .... 
Education .... 
Hospitals and dispensaries 
Vaccination ... 

Jambusar Taluka 

Amod Taluka ... 

Vagra ... 

Broach Taluka . 

Anklesvar Taluka . ’ * 

Amod Town . ^ 


300 

301 
3°i 

302 
302 

• 303 

304 ~ 3 2 5 
river systems 304 

305 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



xix 




PAGE 

Anklesvar Town 



317 

Broach City . ... 



318 

Hansot 



322 

Jambusar Town 



322 

Kadod 



323 

SuklatIrtha 



323 

Surat District 


3*5-351 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems 

3*5 

Geology 



326 

Botany 



3*7 

Fauna 



328 

Climate and temperature .... 



328 

Rainfall 



328 

History 



328 

Archaeology 



332 

The people 



333 

Castes and occupations .... 



333 

Christian missions 



334 

General agricultural conditions 



334 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops 



335 

Improvements in agricultural practice 



335 

Cattle and goats 



335 

Irrigation 



336 

Forests 



336 

Mines and minerals 



336 

Arts and manufactures .... 



336 

Commerce 



337 

Communications 



337 

Railways and roads .... 



337 

Famine 



337 

District subdivisions and staff . 



338 

Civil and criminal justice .... 



338 

Land revenue administration . 



338 

Municipalities and local boards 



339 

Police and jails 



339 

Education 



339 

Hospitals and dispensaries 



340 

Vaccination 



340 

Olpad 



340 

Mandvi Taluka 



340 

Chorasi 



34o 

Bardoli Taluka 



34i 

Jalalpur 



34i 

Chikhli 


. 

342 


b 2 



XX 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PAGE 


Bulsar Taluka 3 4 2 

Pardi Taluka 

Bardoli Town 

Bulsar Town 343 

Mandvi Town 343 

Pardi Town 343 4 

Parnera Hill - - • • 344 

Rander 344 

Surat City 345 

Position and aspect 346 

History 346 

Buildings of interest 347 

Tombs 348 

Trade and commerce 349 

Municipality 349 

Suvali 35° 

Thana District 35 I “3 8 7 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems . 351 

Islands 353 

Geology 353 

Botany 353 

Fauna 354 

Climate and temperature 354 

Rainfall 354 

History 354 

Archaeology 355 

The people 356 

Castes and occupations 356 

Christian missions 337 

General agricultural conditions 359 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . . 359 

Improvements in agricultural practice . . . 359 

Cattle, ponies, &c 360 

Irrigation 36 0 

Fisheries 360 

Forests 360 

Minerals 36! 

Arts and manufactures 361 

Commerce 36! 

Communications 362 

Railways and roads 362 

Causeways . . ^ 62 

Famine 363 

District subdivisions and staff 363 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Civil and criminal justice .... 



XXI 

PAGE 

363 

Land revenue administration 

, 





363 

Municipalities and local boards 





365 

Police and jails 






366 

Education 






366 

Hospitals and dispensaries 






366 

Vaccination 






366 

Dahanu Taluka . 






366 

MahIm 






367 

Vada .... 






367 

Shahapur 






368 

Bassein Taluka 






368 

Bhiwandi Taluka 






369 

Kalyan Taluka . 






369 

Murbad .... 






369 

Salsette 






37® 

Agashi .... 






371 

Amarnath 






371 

Bandra 






372 

Bassein Town 






373 

Bhiwandi Town 






374 

Borivli .... 






374 

Dahanu Town 






375 

Dugad .... 






375 

Eksar .... 






376 

Ghodbandar . 






377 

Jogeshvari 






377 

Kalyan Town 






377 

Kanheri Caves 






378 

Kelve-Mahim 






379 

Kurla .... 






380 

Magathan 






380 

Malanggarh 






38x 

Nirmal .... 






38r 

Sanjan .... 






382 

SOFALE .... 






383 

SOPARA .... 






383 

Tarapur-Chinchani 






384 

Thalghat 






384 

Thana Town 






385 

Trombay 






386 

Tungar 






386 

Vajrabai 






386 

Vesava .... 






387 



xxh TABLE OF CONTENTS 






PAGE 

Central Division .... 

• 

388-587 

Ahmadnagar District 

• 

389-415 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems . 

389 

Geology 



39° 

Botany 



39i 

Fauna 



39i 

Climate, temperature, and rainfall 



39i 

History 



39i 

Archaeology ... 



39 2 

The people 



393 

Castes and occupations • 



393 

Christian missions .... 



394 

General agricultural conditions . 



394 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . 


395 

Improvements in agricultural practice 



395 

Cattle, ponies, &c 



396 

Irrigation 



39*5 

Forests 



39 6 

Minerals 



397 

Arts and manufactures 



397 

Commerce 



397 

Communications .... 



398 

Railways and roads 



39 s 

Famine 



398 

District subdivisions and staff . 



399 

Civil and criminal justice . 



399 

Land revenue administration . 



399 

Municipalities and local boards 



400 

Police and jails .... 



401 

Education 



401 

Hospitals and dispensaries 



401 

Vaccination ..... 



402 

Kopargaon 



402 

Akola 



402 

Sangamner Taluka 



403 

Rahtjri Taluka .... 



403 

Nevasa 



404 

Shevgaon 



404 

Parner Taluka .... 



40 5 

Ahmadnagar Taluka . 



40 s 

Jamkhed 



T J 
406 

Shrigonda Taluka 



406 

Karjat 



407 



TABLE OF CONTENTS xxiii 

PAGE 

Ahmadnagar City 407 

History . 408 

Buildings . 409 

Belapur 410 

Bhingar. . . . . . . . .411 

Harischandragarh^ 41 1 

Jeur 41 1 

Kalsubai 41 r 

Kharda 412 

Madhi 412 

Parner Village 413 

Pathardi 413 

PUNTAMBA 413 

Rahuri Village 414 

Sangamner Town .414 

Shrigonda Town 414 

SONAI 414 

Vambori 414 

Khandesh District 4x5-454 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems 4x5 

Geology 416 

Botany 4*7 

Fauna 4*7 

Climate 4x7 

History 418 

Archaeology . . 4x9 

The people .420 

Castes and occupations 421 

Christian missions 422 

General agricultural conditions 422 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . .423 

Improvements in agricultural practice . . . 423 

Cattle and ponies 424 

Irrigation 4 2 4 

Forests 425 

Minerals 4 2 5 

Arts and manufactures . ... 426 

Commerce 426 

Communications 426 

Roads and railways 426 

Famine and natural calamities 426 

District subdivisions and staff 428 

Civil and criminal justice 428 

Land revenue administration . ... 428 



XXIV 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PAGE 


Municipalities and local boards 

Police and jails 

Education 

Hospitals and dispensaries 
Vaccination . 

Taloda Taluka . 

Shahada Taluka . 
Nandurbar Taluka 
Sindkheda Taluka 
Shirpur Taluka . 

Chopda Taluka . 

Yaval Taluka 
Raver Taluka 
PImpalner 
Dhulia Taluka 
Amalner Taluka . 

Erandol Taluka . 

Jalgaon Taluka * 
Bhusawal Taluka . 

Jamner Taluka 
Pachora Taluka . 
Chalisgaon Taluka 
Mehwas Estates . 

Adavad .... 
Amalner Town 
Betawad 
Bhadgaon 
Bhusawal Town . 

Bodvad .... 
Chalisgaon Town . 

Chopda Town 
Dharangaon . 

Dhulia Town 
Erandol Town 
Faizpur .... 
Jalgaon Town 
Jamner Town 
Laling .... 
Lasur .... 
Maheji .... 
Nagar Devla . 

Nandurbar Town . 
NasIrabad 
Pachora Town 


429 

429 

430 

43 ° 

430 
43 ° 

43 1 
43i 

431 
43 2 

43 2 

433 
433 

433 

434 

434 

435 
435 

435 
43b 

43 6 

437 

437 

438 

439 
439 
439 

439 

440 

440 

441 

441 

442 
444 

444 

445 

445 

446 

446 

447 
447 

447 

448 
448 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


XXV 



PAGE 

Parola 


448 

Prakasha 


449 

Ram Talao 


449 

Raver Town 


45° 

Savda 


45° 

Shahada Town 


45° 

Shendurni 


45i 

Shirpur Town 


45 1 

SlNDKHEDA TOWN 


45 1 

Songir 


45i 

SULTANPUR 


452 

Taloda Town ... . 


453 

Thalner 


453 

Turanmal 


453 

Unabdev 


454 

Varangaon 


454 

Yaval Town 


454 

Nasik District 

455-485 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems 

455 

Geology 


455 

Botany 


456 

Fauna 


456 

Climate, temperature, and rainfall . 


45<5 

History 


457 

Archaeology 


457 

Hill-forts 


457 

The people 


458 

Castes and occupations ..... 


459 

Christian missions 


459 

General agricultural conditions .... 


460 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . 


460 

Improvements in agricultural practice 


46 l 

Cattle, ponies, &c 


46 l 

Irrigation 


462 

Forests 


462 

Minerals 


462 

Arts and manufactures 


463 

Commerce 


463 

Communications ...... 


464 

Railways and roads 


464 

Famines 


464 

District subdivisions and staff .... 


465 

Civil and criminal justice 


465 

Land revenue administration .... 


465 



XXVI 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PAGE 

Municipalities and local boards . . . .466 

Police and jails 466 

Education 4^7 

Hospitals and dispensaries 467 

Vaccination 467 

Baglan Taluka 467 

Malegaon Taluka . 468 

Kalvan 468 

Peint 468 

Dindori 4 6 9 

Chandor Taluka 470 

Nandgaon Taluka 470 

Nasik Taluka 471 

Niphad 471 

Yeola Taluka 471 

Sinn ar Taluka 471 

Igatpuri Taluka 472 

Anjaneri . 472 

Ankai 473 

Chandor Town . 474 

Deolali 474 

Dhodap 475 

Galna 475 

Igatpuri Town 477 

Kulang and Alang . . . . -477 

Malegaon Town 477 

Manmad . 478 

Nandgaon Town 478 

Nasik Town 478 

Saptashring 481 

Sinnar Town 482 

Trimbak 483 

Vinchur 4 8 4 

Yeola Town 484 

Poona District 485-534 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems 485 

Geology 485 

Botany 486 

Fauna . 486 

Climate, temperature, and rainfall .... 486 

History 487 

Archaeology 

The people 4 8 9 

Castes and occupations 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


xxvii 



s 

PAGE 

Christian missions . 

. 

. 

49 1 

General agricultural conditions . 

. 


491 

Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops . 


49 2 

Agricultural improvements and advances . 


493 

Cattle, ponies, &c. . 



494 

Irrigation .... 



495 

Forests 



495 

Mines and minerals . 



496 

Arts and manufactures 



496 

Commerce .... 



497 

Communications 



497 

Railways and roads 



497 

Famine 



497 

District subdivisions and staff . 



498 

Civil and criminal justice . 



498 

Land revenue administration . 



499 

Municipalities and local boards 



500 

Police and jails 




Education .... 



5 oi 

Hospitals and dispensaries 



502 

Vaccination .... 



502 

JUNNAR TALUKA 



502 

Khed Taluka 



502 

Sirur Taluka 



503 

Maval 



503 

Haveli 



504 

PURANDHAR TALUKA 



5°4 

Bhimthadi .... 



5°5 

Indapur Taluka . 



505 

Alandi 



506 

Baramati .... 



506 

Bedsa 



506 

Bhaja 



5°7 

Bhavsari .... 



508 

BhImashankar 



509 

Borghat .... 




Chakan 



512 

Chinchvad .... 



512 

Dhond 



5i3 

Ghod 



5i3 

Indapur Town 



5i4 

Jejuri 



5i4 

Junnar Town 



5H 

Karli 


. 

5i5 



xxviii 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Khandala 
Khed Town 
Kirkee . 

Koregaon 
Lohogarh 
Lonauli . 

Manchar 
Otur 
Pandare 
Poona City 
Situation, &c. 

Population 
Climate 
History 

General aspects 
Objects of interest 
Municipality and cantonment 
Industries . 

Education . 

PURANDHAR HlLL 
Rajmachi 
Sasvad . 

Shivner . 

Sinhgarh 
Sirur Town . 

Talegaon-Dabhade 
Talegaon-Dhamdhere 
Valha . 

Wadgaon 
Satara District 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river s; 
Geology . 

Botany . 

Fauna 

Climate, temperature, and rainfall 
History , 

Archaeology . 

The people 

Castes and occupations 
Christian missions . 

General agricultural conditions 
Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops 
Improvements in agricultural practice 
Cattle, ponies, &c 


5 i 8 

5 1 8 

5 1 9 

5 19 

520 

520 

521 

521 
521 
521 

521 

522 
522 

522 

523 

524 

526 
526 

526 

527 

528 
53 o 

53 0 

53 1 

532 

533 

533 

534 

534 
534-566 

systems 534 

535 

535 

536 
536 
536 

538 

539 

54 0 
540 
540 

540 

541 
54 i 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



xxix 







PAGE 

Irrigation 


. 




541 

Forests .... 






542 

Minerals .... 






543 

Arts and manufactures 






543 

Commerce 






543 

Communications 






543 

Railways and roads 






543 

Famine .... 






544 

District subdivisions and staff 






545 

Civil and criminal justice 






545 

Land revenue administration 






546 

Municipalities and local boards 





547 

Police and jails 






547 

Education 






547 

Hospitals and dispensaries 






548 

Vaccination 






548 

Wai Taluka . 






548 

Man .... 






548 

Javli .... 






549 

Satara Taluka 






549 

Koregaon Taluka 






549 

Khanapur Taluka 






55° 

Patan .... 






55® 

Karad Taluka 






55 1 

Khatao .... 






55 1 

Valya Taluka 






5Si 

Tasgaon Taluka . 






55 2 

Ashta .... 






55 2 

Bagni .... 






553 

Bhilavdi 






553 

Borgaon 






553 

Kale .... 






553 

Kameri .... 






553 

Karad Town . 






553 

Kasegaon 






554 

Khanapur Village 






554 

Mahabaleshwar . 






554 

Mayni .... 






557 

Mhasvad 






557 

Nerla .... 






557 

Pal .... 






557 

Palus .... 






558 

Panchgani 






558 

Pandavgarh . 





. 

560 



XXX 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Parli Fort . 

Pratapgarh . 

Peth 

Rahimatpur . 

Satara City . 

Tasgaon Town 
Urun-Islampur 
Valya Village 
Vasota . 

Vita 

Wai Town 

Sholapur District . 

Boundaries, configuration, and hill and river systems 
Geology . 

Botany . 

Fauna 

Climate, temperature, and rainfall 
History .... 

Archaeology . 

The people 

Castes and occupations . 

Christian missions . 

General agricultural conditions 
Chief agricultural statistics and principal crops 
Improvements in agricultural practice 
Cattle, ponies, &c. . 

Irrigation 
Forests . 

Minerals , 

Arts and manufactures 
Commerce and trade 
Communications 
Railways and roads 
Famine . 

District subdivisions and staff 
Civil and criminal justice 
Land revenue administration 
Municipalities and local boards 
Police and jails 
Education 

Hospitals and dispensaries 
Vaccination 
Karmala Talcjka . 

Barsi Taluka 


560 

561 
56i 

561 

562 

563 
563 
563 

56 4 
565 

565 
566-587 

566 
566 

566 

567 
567 

567 

568 

568 

569 

569 

570 

570 

571 
57i 

571 

572 

573 
573 
573 
573 

573 

574 

575 
575 

575 

576 
576 
576 

576 

577 
577 
577 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Malsiras Taluka 

Madha Taluka 

Pandharpur Taluka .... 

Sholapur Taluka 

Sangola Taluka 

Ashta 

Barsi Town 

Begampur 

Brahmapuri 

Hotgi 

Karkamb 

Karmala Town 

Madha Village 

Malsiras Village 

Mohol 

Pandharpur Town .... 

Sangola Town 

Sholapur City .... 
Vairag 

MAPS 

Northern Bombay. ..... 

Southern Bombay 

Bombay City 

Bombay Island 


xxxi 

PAGE 

578 

578 

578 

579 
579 

579 

580 

580 

581 
58i 
58i 

581 

582 
582 

582 

583 

584 

585 
587 


at end 








PROVINCIAL GAZETTEERS 
OF INDIA 

BOMBAY 

VOLUME I 

Bombay Presidency.— Bombay, the Western Presidency Physical 
of British India, is divided into four revenue Divisions and 
twenty-five 1 Districts. It also includes numerous Native s i on s. 
States. The territory thus composed extends from 13 0 53' to 
28° 29' N. and from 66° 40' to 76° 32' E. The British Districts, 
including Sind, contain a total area of 122,984 square miles, 
and a total population (according to the Census of 1901) of 
r8, 515, 587 ; the Native States under the Bombay Government 
cover an additional area estimated at 65,761 square miles, with 
a population of 6,908,648; total area, 188,745 square miles; 
total population, 25,424,235. In the geographical limits of the 
Presidency are included the Portuguese Possessions of Goa, 

Daman, and Diu, with an aggregate area of 1,470 square miles 
and a population (1900) of 531,798 ; also the State of Baroda, 
with an area of 8,099 square miles and a population of 
1,952,692, which is under the political control of the Govern- 
ment of India. The outlying settlement of Aden has an area 
of 80 square miles, with a population of 43,974. The capital 
of the Presidency, to which it has given its name, is Bombay 
City, situated on an island on the shore of the Arabian Sea in 
1 8° 55' N. and 72 0 54' E. 

The Presidency is bounded on the north-west, north, and 
north-east by Baluchistan, the British Province of the Punjab, 
and the Native States of Rajputana ; on the east by the Native 
States of the Central India Agency, the Central Provinces; 

Berar, and the Dominions of the Nizam of Hyderabad ; on the 
south by the Presidency of Madras and the State of Mysore ; 
and on the west by the Arabian Sea. 

1 This total includes Bombay City and Island, which is treated as a 
separate District under a Collector, but does not include the new District 
formed in 1906 by the partition of Kbandesh. 

BO. I. B 



2 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Natural Between these limits are contained tracts of country varying 

divisions, i n climate and physical aspects. Of these, the most 

important are Sind, Gujarat, the Deccan, the Konkan, and the 
Carnatic. The District of North Kanara, at the extreme south 
of the Presidency, in so far as it can be brought within this 
scheme of division, lies partly in the Carnatic and partly in the 
Konkan. 

Sind. Sind, or the lower valley of the Indus, is the most northerly 
section of the Presidency. It includes the six Districts of 
Karachi, Hyderabad, Thar and Parkar, Larkana, Sukkur, and 
the Upper Sind Frontier; and also the Native State of 
Khairpur. It differs widely in physical features and climate, 
no less than in the language, dress, and customs of its inhabi- 
tants, from the rest of the Presidency, from which it is cut off by 
the desert or the sea. Cultivation in Sind is, as a rule, possible 
only where irrigation exists, and the province is thus depen- 
dent on the annual inundation of the Indus with its subsidiary 
system of canals. The surface of the land is a monotonous 
desert, interrupted by low cliffs or undulating sand-heaps, save 
only where the floods of the great river, or the silver streak of 
a canal, have transformed a waste of sand and scrub jungle into 
broad acres of smiling crop. Flat and arid for the most part, 
Sind possesses an indescribable charm in its wide expanse of 
reeds and water, where the floods lie held from the adjacent 
crops by giant banks of earth, and the silence is broken only by 
the cries of myriads of wild-fowl on the wing. 

Gujarat. In striking contrast to the Sind desert, the plains of Gujarat 
stand first in the Presidency for richness of soil and density of 
population. They are watered by many rivers, the most famous 
of which are the Narbada and the Tapti, whose valleys are 
sheets of unbroken cultivation. Towards the Rann of Cutch 
the rich plains pass into salt and sandy waste, and the subsoil 
is brackish. Gujarat contains the Districts of Kaira, Ahmad- 
abad, Broach, Surat, and Panch Mahals, with numerous petty 
Native States, of which the most important are Cutch, Morvi, 
Gondal, and Bhaunagar, situated in Cutch and the peninsula 
of Kathiawar. Of these, Cutch is an island lying between 
22° 47' and 24° N. and 68° 25' and 71° n' E., cut off from the 
mainland by the great salt waste known as the Rann. Kathiawar 
is a peninsula lying between 20° 48' and 23° 45' N. and 68° 56' 
and 72° 20' E. It is connected with the mainland of Gujarat 
by a neck of low-lying land which until 1813 was flooded during 
part of the year, and is still partly covered by a large lagoon, 
the Nal. The State of Baroda, though contained within this 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 


3 

geographical division, is not now politically attached to the 
Bombay Presidency. 

The remaining portion of the Presidency is divided into high- The 
and low-level tracts by the nigged line of the Western Ghats Deccan, 
or Sahyadris, which run parallel to the coast-line for many 
hundred miles. Perched upon these frowning eminences stand 
the hill forts famous in Maratha history. Behind them lie the 
scantily watered tracts of the Deccan plateau, for the most part 
an almost treeless plain, sloping from the rock-bound Ghat edge 
towards the level fields of Berar and Hyderabad. Protected 
by the hills from the south-west monsoon, which at times 
surmounts their crest only to hurl its heavy clouds across the 
continent leaving the land unwatered and untilled, the Deccan 
yields to much labour a bare measure of subsistence. In the 
valleys of the large rivers, where population clusters on the 
banks in busy towns, the soil is more productive; but the 
country is ever haunted by the spectre of famine. It breeds 
a race of sturdy husbandmen, who show a marked superiority 
over their Gujarat brethren in their powers of resisting the 
rigours of a starvation diet The Deccan Districts are Nasik, 
Ahmadnagar, Poona, Satara, and Sholapur. The Native States 
included in this area are few and unimportant To the north 
of Nasik, Khandesh, in the Tapti valley, is usually excluded 
from the Deccan as being more akin to the plains of the Central 
Provinces and Berar, especially in its rich fields of black cotton 
soil, growing excellent cotton and wheat. The Deccan possesses 
large tracts of rocky and uncultivable land. To the west, near 
the Ghats, where the rainfall is heavy, the main crop is rice, 
grown in terraces in the broken country known as the Konkan 
Ghat Matha or Maval. Over the greater part of the desk or 
level tracts, a light rainfall, if seasonable, produces good crops 
of cereals. 

South of the Deccan, three Districts, Belgaum, Bijapur, and The 
Dharwar, form the Bombay Carnatic, or Kanarese territory. Carnatic. 
The large Native State of Kolhapur also forms part of the 
Carnatic, which is otherwise known as the Southern Maratha 
Country. Owing to the edge of the Ghats being thickly 
wooded on the west of these Districts, they enjoy a better water- 
supply than the arid Deccan plain farther north, and are 
also able to reckon on a more certain rainfall. In Dharwar a 
system of numerous small tanks for water storage permits the 
cultivation of irrigated crops on a large scale. The greater 
portion of the above-Ghat section of North Kanara District is 
covered with continuous forest. The Carnatic is thus a land of 



4 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


sweeping forest and well-watered fields, bearing rice crops 
beneath the storms of the Ghat rainfall, and yielding a sea of 
wheat, cotton, and jotvar beyond the zone of the monsoon’s 
fury. Though the Western Ghats are here covered with dense 
jungle, their line is more broken than in the Deccan, so that 
the rivers, which elsewhere flow eastward across the continent, 
sometimes turn towards the western coast-line in the Southern 
Carnatic. 

The The low-lying tract below the Ghats, termed the Konkan, 

Konkan. conta i ns the Districts of Thana, Kolaba, Ratnagiri, Bombay 
City and Island, the below-Ghat section of North Kanara, and 
the Native States of Savantvadi, Janjlra, and Jawhar. It is 
a difficult country to travel in, for, in addition to rivers, creeks, 
and harbours, there are many isolated peaks and detached 
ranges of hills. Thus, in north-east Thana the Deccan trap 
forms a high table-land, which passes southwards in a series of 
abrupt isolated hills to the bare flat laterite plateau of Ratnagiri. 
The granite and sandstone hills of North Kanara are locally 
reckoned as distinct from the main range of the Western Ghats, 
and the large proportion of forest it contains distinguishes 
below-Ghat Kanara from the rest of the Konkan. The culti- 
vation consists of a few rich plots of rice land and groves of 
coco-nut palms, watered by a never-failing supply from the 
storm-clouds of the south-west monsoon. Though in climate 
severely oppressive when the sun adds its power to the ener- 
vating influence of the moisture-laden atmosphere, yet the 
Konkan is unrivalled for beauty of scenery. 

Scenery. The peculiarities of 'soil, climate, and conformation thus 
briefly described result in a great variety of scenery. In Sind 
the eye of the traveller, fatigued by endless stretches of sand 
and scrub jungle, rests with relief on the broad expanse of the 
lagoons rich in waving reeds and clustering babul In Gujarat 
the sandy waste of Cutch leads through the treeless, if more 
fertile, plain of Kathiawar to the well-cropped fields of the 
central Districts : a park-like territory intersected at intervals 
by the broad floods of its rivers, and well wooded, with many 
a noble tree to shade the approaches to its busy and populous 
towns. This is the garden of the Presidency. The approach 
to the Deccan plateau is guarded by the long line of the 
Western Ghats. Though smiling with fern and foliage and 
glistening with the silver threads of numerous waterfalls during 
the summer rains, their rugged crests are, in the dry season, 
left gaunt and bare save when robed in purple in the haze of 
early mom, or touched to brilliance by the last rays of the 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 


5 


setting sun. Beyond the Ghat edge, broken country slopes to 
a vast treeless expanse, undulating between great stretches of 
rock or boulder and poorly tilled patches of cultivation. South 
of the Deccan the well-watered fields of the Carnatic lead to the 
giant forests of Kanara, which are to be seen at their best near 
the magnificent Gersoppa Falls. Vistas of rolling hills clad 
with evergreen forest stretch everywhere to the limit of the 
horizon. Bej'ond the evergreen zone, dense patches of tall 
teak and feathery bamboo line the valleys of perennial streams, 
where clumps of screw-pine catch the broken lights that 
penetrate the leafy canopy. The scenery is of rare beauty at 
all seasons of the year, whether half hidden and half revealed 
in the driving mists of the monsoon, or pierced by the shafts of 
the hot-season sun in the mysterious silence of an April noon. 

Yet before all in picturesqueness are the coast tracts of the 
Konkan, where sparkling rollers break on soft white sand 
beneath overhanging palm and grey-green casuarina; red- 
rocked islets and promontories lie in the broad bosom of a 
light blue sea ; the flaming leaf of the gold-mohur tree in hot- 
season foliage offers a beacon by day to guide the quaintly 
moulded native craft on their coastwise journeys ; and in the 
background the long grey line of the eternal hills sends 
streamlet and broad river alike to mingle their floods with 
the depths of the Indian Ocean. 

The following are the chief mountain ranges, which all have Mountains, 
a general direction from north to south. In the north-west, on 
the right bank of the Indus, the Klrthar mountains, a continua- 
tion of the great Sulaiman range, separate British India from 
the domains of the Khan of Kalat. In Sind there are low 
ranges of sandhills, and in Cutch and Kathiawar several isolated 
peaks and cliffs, which form geologically a continuation of the 
Aravalli mountains. Proceeding towards the south-east, an 
extensive mountain chain is met with, which may be regarded 
either as a southern spur of the Aravallis or a northern 
prolongation of the Western Ghats beyond the valleys of the 
Tapti and Narbada. These hills separate Gujarat from the 
States of Central India, beginning in the neighbourhood of 
Mount Abu and stretching southwards down to the right bank 
of the Narbada. South of the Tapti the country becomes 
rugged and broken, with isolated masses of rock and projecting 
spurs, forming the watershed for the great rivers of the Deccan. 

This rugged region constitutes, strictly speaking, the northern 
extremity of the Western Ghats, here called the Sahyadri 
Hills.’ That great range runs southward, parallel to the sea- 



6 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Rivers. 


coast for upwards of 1,000 miles, with a general elevation 
of about i, 800 feet above the sea, though individual peaks rise 
to more than double that height. The western declivity is 
abrupt, and the low strip of land bordering the sea-shore is 
seldom more than 40 miles in width. The Ghats do not often 
descend in one sheer precipice, but, as is usually the case with 
a trap formation, the descent is broken by a succession of 
terraces. The landward slope is gentle, also falling in terraces, 
the crest of the range being in many cases but slightly raised 
above the level of the central plateau of the Deccan. Apart 
from minor spurs of the Western Ghats, only two ranges in the 
Presidency have a direction from east to west. The Satpura 
range, from the neighbourhood of the fort of Asirgarh to its 
termination in the east of Gujarat, forms the watershed between 
the Tapti and Narbada rivers, separating Khandesh from the 
territories of Indore, and attaining an elevation of over 5,000 
feet. The Satmala or Ajanta hills, which divide Khandesh 
from the Nizam’s Dominions on the south, are of less impor- 
tance, being rather the northern slope of the plateau of the 
Deccan than a distinct hill range. 

The Bombay Presidency has no great rivers which it can call 
its own. The outlying province of Sind is penetrated through- 
out its entire length from north to south by the Indus, whose 
overflowing waters are almost the sole means of distributing 
fertility through that parched region. Its season of flood 
begins in March and continues until September; the discharge 
of water, calculated at more than 40,000 cubic feet per second 
in December, is said to increase tenfold in August, the average 
depth of the river rising during the inundation from 9 to 24 
feet, and the velocity of the current increasing from 3 to 7 
miles an hour. The entire lower portion of the delta is torn and 
furrowed by old channels of the river, for the surface is a light 
sand easily swept away and re-deposited year by year. The 
plains of Northern Gujarat are watered by a few small streams, 
the chief of which are the Sabarmatl and Mahi, both rising 
in the Main Kantha hills and flowing southward into the head 
of the Gulf of Cambay. The Narbada, in its westerly course 
to the sea from Central India, has but a short section within 
the limits of the Presidency. It separates the territory of 
Baroda from Rewa Kantha, and, after passing the city of 
Broach, falls into the Gulf of Cambay by a noble estuary. 
For about a hundred miles from the sea it is navigable at 
all seasons by country boats, and during the rains by vessels of 
50 tons burden. The Tapti, although a smaller river, has a 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 


7 


greater commercial importance. It flows through the whole 
length of Khandesh and enters the sea a little above the city 
of Surat. Both these rivers run for the most part between 
high banks, and are of little use for irrigation. Passing south- 
wards, the hill streams which rise in the Western Ghats and 
flow west into the Arabian Sea are very numerous but of 
little importance. During the rains they become formidable 
torrents, but in the hot season they dwindle away and almost 
cease to flow. In the lowlands of the Konkan their annual 
floods have worn deep tidal creeks, which form valuable 
highways for traffic. In the extreme south of the Presidency, 
in the District of North Kanara, these westward-flowing 
streams become larger; one of them, the Sharavati, plunges 
downwards from the mountains in the celebrated Falls of 
Gersoppa. On the eastern side of the Ghats are the head- 
waters of both the Godavari and Kistna (Krishna) rivers, 
the former of which rises near Nasik and the latter near 
Mahabaleshwar. Both of these, after collecting the waters 
of many tributary streams, some of considerable size, leave the 
Presidency in a south-easterly direction, crossing the entire 
plain of the Deccan on their way to the Bay of Bengal. 

The most peculiar natural feature in the Presidency is the Bays and 
Rann of Cutch. Authorities have not yet decided whether lakes * 
it is an arm of the sea from which the waters have receded, or 
an inland lake whose seaward barrier has been swept away by 
some natural convulsion. It covers an estimated area of 
9,000 square miles, forming the western boundary of Gujarat ; 
but when flooded during the rainy season, it unites the two 
gulfs of Cutch and Cambay, and converts the peninsula of 
Cutch into an island. In the dry season the soil is impreg- 
nated with salt, the surface in some places being moist and 
marshy, and in others strewn with gravel and shingle like a dry 
river-bed or sea-beach. At this time the Rann is frequented 
by numerous herds of antelope, the i black buck’ of sportsmen. 

Large tracts of marshy land are to be found in Sind, caused by 
changes in the course of the Indus. The Manchhar Lake, 
on the right bank of the river, near the town of Sehwan, is 
swollen during the annual season of inundation to an area of 
about 160 square miles; and a large portion of the newly 
formed delta has not yet been fully reclaimed from the anta- 
gonistic forces of the river and the sea. Along the coast of the 
Konkan the low-lying lands on the borders of the salt-water 
creeks are liable to be overflowed at high tide. Several arti- 
ficial sheets of water may, from their size, be dignified with the 



s 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


title of lakes ; of these the chief are the Tansa lake, constructed 
to provide Bombay City with water, and the Gokak lake in 
Belgaum. The former has an area of about 3,400, and the 
latter of 4,000 acres. Another sheet of water, the Kharak- 
vasla tank, intended to supply the city of Poona, and also to 
irrigate the neighbouring fields, covers an area of 3,500 acres. 

Islands. There are numerous small islands scattered along the coast, 
few of which are inhabited or of any importance. The note- 
worthy exceptions are Cutch, Salsette, and Bombay. These 
are separated from the mainland by creeks of salt desert or tidal 
mud. An island of historic interest, as being one of the first 
places on the coast known to the ancients, is Anjidiv, situated 
a few miles from the port of Karwar, and since 1505 a Portu- 
guese possession. 

Harbours Though the Presidency coast-line contains many estuaries 

house? ht " f a i r " season ports f° r vessels engaged in the coasting 

trade, Bombay, Karachi, and Karwar alone have harbours 
sufficiently landlocked to protect shipping during the pre- 
valence of the south-west monsoon. The coast-line is regular 
and unbroken, save by the Gulfs of Cambay and Cutch, between 
which lies the peninsula of Kathiawar. There are 69 light- 
houses in the Presidency, of which the chief are Manora Point 
at Karachi, visible for 20 miles ; the Prongs and Khanderi 
lights at Bombay, visible for 18 ; and the Oyster Rock light at 
Karwar, visible for 20 miles. The Aden light can be seen for 
20 miles. 

Geology. From a geological point of view, the rocks forming the 
Bombay Presidency can be classified in the following divisions : 
(1) A group of very ancient rocks, partly crystalline and partly 
sedimentary. These include, firstly, a variety of granitic and 
gneissose rocks which occur in the southern Districts (Dharwar, 
Kanara, Belgaum), where they are closely compressed into 
complicated folds, together with some highly metamorphosed 
gratified rocks called the ‘Dharwar series' with which they are 
intimately associated; they are also found in parts of Rewa 
Kantha and the Panch Mahals, Secondly, younger stratified 
deposits known under various local names, such as Kaladgi, 
Bhima, Champaner. These have usually undergone a very 
moderate degree of disturbance and metamorphism as com- 
pared with the highly altered older strata upon which they rest 
unconformably ; they are completely unfossiliferous, and are 
almost entirely older than the Cambrian. {2) An immense 
accumulation of volcanic rocks, principally basaltic lavas, 
known as the ‘Deccan trap.’ This is the most important 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 


9 


geological formation in the Bombay Presidency, covering 
almost entirely the region included between the 16th and 
22nd parallels of latitude, together with the greater part of 
the Kathiawar peninsula and a large portion of Cutch. (3) A 
series of fossiliferous marine and fluviatile strata extending in 
age from middle Jurassic to upper Miocene or lowest Pliocene. 

They are best developed in the northern part of the Presidency, 
and include strata belonging to, firstly, the middle oolite 
(Cutch) ; secondly, the lowest Cretaceous (Umia beds of Cutch 
and Kathiawar) ; thirdly, the upper Cretaceous (Lameta and 
Bagh series of the lower Narbada region ) ; fourthly, the Eocene 
(Nummulitic limestones and associated rocks of Surat, Cutch, 
and Sind) ; fifthly, Oligocene and Miocene (Upper Nari, Gaj, 
and Manchhars of Sind, Cutch, and Kathiawar). (4) Ossi- 
ferous gravels and clays of the Tapti and Godavari valleys, 
with fossil remains of extinct mammalia of upper Pliocene or 
lower Pleistocene age. (5) Recent accumulations forming the 
plains of Sind and Gujarat and the Rann of Cutch. 

The geological literature of Bombay is very extensive. 

Some of the most important works have been published in the 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, among which may 
be mentioned the geological descriptions of Sind by Dr. W. T; 
Blanford (vol. xvii), of Cutch by A. B. Wynne (vol. ix), of 
Kathiawar by F. Fedden (vol. xxi), of the Deccan trap and the 
Narbada and Tapti valleys by Dr. Blanford (vol. vi), and of 
the South Maratha Country by R. B. Foote (vol. xii). The 
Dharwar series, the chief auriferous series in South India, has 
also been described by R. B. Foote in vols. xxi and xxii of the 
Records of the Geological Survey . Most of the fossils from 
the Presidency have been described in various volumes of the 
Palaeontologia Indica . 

The Presidency can be distributed into the following botani- Botany, 
cal provinces : Sind, Gujarat (including Kathiawar), Khandesh, 
Deccan, Southern Maratha Country (including the greater part 
of Belgaum, Bijapur, and Dharwar Districts), Konkan, and 
Kanara. There are no absolute boundaries to these divisions, 
but each, in a certain degree, possesses some characteristic 
forms of vegetation. By taking the broadest possible view of 
the subject, the number of provinces may, however, be reduced 
to five, as Khandesh can be included in the Deccan, and 
Kanara may be looked upon as a southern extension of the 
Konkan. 

The flora of Sind, Gujarat, Khandesh, and the Deccan is 
comparatively poor : the commoner trees are those which have 



10 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


been intentionally planted or preserved ; the shrubs are often 
thorny and stunted ; the herbaceous plants are mostly repre- 
sented by weeds of cultivation, but the grasses are of ex- 
tremely varied forms, and the pastures are luxuriant in the 
rainy season. 

In the tracts of the Southern Maratha Country, which cor- 
respond in configuration to the Deccan but differ in their 
geological composition, the flora is somewhat more varied; 
but it is in the Konkan and Kanara, with the adjoining Ghats, 
that vegetation is richest in forms. The trees are often lofty ; 
the shrubs are of many different types, frequently growing in 
impenetrable thickets ; while the herbaceous vegetation is, on 
the whole, scantier than in the more open country above the 
Ghats. 

Of the plants of the Presidency, only the following orders 
(given in order of importance) contain more than fifty species 
each : Leguminosae , Gr amine ae, Acanthaceae , Composiiae , Eu- 
pkorbiaceae, Cyperaceae, Convolvulaceae , Orchideae , Rubiaceae , 
Labiatae , Malvaceae , and Urticaceae, There are probably only 
2,500 species of flowering plants altogether, and many of these 
are confined to special tracts and localities, so that, taking into 
account the extent and diversity of the Presidency, the flora 
is poor. 

The principal timber trees are: teak, found in all forests 
throughout the Presidency except in Sind ; black-wood, of two 
varieties, Dalbergta Sissoo in Sind, and D. latifolia in the other 
parts of the Presidency ; D. ougeinensis ( tiwas ), found in hill 
forests throughout the Presidency; Pterocarpus Marsupium , 
called honne in Kanara and bibla in the Northern Division ; 
Terminalia tomentosa , known as am in Marathi and as sadara 
in Gujarati; ebony and poon, , found only in the Southern Divi- 
sion ; babul ( Acacia arabica ), attaining to greatest size and ex- 
cellence in Lower and Middle Sind, but found in all parts of 
the Presidency ; khair ( Acacia Catechu ), valuable not only for 
timber and firewood, but also as yielding the extract known 
as cutch ; Nauclea cordifolia (heda) and N. parvifolia ( kalam 
in Marathi, yeigal in Kanarese), common in the coast forests, 
less so inland; nana or nandi^ and bonda or bondara, , two 
varieties of Lagerstroemia ; asana (Bidelia spinosa ) ; anjan 
( Hardwickia binata), found only in Khandesh ; jdrnba {Xylia 
dolabriformis ), a hard and durable wood, sometimes called 
iron-wood; and bahm (. Populus euphratica ), soft and of no 
great size, but the only timber tree which grows in any abun- 
dance in Upper Sind. Tamarisk ( Tamarix indica ), though 



PHYSICAL ASPECT'S 


ii 


it never attains any size, deserves mention from the very ex- 
tensive scale on which it is cut by the Forest department in 
Sind as fuel for steamers on the Indus. Sandal-wood is found 
in the forests of Kanara. The bamboo, though unknown in 
Sind, is widely spread throughout the forests of the Northern 
and Southern Divisions. 

The forests also contain many trees which are valued on 
account of their fruits, nuts, or berries. Among these are the 
mango (Mangifera indicd ) ; the jack ( Artocarpus integrifolia ) ; 
the her ( Zizypkus Jujuba ) ; the bel (Aegle Marmelos\ a valu- 
able remedy in dysentery; the hirda ( Tenninalia Chebula\ 
which supplies the myrabolam of commerce; the undi {Calo- 
phyllum inophylluni ), the seeds of which yield a dark-green 
oil ; the mahua-tctz ( Bassta lattfolic :), from the flowers of 
which spirit is distilled, while the seeds yield a large quantity 
of thick oil used for making soap in Kaira District, and are 
also exported; and the karanj (. Pongamia glabra ), whose 
beans give an oil used not only for burning, but also medi- 
cinally in cutaneous diseases. 

The palms of the Bombay Presidency are the coco-nut 
( Cocos nucifera ) ; the true date ( Phoenix daciylifera ), very 
abundant near Sukkur in Upper Sind; the bastard date 
( Phoenix sylvesiris ), found in the Konkan, Gujarat, and the 
Deccan; the palmyra palm (Borassus flabettifer\ common 
along the coast ; the bherali (Caryota urens), a mountain palm 
found on the seaward slopes of the Western Ghats ; and the 
supdri or betel-nut palm [Areca Catechu). The fermented 
sap of the tad or palmyra palm is largely used as an intoxi- 
cating drink under the name of tadi (toddy). Similar drinks 
are prepared from the sap of the coco-nut and the bastard 
date palm, and pass by the same name, while the fermented 
sap of the bherali is known as mddi. Oil is largely extracted 
from the kernel of the coco-nut, and coir fibre from the outer 
husk. The leaves of the coco-nut and palmyra palms are 
much used in Bombay City and along the coast in the con- 
struction of temporary buildings and huts. Coarse matting 
is made from the leaves of the date palm. 

The Presidency contains most of the fruit trees and vege- 
tables common in India. The mangoes of Bombay have 
a special reputation, and good strawberries are grown at 
Mahabaleshwar. In Nasik and Karachi Districts grapes are 
successfully cultivated, and Ahmadnagar produces the Cape 
gooseberry in considerable quantities. 

Among the wild animals peculiar to the Presidency may be Fauna. 



12 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Climate, 
rainfall, 
and tem- 
perature. 


mentioned the lion of Gujarat, which zoologists are now dis- 
posed to regard as a local variety rather than a separate 
species; and the wild ass, frequenting the sandy deserts of 
Cutch and Upper Sind. Leopards are common, but the tiger 
has retreated before the advance of cultivation, and is now 
found only in remote jungles. The sloth bear (Melursus 
ursinus) is found wherever rocks, hills, and forests occur; 
and the bison (Bos gaurus ) haunts the mountain glades of 
Kanara. Of deer, the sdmbar ( Cervus unicolor) is found in 
the same localities as the bison, though in greater abun- 
dance, while the nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and the ante- 
lope are numerous, especially in Gujarat. Chital ( Cervus 
axis ) and the barking-deer (Cermlus muntjac ) are also com- 
mon. Small game, such as snipe, quail, partridges, and wild 
ducks, can generally be obtained by the sportsman at the 
right season in most parts of the Presidency, even within easy 
reach of the suburbs of Bombay. In 1904 the total number 
of registered deaths throughout the Presidency caused by 
wild beasts was only 33, whereas venomous snakes killed 
1,129 persons. On the coast and in the big rivers fish are 
found in abundance. The chief kinds of sea-fish are the 
pomfret, sole, mullet, stone-fish, and lady-fish, while the rivers 
contain mahseer, maral, and palla. 

The rainfall, with the exception of occasional thunder- 
storms, is confined to the five months between June and 
November, during which the south-west monsoon strikes the 
long line of the west coast, to be followed by heavy storms 
on its retirement in the latter part of this period. Sind is 
almost rainless, receiving 2 inches of rain in July and August, 
and less than 2 inches during the remaining ten months ; and 
the temperature is, in consequence, subject to great fluctua- 
tions. During the cold months, from October to March, the 
thermometer falls below freezing-point at night, and the days 
are of agreeable freshness. In the hot months that follow, the 
dry heat is intense, reaching a maximum of 126° at Jacob- 
abad. Gujarat has a more ample rainfall of 20 to 30 inches, 
with a brisk cold season, and oppressive heat in the summer. 
The temperature falls on the burst of the south-west monsoon, 
but the air remains hot and sultry till the approach of the cold 
season in October. The Konkan tracts receive the full brunt 
of the monsoon’s fury, and have a rainfall of 100 to 150 inches, 
almost entirely due to the south-west rain current. The air is 
heavily charged with moisture throughout the year; and the 
climate, except for a brief period during December, January, 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 


i3 


and February, is oppressive to those who are not used to it, 
though the thermometer seldom rises above 96°. In contrast 
to the Konkan, the Deccan or Districts above the Ghats 
receive a moderate rainfall of between 20 and 30 inches, 
starting with downpour and drizzle from the south-west from 
June to September, and ending with sharp heavy storms from 
the north-east in October. In March and April the ther- 
mometer readings are high, 108 0 to no 0 being a not unusual 
maximum; but the air is dry and the heat less oppressive 
than on the coast. During the monsoon the climate is cool 
and pleasant, and the cold months, if short, are decidedly 
bracing. The Carnatic in its western portions enjoys a heavy 
rainfall, increasing rapidly from 50 to 200 inches as the edge 
of the Ghats is approached. To the east, the plain country 
has a rainfall resembling that of the Deccan, though heavier 
and more certain. The cold season is agreeable, but of short 
duration. During the hot season the climate is tempered by 
westerly breezes from the sea, and extremes of heat are seldom 
reached. At the height of the south-west monsoon, floods 
are not uncommon. The rivers, suddenly filled by many 
hundreds of streams and hill-side torrents, rise rapidly in 
their beds, inundating the land on each side for a considerable 
distance. 

The tables on the next page give average statistics of rainfall 
and temperature. 

Many houses were destroyed in Cutch by an earthquake in Earth- 
1819. Seismic disturbances have been registered from time 
to time at the Colaba Observatory; but no earthquakes per- and floods, 
ceptible otherwise than by scientific instruments have been 
recorded in the recent history of the Presidency. Cyclones 
and the accompanying floods have been numerous. The 
usual period for such occurrences is just before, or at the 
conclusion of, the south-west monsoon. In August, 1868, 
a severe storm caused floods on the Sabarmatl river, which 
rose many feet in a few hours, flooding Ahmadabad and 
destroying 10,000 houses. The total loss ascribed to this 
calamity was estimated at 158 lakhs. A similar flood in 1875 
injured 4,000 houses. In 1872 the Panjhra and Girna rivers 
in Khandesh District overflowed and caused great destruction 
of property. More than 5,000 families were rendered homeless, 
apart from the wild tribes, and the damage to crops and property 
was estimated at 160 lakhs. Considerable tracts in Kaira and 
Surat Districts have been flooded on numerous occasions. 

In 1883 continuous rain caused the Tapti to rise steadily until 











HISTORY 


n 

one-third of Surat city was inundated by water to a depth of 
20 feet. The surrounding country was flooded, and more 
than 2 lakhs’ worth of damage to crops and buildings was 
recorded. 

The records of the Meteorological department contain par- 
ticulars of many cyclones on the west coast. In recent years 
the most noteworthy of these were in 1889, 1896, and 1902, 
the first two during the monsoon, and the latter in May, when 
a severe storm travelling northwards struck Bombay, doing 
much damage to shipping in the harbour and produce lying 
ready for shipment in the docks. 

In the earliest times of which we have any record the History. 
Aryans were already settled on the Indus and even knew of 
trade by sea. But the greater part of the west coast was before 
-peopled by Dravidian tribes, who lived in forts and villages 322 B,c * 
under the rule of kings, carried on the ordinary arts of life, 
such as weaving, pottery, and working in metals, and worshipped 
spirits and demons of all degrees, besides a supreme deity 
known as Ko (king). An export trade to the Red Sea by way 
of East Africa sprang up as early as 1000 b.c., and with 
Babylon by way of the Persian Gulf not later than 750 b.c. 

By the latter route the Indian traders brought home the 
Brahml alphabet, the parent of all modem Indian scripts, 
as well as the art of brick-making, and possibly the knowledge 
of the lunar mansions (nakshatra), the Babylonian weights 
(; matia ), and the legend of the Flood. The Persian conquest 
of the Indus valley (c. 510 b.c.) may have introduced the arts of 
sculpture and of coining money. Meanwhile, India south 
of the Vindhyas was being Aryanized in faith and partly in 
speech, not at first by conquest, but by peaceful settlements 
of Brahmans along the west coast. For Western India the 
importance of Alexander’s march down the Indus (325 b.c.) 
lay chiefly in the fact that it cleared the way for the huge 
empire of the Mauryas, which under Asoka (272-231 b.c.), The 
who became an ardent Buddhist, included Kalinga and the 
whole west coast down to Mysore, as well as the Marathas of b.c. 
the Deccan (Rastikas and Petenikas) and Berar. Western 
India was placed under the prince-governor of Ujjain. Mis- 
sions spread Buddhism among the traders of the coast towns 
and the Western Deccan, which by this time was more or less 
completely Aryanized; and Jainism also seems to have first 
reached the South at this period. It was a time of peace and 
of active intercourse with foreign nations, especially with the 
Greek monarchy of the Seleucids. Asoka’s empire broke up 



x6 BOMBA V PRESIDENC Y 

after his death, the western provinces falling to the prince of 
Ujjain. 

Andhras After the Mauryas came the Bactrian Greeks (180 b.c.), 
orSatam- 0 f whom Apollodotus and Menander (150 b.c.), a prince of 

Greeks, Buddhist leanings, probably ruled in Sind and Kathiawar. 

200-100 Farther south the heritage of the Mauryas fell to the Andhras 

BX ‘ or Satavahanas of Paithan on the Godavari, a Dravidian 

family whose power by 200 b. c. had reached Nasik and the 
Foreign Western Ghats. In the meantime a great migration of the 
nations of Central Asia brou § ht a number of Scythians into 

iooa.d. Northern and Western India, where they came into collision 

with the Satavahanas, while the trade with Rome, which 
sprang up about a.d. 40, brought ever-growing wealth to the 
Kshatra- cities of the west coast. About 120 Ujjain and Gujarat fell 
Sdtavlha- “ t0 the hands of a line of foreign Kshatrapas, which lasted 
nas, 100- till about 300. Their best-known ruler, Rudradaman (150), 
300 a.d. the sea-board from the mouth of the Indus to the Daman- 
ganga, together with the inland country from Multan to Bhilsa. 
The kingdom of his rivals, the Satavahanas, stretched across 
the Peninsula from sea to sea, and on the west from the 
Damanganga to Vanavasi (Banavasi) in Kanara, the chief 
towns being Dhanakataka (Dharnikotta) in the Kistna delta, 
Tagara (Ter) near Naldrug, and Paithan on the Godavari. 
About 210 their power in the west seems to have died out, 
and that of the Kshatrapas took its place ( c . 230-400). The 
country flourished so long as the two kingdoms were at peace* 
Brahmans and Buddhists shared the royal bounty, and mer- 
chants vied with each other in excavating temples and monas- 
teries on all the main roads to the coast. The Kshatrapas, 
foreigners as they were, were the first Indian dynasty to use 
classical Sanskrit in inscriptions, and Rudradaman himself was 
versed in all the learning of the Brahmans, while the Sata- 
vahanas seem to have given much encouragement to Prakrit 
literature. After the fall of the Paithan dynasty (210) Broach 
monopolized the European trade, which was much encouraged 
by the Kshatrapas, who now seized and held Kalyan; but 
before long, through the fall of Palmyra (273) and the ex- 
tinction of the main Kshatrapa line ( c . 300), commerce fell 
into decay. 

Valkbhis ^ be next c ^ntury and a half is a period of great obscurity. 
Chalnkyas, Gujarat a series of short-lived Kshatrapa dynasties followed 
j^htra- each other till c. 390, when the country was conquered by the 
GSjars, Guptas of Magadha, who held it, not without difficulty, till 
300-700. about 460 ; in the Deccan and Konkan we can dimly trace 



HISTORY 


i7 


a number of small kingdoms, some of them founded by 
northern tribes (Abhiras). In the latter half of the fifth 
century new Central Asian hordes, led by the White Huns, 
poured into India from the north-west, and spread over the 
whole country as far as the Narbada. In Kathiawar the 
Vallabhis (c. 500-770) established themselves on the ruins of 
the Gupta power; and farther south an extensive, though 
short-lived, empire was formed by the Traikutakas, who were 
either identical or closely connected with the Kalachuris of 
Tripuri near Jubbulpore. From 500 onwards the new foreign 
invaders quickly became Hinduized. The Brahmanic sects 
began to prevail over Buddhism, and Persian and Arabian 
influences became more powerful than European. The 
Northern Konkan was ruled by the Mauryas of Puri near 
Bombay, while the coast farther south obeyed the Kadambas 
of Vanavasi, and the Southern Deccan was the theatre of a 
struggle between the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. About 
600 Gujarat was overshadowed by the power of a new and 
energetic race, the Gujars, who had probably entered India 
with the White Huns (452), and who, besides more northerly 
settlements in the Punjab and Rajputana, established them- 
selves at Bhilmal near Mount Abu. By 600 they had over- 
run north-eastern Kathiawar, received the submission of the 
Vallabhis, and set up a branch at Broach (585-740). They 
rapidly assimilated Indian culture, and were, in the opinion 
of certain writers, the forefathers of some of the most famous 
Rajput races. For a time, indeed, it seemed as though the 
empire of the Guptas would be revived by Harshavardhana 
of Kanauj (606-48); but the confusion that followed his 
death left the field again open for the Gujar dynasty of 
Bhilmal, whose fortunes henceforward determined the fate 
of Gujarat. 

Meanwhile (600) the Chalukyas had emerged victorious Deccan, 
from their struggles with the Traikutakas and the Rashtrakutas ^- 75 °* 
in the Deccan, and had absorbed the smaller kingdoms of the chalnkjas. 
coast. In the seventh century, which was the time of their 
greatest prosperity, a senior branch of this dynasty ruled the 
Deccan and Konkan, with a northern offshoot at Navsari, 
while a junior line reigned at Vengi in the Kistna delta. The 
Chalukyas themselves worshipped Vishnu and Siva; but 
Jainism flourished in the Southern Deccan, and great Buddhist 
establishments existed at Ellora, Ajanta, and elsewhere in the 
northern provinces. After the Arab conquest of Persia (640) 
foreign trade became extinct, and the strength, of the 

c 


BO. X. 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Gujarat 

and 

Deccan, 

75 °- 95 °- 
Gujars 
and Rash- 
trakutas. 


xS 

yan empire was wasted in endless wars of conquest with its 
southern neighbours. 

The eighth century saw the entrance of the Musalmans into 
Indian politics (711) and the fall of the Western Chalukya 
dynasty (750). The Musalmans raided Gujarat and destroyed 
the famous city of Vallabhi (c, 770), but their permanent con- 
quests were limited to Sind. The Chavadas, a Rajput tribe, 
probably of Gujar origin, took advantage of the confusion 
caused by the Muhammadan raids to found the first kingdom 
of Anhilvada (746), with the countenance and aid of the 
Gujars of Bhilmal, whose sway in the course of the next fifty 
years covered alt Rajputana and Malwa, threatened Bengal, 
and eventually shifted its centre to Kanauj. But the Gujar 
empire soon showed a tendency to break up into separate 
states (Chauhans of Ajmer, Paramaras of Dhar, Chavadas 
of Anhilvada, &c.). The Gujarat branch seems to have 
encouraged literature and especially to have patronized the 
Jains. South of the Mahi also changes not less far reaching 
took place. The Rashtrakutas at last (c. 750) overthrew their 
old enemies the Chalukyas, whom they penned in Mysore, 
and set up a new kingdom with its capital at Malkhed, 60 miles 
south-east of Sholapur. This kingdom was not so exten- 
sive as the old, for it did not include the territory of Vengi ; 
but it was strong enough to prevent any northern power 
securing a lodgement on the southern bank of the Narbada. 
The balance of power between the Gujars and the Rashtra- 
kutas lasted for about two centuries ( c . 750-950). Neither 
kingdom was strong enough to encroach to any large extent 
upon the territory of the other — a state of things to which the 
dissensions between the Rashtrakutas of the main line and 
a branch that ruled in Gujarat may have contributed. The 
Rashtrakutas carried on a good deal of desultory frontier 
fighting and had to meet several attacks from the Chalukyas 
of the south ; but after the reign of Govinda III (794-814) 
they do not seem to have attempted conquests on a large 
scale. They were Saivas in religion, but Amoghavarsha I 
(814-77) was a patron of Jain literature. The power and 
magnificence of the dynasty greatly impressed the Arabs, to 
whom the king was known as the Balhara (Vallabharaja). 
But the local chiefs with whom the Arabs came most in com 
tact were the Silaharas of Purl, Chaul, and Thana, who were 
made governors of the Konkan in the reign of Amoghavarsha I. 
Another branch of the same family ruled the coast farther 
south (800-1 qo8). The trade with the Persian Gulf revived, 



HISTORY 


19 


and brought with it an influx of Pars! refugees (775), who 
found a ready welcome at the hands of chiefs who honoured 
impartially Siva, Buddha, and Jina. But this revival of trade 
was attended with a great outburst of piracy, in which the 
daring sailors of western Kathiawar took a leading part. In 
941 (961 ?) the kingdom of Anhilvada was conquered by 
Mularaja Solanki, son of a Gujar chief who probably ruled 
somewhere in Northern Rajputana. A few years later (973) 
a revolution took place in the Deccan also, when Taila, who 
was connected in some way with the old Chalukya family, 
overthrew the Rashtrakutas and set up a new Chalukya king- 
dom, for whose capital Kalyani in the Deccan was soon 
chosen. His follower Barappa founded a subordinate dynasty 
in Southern Gujarat, but farther south the Silaharas still 
continued to rule the coast. 

In Gujarat the direct descendants of Mularaja (the Solankis) Gujarat, 
reigned at Anhilvada until 1143. In religion they were Saivas 
and showed a special attachment to the temple of Somnath, kingdom 
which frequently brought them into collision with the Chuda- °[ Anhil- 
samas of Girnar (c. 940-1 12 5), who commanded the road to 
that holy place. The Chudasamas called in the aid of the 
chiefs of Cutch and Sind (probably the Sumras), and were not 
finally subdued till 1 1 r3. The northern frontier of the Solanki 
kingdom was constantly threatened by the Chauhans of Ajmer, 
who, however, never inflicted any serious defeat on the Anhil- 
vada kings. Wars with Malwa were also frequent till about 
1134, when Sidharaja defeated the Paramaras and occupied 
Ujjain. The relations of the Solankis with the Chalukyas of 
the Deccan were at first hostile, and some time after 1050 the 
former conquered Gujarat south of the Mahl ; but the later 
kings of Kalyani appear to have lived on friendly terms with 
their northern neighbours. The famous sack of Somnath by 
Mahmud of Ghazni (1026) seemed to threaten the extinction 
of the Solanki kingdom, but produced no lasting effects, and 
the Anhilvada chiefs were left free to patronize literature and 
to adorn their chief towns with beautiful buildings. 

The Deccan remained from about 973 to 1155 in the Deccan, 
hands of the Chalukyas of Kalyani, who adopted on a large 
scale the system, begun by their Rashtrakuta predecessors, of of Kaly&ii. 
placing separate provinces under hereditary governors, a policy 
which eventually proved fatal to their power. They carried 
on a series of indecisive wars with the Cholas of Kanchi 
(Conjeeveram), and inflicted severe defeats on the Paramaras 
Of Malwa and the Kalachuris of Tripuri (near Jubbulpore), 



20 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


but did not attempt any lasting conquest of those kingdoms. 
They encouraged trade and showed much favour to Musalman 
settlers on the coast, and, like most Indian kings of this 
period, they surrounded themselves with poets and scholars 
and posed as patrons of literature. But the power of the 
great feudatories always tended to increase at the expense 
of the central government, while a rival arose in Mysore in 
the Hoysala line of Halebid, which first became dangerous 
about 1120. 

Gnjarat, Towards the middle of the twelfth century the throne of 
Decline 242, Anhilvada passed to a collateral branch of Mularaja’s line, but 
of the the change brought with it no alteration in policy beyond an 
Solankis. increase in the influence of the Jains. Kathiawar and Malwa 
were nominally provinces of Anhilvada, but we still hear of 
wars against chiefs in open resistance to the Solanki arms. 
The Konkan was invaded about 1160, but without permanent 
results, while the Chauhans of Ajmer continued to threaten 
the northern frontier. The far more serious danger of 
Muhammadan conquest was averted by the defeat of Muham- 
mad bin Sam in 1178, which saved Gujarat from serious 
molestation for more than a century. But the Solanki king- 
dom had in its hereditary feudatories the same source of 
weakness as the Chalukya empire of Kalyani ; and when the 
last scion of Mularaja’s line died in 1242, all power had 
already passed to the Vaghela chiefs of Dholka. 

Deccan, The same century that saw the decline of the Solankis 
Yadavas of ( II 43 ~ I2 4 2 ) witnessed also a long and complicated struggle 
Deogiri. for the mastery of the Deccan. In 1155 Bijjala, a Kalachuri 
feudatory of the Chalukyas, set up as an independent ruler at 
Kalyani, whence the Chalukyas fled ; but the new dynasty was 
hardly founded when it was overthrown (1167) by a revolution 
in which Basava, the founder of the Lingayat sect, is said to 
have been the leader. The Southern Deccan now fell into 
absolute confusion, and most of the great feudatories claimed 
independence, while the last of the Chalukyas and of the 
Kalachuris fought for the mastery, and the Hoysala king stood 
ready to destroy the victor. In the Northern Deccan, where 
there were fewer competitors, the feudatory Yadavas of Deogiri 
had been steadily enlarging their boundaries and strengthening 
their armies for the final struggle. The Hoysalas were the 
first to move. . They destroyed the Kalachuris in 1184 and 
the Chalukyas m 1192, in which year they also defeated the 
Yadavas ; and for a time it seemed as if they would succeed 
to the whole heritage of the Chalukyas. But after an interval 



HISTORY 


21 


of struggle the Hoysalas were driven back into Mysore, and 
the Yadavas under Singhana remained masters of the Deccan 
(1212). The Konkan chiefs, however, maintained their inde- 
pendence for some time longer. 

The Dholka princes, who about 1233 superseded the So-Muham- 
lankis in Gujarat, belonged to a younger branch of the royal madan 
house, but their power was only a feeble caricature of the great- 0 f Gujarat 
ness of their predecessors. Their kingdom shrank to a part of ^ the 
Northern Gujarat and Eastern Kathiawar, and their wars were Deccan ‘ 
little more than cattle-lifting raids. They were obliged to sub- 
mit to, and to conclude a treaty of alliance with, the Yadava 
kings of the Deccan. Still at this time commerce flourished, 
and merchants spent large sums in building temples, while 
court poets and panegyrists were not wanting. But the real 
weakness of the kingdom is evident from the ease with which 
the armies at Delhi, under Ala-ud-dm’s brother Alaf Khan, 
subdued it in a single campaign (1298). The Yadava king- 
dom was likewise short-lived. Its first task, the subjugation of 
the great feudatories, was completed in the Deccan about 1250, 
and in the Konkan some ten years later. It is notable that we 
now for the first time meet with Brahman generals and Brah- 
man provincial governors, employed in preference to the here- 
ditary local chiefs whose power had proved so dangerous. The 
Yadavas had no serious rivals on their frontiers, and we hear 
little of their foreign relations. Their own kingdom was peace- 
ful and prosperous, in reaction from the troubles of the pre- 
ceding century; the treasury was full; many temples were 
built ; learning flourished ; and a vernacular literature began 
to spring up. But these fair prospects were put an end to by 
an unforeseen enemy. Ala-ud-dm Khiljl suddenly appeared 
before Deogiri with 8,000 men, swept off the treasures of king 
Ramchandra, and exacted a promise of tribute (1294). After 
several revolts the last of the Yadavas was put to death in 
1318, and the Deccan became a Muhammadan province. 

For nearly a century (1298-1392) governors were sent to Gujarat, 
Gujarat by the Sultans of Delhi ; but their province included *298-1572. 
only the open country about Patan, Cambay, Baroda, and aEj/ 
Broach, and the lower Tapti. This territory suffered from the abad, 
turbulence of Mughal mercenaries, and from the hostility of 
the Hindu chiefs of Kathiawar and the eastern hills, who were 
only brought to temporary submission by the presence of 
Muhammad bin Tughlak (1347-50). The last governor, Zafar 
Khan, the son of a converted Tonk Rajput, was left more and 
more to himself owing to the increasing weakness of the central 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Deccan, 

1318- 

1600. 

The 

Bahmani 
kingdom 
and its 
offshoots. 


power, and finally assumed the title of king in 1407. Owing 
chiefly to the unusual capacity of two of his descendants— 
Ahmad Shah (1411-43), the founder of Ahmadabad, and 
Mahmud Shah Begara (1456-1511)— -the kingdom flourished 
greatly down to 1526, and lingered on, despite the factious 
quarrels of its nobles, until the province was conquered by 
Akbar in 1572. At its best period the kingdom comprised 
Northern Gujarat from Abu to the Narbada ; Kathiawar, which 
became a Musalman province through the occupation of Diu 
(1402) and Girnar (1471) and the sack of Dwarka Bet (1473) J 
the Tapti valley as far east as Thalner ; and the tract between 
the Ghats and the sea from Surat to Bombay. Between these 
southern districts and those of the Bahmanis, with whom 
Gujarat was usually at peace, lay the buffer States of Baglan 
and Burhanpur, the latter of which became for a long time 
a Gujarat dependency under the Faruki chiefs of Thalner 
and Asirgarh (1370-1599). 

The Deccan was organized as a Muhammadan province by 
Muhammad bin Tughlak, who divided it into four districts for 
which he appointed Moslem chiefs and collectors, and brought 
down settlers of all classes from Delhi. It included Chaul, 
Dabhol, Deogiri, Kandhar, Bldar, Gulbarga, and Raibag, and 
for a time Warangal, which last, however, was soon retaken by 
the Hindus. The garrisons were commanded by Mughal and 
Afghan officers, who in 1347 were driven into revolt by the 
severity of the Sultan, and set up a separate kingdom under 
the rule of Hasan Gangu Bahmani, a low-born Afghan of Delhi. 
Henceforward, and until 1586, the Sultans of Delhi were too 
busy in Northern India to intervene in the affairs of the 
Deccan. The Bahmani house did not die out until 1526, but 
it ceased to be of political account after 1482. It produced 
some active soldiers, but no really great ruler, and its prosperity 
was due partly to a succession of able ministers, partly to the 
absence of any rival of really equal energy. The centre of the 
Bahmani power was the open country of the Deccan from 
Daulatabad to Gulbarga. The frontier was advanced to Kaulas 
in 1 35 x > to Golconda in 1373, and to Warangal in 1424, but 
did not reach the Bay of Bengal until 1472. South of Dabhol 
and the Kistna, the Konkan and Carnatic were for the most 
part held by petty Hindu chiefs who looked for aid to the 
Rajas of Vijayanagar, with whom the Bahmanis disputed the 
possession of the Raichur Doab and the fort of Bankapur. 
The Moslems were on the whole successful in these wars and 
retained the Doab, but their progress in the Ghats and Konkan 



HISTORY 


*3 


was very slow and incomplete. They invaded the Konkan in 
1429 and 1436 with only partial success, and in 1453 with 
disastrous failure, and did not effectively occupy Goa till 1470. 
Their power in the Konkan at no time extended beyond a few 
of the larger ports. The interior of their country seems to 
have enjoyed peace, but suffered from terrible famines in 1396- 
1407 and in 1472-3. The downfall of the dynasty was brought 
about by the bitter jealousy between the Deccani nobles and 
the foreign chiefs (Afghans, Turks, Mughals, Persians, and 
Arabs) upon whom the Sultans chiefly relied. At the end of 
the fifteenth century the Bahmani empire was divided into five 
separate kingdoms, the more northerly of which (Ahmadnagar 
and Berar) were founded by Deccani nobles, while the three 
southern States of Bijapur, Bidar, and Golconda were estab- 
lished by TurkI chiefs. About the same time (1490) there 
was a change of dynasty at Vijayanagar also, and the Portuguese 
profited by the troubles to gain a footing on the coast. The 
Nizam Shahi house of Ahmadnagar was of Brahman origin and 
freely employed its fellows in high civil offices. The Bijapur 
kings, who descended from the Maratha wife of their Osmanli 
founder, from about 1535 made Marathi their official language, 
and took Brahman clerks and Maratha soldiers into their ser- 
vice. The Ahmadnagar kingdom included the port of Chaul, 
the valley of the Godavari as far as Nander, and the greater 
part of the present Nasik, Ahmadnagar, Poona, and Sholapur 
Districts. Sholapur itself, together with Naldrug and Kalyani, 
was usually held by Bijapur, though the Ahmadnagar kings 
claimed it whenever they felt strong enough. The districts of 
Mudgal and Raichiir were a similar bone of contention between 
Bijapur and Vijayanagar. The original partition of the Deccan 
had no elements of permanency, as the statesmen of the period 
were well aware ; but the balance of power was preserved by 
constantly shifting alliances in which the Musalman kings and 
the rulers of Vijayanagar took part, until the ravages committed 
by the Hindu troops in 1562 brought about a league between 
the Muhammadan powers which destroyed the Vijayanagar 
kingdom (1565). Ahmadnagar then proceeded to absorb Berar 
(1572), while Bijapur set about conquering the Hindu districts 
south of the Kistna. During this period the Eastern Deccan 
was disturbed by perpetual warfare, and the Muhammadans 
were not strong enough at sea to protect their trade against the 
Portuguese. Although the Faruki king of Khandesh acknow- 
ledged Akbar’s supremacy in 1572, the Mughal emperor did* 
not actively intervene in the affairs of the Deccan until 15&V 



24 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


The Por- 
tuguese, 
1498— 

1 594 * 


Gujarat 

under the 

Mughal 

empire. 

Maratha 

incursions, 

1572 - 

1740. 


when his troops unsuccessfully invaded Berar in support of a 
pretender to the throne of Ahmadnagar. In spite of this warn- 
ing, the reckless factions of the Deccan did not compose their 
differences. In 1595 a new Mughal army besieged Ahmad- 
nagar and compelled the cession of Berar; and in 1596 war 
broke out afresh and ended in the capture of Ahmadnagar and 
the imprisonment of the boy-king by the Mughals (1600). 
Khandesh had become a Mughal province in the previous 
year (1599). 

In 1498 the Portuguese came to Calicut in search of ‘spices 
and Christians,’ their first acquisition in the Presidency being 
the island of Anjidiv. Their crusading valour soon gave them 
a footing in the ports of East Africa and Malabar ; and after 
defeating the Egyptian fleet at Diu in 1509, they became un- 
questioned masters of the Indian Ocean, where they were care- 
ful to allow no local navy to grow up and no merchantman to 
trade without their pass. The next step was to establish settle- 
ments on the coast, in which they were helped by the weak- 
ness of the country powers. They took Goa in 1510, Malacca 
in 1511, and Ormuz in 1515, Later, the decay of the king- 
dom of Gujarat enabled them to occupy Chaul (1531), Bassein 
with its dependencies, including Bombay (1534), Diu (1535), 
and Daman (1559). But they soon became a corrupt and 
luxurious society, based upon slave labour and mixed mar- 
riages, and recruited by place-hunters and wastrels from home. 
The cruelties of the Inquisition (from 1560) alienated the 
natives, and the union of Portugal with Spain (1580) deprived 
the Indian settlements of their claim to be the first care of the 
home government. The Portuguese monopoly of the trade 
with Europe could henceforth last only so long as no European 
rival came upon the scene. On land, however, the Portu- 
guese were strong enough to beat off all Musalman attacks on 
Goa (1570) and Chaul (1570 and 1592-4). 

By the end of the sixteenth century the Delhi empire in- 
cluded the whole of Sind, Khandesh, and Gujarat, with the 
exception of the Portuguese possessions of Diu, Daman, Bas- 
sein, and Bombay. The efficiency of the administration was, 
however, much weakened by frequent transfers of officers, and 
by the practice, which soon grew up, of allowing the great 
nobles to remain at court and administer their provinces by 
deputy. The land tax, which was fixed at the cash equivalent 
of one-third of the produce, was the chief head of revenue 
and was assessed upon a system devised by Raja Todar Mai. 
Akbar abolished many minor imposts and transit duties, and 



HISTORY 


25 


prohibited sail and the enslavement of prisoners of war ; but it 
is doubtful whether the control of the central power was at any 
time strong enough to enforce the emperor’s benevolent mea- 
sures in distant provinces. The emperors down to Aurangzeb 
employed Hindus and Musalmans indifferently in positions of 
trust, and did not levy the poll-tax on infidels ( jazia ) from 
Hindus. In Gujarat, down to the death of Aurangzeb (1707), 
the Mughal viceroys were on the whole successful in maintain- 
ing order and prosperity, in spite of the turbulence of the Kolis 
and Rajputs in the north, of the famines of 1596, 1631, 1681, 

1684, and 1697-8, and of the Deccani attacks on Surat, which 
was sacked once by Malik Ambar (1610) and twice by Sivaji 
(1664 and 1670). Almost throughout the Mughal period the 
province yielded a revenue of nearly two crores of rupees, and 
a large foreign trade was carried on at the ports of Cambay, 

Broach, and Surat. The decline of Mughal rule began with 
a Maratha raid across the Narbada in 1705. From 1711 these 
invasions became annual, and the Marathas established them- 
selves successfully at Songad (1719), Champaner (1723), and 
Baroda (1734). The beginning of the end came during the 
governorship of Sarbuland Khan (1723-30), who farmed out 
the revenues and admitted the Maratha claims to chauth and 
sardeshmukhi. Henceforward, although the Delhi court con- 
tinued to appoint viceroys until 1748, absolute anarchy reigned 
in the province, which was ravaged impartially by the leaders 
of the Peshwa’s and the Gaikwar’s armies, by the Rajas of 
Jodhpur, by the agents of the Nizam-ul-mulk, and by such 
local Musalman chiefs as the Babis, who established them- 
selves at Junagarh (1738) and Balasinor (1761), the Jhaloris, 
who settled at Palanpur (1715), and Momin Khan, who set up 
the State of Cambay (1748). Famines in 1719, 1732, and 
1747 added to the misery of the people. In 1737 the Gaikwar 
was admitted to a full half-share in the revenues of the pro- 
vince, and occupied Ahmadabad jointly with the viceroy’s 
troops (1738). Broach from 1731 to 1752 was held by a 
deputy of the Nizam, who had to give up a share of its cus- 
toms to the Gaikwar. Surat suffered chiefly from the violence 
of rival candidates for the governorship. 

By 1600 the Mughals held Khandesh and the forts of Deccan, 
Ahmadnagar and Nasik, but had by no means subdued the l6oo ~ 
open country or crushed the Deccani Musalmans, who estab- Rise of the 
lished a new capital at Kharki (Aurangabad) close to their Maratiias. 
old centre of Daulatabad. In 1610 Malik Ambar recovered 
Ahmadnagar and nearly the whole of the old Nizam Shahi 



26 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


dominions, and sacked Surat. Almost until his death (1626) 
he remained master of the Deccan, where he introduced the 
revenue system that has made his name a household word. 
The Mughals did not really regain their position until 1630, 
or finally crush the Nizam Shahis and capture Daulatabad until 
1633. These successes brought them into collision with the 
Bijapur government, which had hitherto followed a temporizing 
policy. The result of the war was a peace very favourable to 
Bijapur, which gained the territory between the Bhlma and the 
Nlra, as well as the Northern Konkan up to the Bassein river 
(1636). This peace lasted for twenty years (till 1656), during 
which the Mughals pacified the Northern Deccan and intro- 
duced Todar Mai’s revenue system, while the Bijapur govern- 
ment turned its attention to the conquest of the petty chiefs of 
the Carnatic. At this time the Hindus began to play a leading 
part in the Deccan. For a hundred years the Marathas had 
been learning warfare, and the Brahmans the art of govern- 
ment, in the service of the Bijapur Sultans. At the same time 
there had been a notable revival of Hindu religious feeling 
under the guidance of Vaishnava preachers (Eknath and Tuka- 
ram). The Mughals had destroyed Ahmadnagar and were 
threatening Bijapur. The old order was clearly falling to 
pieces and the Marathas only wanted a leader. They found 
one in Sivaji Bhonsla. Sivaji was bom (1627) and brought 
up in the country which passed from Ahmadnagar to Bijapur 
under the treaty of 1636, and which was under the immediate 
government of his father ShahjI, who had been one of the most 
prominent of the Bijapur generals. Though a younger son, 
he was initiated very early into the management of the family 
inheritance, owing to the absence of his father and brothers 
in the Carnatic. He was trained from the first as the Hindu 
ruler of a Hindu state, though this ideal by no means excluded 
politic submission to a foreign superior who did not interfere 
in home affairs. As his power increased, Sivaji modelled his 
government more and more on the old Hindu kingship of the. 
law books. The complete attainment of his ideal was notified 
to the world by his coronation in 1674. This restoration of 
the old law under a Hindu king took such a hold upon the 
Maratha imagination that Sivajl’s system was enabled to survive 
the death of its founder. Sivaji built up his kingdom at the 
expense of Bijapur. He began by subduing the new provinces 
m the Northern Konkan and between the Bhlma and the Nlra 
(1646-8). He next conquered Javli in the old Bijapur do- 
minions (1655) and overran the Konkan from Janjlra to Goa 



HISTORY 


27 


(1659-62), after which he built forts on the coast and began 
to create a navy. The Bijapur government, distracted by wars 
abroad and* factions at home, failed to recover its lost pro- 
vinces, and was compelled by an alliance between Sivajl and 
the Mughals to buy him off with a promise of tribute (1668). 
On the death of Sultan All Adil Shah of Bijapur in 1673, 
Sivajl renewed the war and conquered Panhala, with the open 
country to the east of it, Satara, Phonda near Goa, and the 
ports of Karwar and Ankola (1672-6). He next allied himself 
with Golconda and invaded the Bijapur Carnatic (1676-87). 
The Bijapur government, now hard pressed by the Mughals, 
bought peace and alliance by ceding Kopal and Bellary and 
resigning the overlordship of the Carnatic (1679). his two 
wars with the Mughals (1662-5, 1670-80), which interfered with 
his designs on Bijapur, Sivajl was not the aggressor. Aurang- 
zeb on his part desired to weaken the Deccani powers by 
fomenting their quarrels, but not to crush them until he could 
take the field in person. Hence the real fight for the mastery 
of the Deccan did not take place in Sivajfs lifetime, and his 
raids upon Surat, Ahmadnagar, Aurangabad, Khandesh, and 
Berar were only diversions. Sivajl carefully strengthened the 
forts in his territories, and collected his revenues direct through 
government officers. His army, both horse and foot, received 
regular pay, and had to account for their plunder. The 
Mughals had besieged Bijapur in 1657 and again in 1666, 
when its Sultan bought peace by the cession of Sholapur and 
the adjoining districts (1668). In 1675 a fresh Mughal inva- 
sion ended in a truce and an alliance, which was renewed in 
1678. But Aurangzeb pressed for harder terms, and the Bija- 
pur government turned for help to Sivajl, who created a diver- 
sion by plundering the Mughal Deccan (1679). After Sivajfs 
death (1680) the Mughal party again gained the upper hand 
in Bijapur and tried to recover some of the districts ceded to 
the Marathas. Aurangzeb judged that the time had now come 
for completing the conquest of the Deccan, which he entered 
in person with a vast army (1684). For a time success seemed 
to follow his arms. He took the capitals and occupied the terri- 
tory of both Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687), and captured 
and executed Sivajfs weak son SambhajI (1689). But he had now 
destroyed the only organized Musalman power of the Deccan* 
and was to enter upon a war of race and religion in which the 
Marathas were no longer paralysed by the incapacity of Sam- 
bhaji. The country was overrun by the disbanded soldiery of 
the Mkm kingdoms, and the resulting anarchy gave seope^ta 



2 8 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 

the guerrilla tactics of the Marathas. Aurangzeb could neither 
trust his officers nor do everything himself, and corruption and 
disorganization increased from year to year until the whole 
imperial machine was out of gear. In the first stage of the 
war, Raja Ram, the Maratha regent, held his court at Gingee 
in the Carnatic (1690— 8), which was besieged by the Mughals, 
while the Maratha horse overran the Deccan in every direction. 
In the next period (1699-1705) Aurangzeb besieged the Ma- 
ratha forts, while the Maratha horsemen ranged farther afield 
into Malwa and Gujarat. About X 7°5 definitely 

turned. The Marathas recaptured their forts, and Aurangzeb 
retired to Ahmadnagar, where he died (1707)* The new em ' 
peror withdrew the remnant of the great army of the Deccan, 
but created a division among his enemies by releasing 
Sivajl’s grandson Shahu, who had been brought up at the 
Mughal court (1707). Shahu established himself at Satara, 
while a younger branch of Sivajfs line set up a separate king- 
dom at Kolhapur (1710). After a period of anarchy Shahu, 
aided by the talents of BalajT Vishvanath, the founder of the 
Peshwa dynasty, restored order in his own territory, was ac- 
knowledged (1713) by Angria, the commander of the fleet, 
who ruled the Konkan from Kolaba southwards, and obtained 
(1720) from the emperor the cession of the country south of 
the Bhlma as far east as Pandharpur, as well as the right to 
levy chauth (one-fourth) and sardeshmukhi (one-tenth) from 
the Mughal Deccan, the Carnatic, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, and 
Mysore. These levies gave the Marathas a pretext for inter- 
fering wherever they chose. The collections were so arranged 
as to intermingle the interests of the several military chiefs, and 
make them dependent on their Brahman clerks. The increas- 
ing power of the Peshwa and the employment of the Maratha 
forces in distant enterprises brought about the decay of SivajI’s 
constitution, which was suited only for the management of 
home affairs. As the authority of the Raja grew less, the king- 
dom became a confederacy of leaders whose chief bond of 
union was a joint interest in their plunder. The year 1724 
was a turning-point in Deccan history, marked by the definite 
adoption by ShahQ, under the influence of Balajfs son, the 
Peshwa BajI Rao, of the policy of destroying the Mughal 
empire, in preference to consolidating his own dominions, and 
by the arrival in the Deccan of Nizam-ul-mulk, the founder of 
the present Hyderabad dynasty, nominally as the emperor’s 
deputy but really as an independent ruler. The Nizam de- 
sired to free the Subah of Hyderabad from the Maratha claims, 



HISTORY 


29 


but was completely defeated (1728). His ally, the Raja of 
Kolhapur, was bought off by the cession of the country be- 
tween the Varna and Tungabhadra (1730); and his tool, 
Trimbak Rao Dabhade, was defeated and slain (1731). The 
Peshwa now (1732-6) turned his attention to Malwa and 
advanced to the gates of Delhi. In 1737 the Nizam was in- 
duced by the emperor to invade Malwa, where he was defeated ; 
but in the Deccan his troops met the Marathas on equal terms 
and peace was restored, to the vexation of BajI Rao, who died 
in 1740. Meanwhile, the ruin of the Mughal empire was 
completed by the invasion of Nadir Shah (1739). 

The Marathas from this time to the end of the eighteenth Gujarat 
century remained the dominant power in Western India, and 
during the first thirty-four years of the period (1740-74) they 1740-74. 
had only local rivals to deal with. Gujarat was parcelled out 
among a number of local chiefs, who carried on ceaseless petty 
wars which the Marathas had no wish to suppress so long as 
they could secure their share of the plunder of the province. 

The Peshwa's seizure of half the Gaikwar’s share in 1751 only 
added another claimant of blackmail. After the battle of 
Pampat the local Musalmans tried, but failed, to drive out the 
Gaikwar (1761). The last chance of a strong native govern- 
ment growing up was, however, ruined by the disputed 
succession at Baroda in 1768. The internal troubles at Surat 
lasted until the castle was occupied by the British in 1759. 

This event gave them claims on Broach, which had been 
independent since 1752, but was taken by a British force in 
1772. In 1740 the new Peshwa, BalajI, had first to strengthen 
his own position in the Deccan. He bought off his most 
dangerous rival, Raghuji Bhonsla of Nagpur, by giving him 
a free hand in Bengal (1744). He obtained from Shahu 
on his deathbed a deed empowering him to govern the 
kingdom (1749)3 he secured the succession of a puppet Raja 
of doubtful legitimacy (1749), won over the leading chiefs by 
liberal grants, made Poona the capital of the confederacy 
(1750), and baffled by treachery the rising of DamajI Gaikwar 
(1751). The old Nizam had died in 1748. BalajI took part 
in the disputes among his sons, and, in spite of the aid given 
by the French to their nominee, extorted a cession of all the 
country west of Berar, between the Tapti and the Godavari 
(1752). Further quarrels among the Nizam's sons enabled 
the Peshwa to occupy Ahmadnagar. This led to a war, at the 
end of which (1760) the Marathas obtained possession of 
the Subah of Bijapur, which they henceforth retained, as well 



3 ° 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


as of other lands which the Mughals regained later (1763 and 
1766), In 1743 the Peshwa had become governor of Malwa; 
in 1754 his troops had decided the succession to the Mughal 
empire; and in 1755 they levied chauth in Hindustan and at 
Arcot. But their military power was broken when at its height 
by Ahmad Shah Durrani at the bloody battle of Panlpat (1761), 
which was followed by the death of Balaji. This crushing 
blow enabled the Nizam to recover some of his lost provinces 
(1763), gave Haidar All time to strengthen himself in Mysore 
(1764), and freed Delhi from Maratha domination for nine 
years (1761-70). The Bhonsla of Berar showed a tendency to 
break off from the confederacy, and Balajfs brother Raghuba 
began that course which for twenty years made him the stormy 
petrel of Maratha politics. None of the country powers, how- 
ever, was strong enough to overthrow the Maratha kingdom. 
The able young Peshwa, Madhu Rao I (1761-72), checkmated 
his turbulent uncle, played off the Nizam against the Bhonsla, 
repeatedly defeated Haidar All, and re-established Maratha 
influence at Delhi (1770-2). He also found time to bring his 
Deccan provinces under a system of government which, how- 
ever rude, was vigorous, popular, and comparatively honest, 
and under which he realized a revenue of 280 lakhs. 

Marathas The first collision between the Marathas and the British 
and British, took place in 1774, when civil war broke out between Raghuba 
3 ^ 4 ~ 2 ’ and the ministry which governed in the name of the child 
Peshwa, Madhu Rao II. Hearing of a Portuguese expedition 
for the recovery of Salsette, the Bombay Government seized 
that island (1774), and agreed to aid Raghuba in return for 
the cession of Salsette, Bassein, and certain districts in Gujarat 
(1775). The Governor-General, however, concluded with the 
Poona ministry the Treaty of Purandhar (1776), under which 
Raghuba was to be pensioned off and Salsette and Broach were 
to be left in the hands of the British. But the wording of the 
treaty gave rise to new disputes; and the fear of a French 
invasion led the Bombay Government to send Raghuba to- 
wards Poona with an army, which, however, was compelled to 
surrender at Wadgaon to Sindhia and Nana Farnavis, the two 
leading members of the Peshwa’s government (1779). The 
balance was restored by the march from the Jumna to Surat of 


a Bengal army, which met with considerable success in Gujarat 
and took Bassein (1780). A league between the Peshwa, the 
Nizam, and Haidar All (whose aid the Marathas obtained by 
confirming his conquests in Dharwar) led the British to drop 
*the scheme of setting up Raghuba at Poona, and Malwa 



HISTORY 


3 * 


and Madras became the chief theatres of war. Sindhiawas 
the first to come to terms (1781), and some months later Nana 
Farnavls also agreed to the Treaty of Salbai (1782), under 
which Salsette remained with the British, who handed over 
Broach to Sindhia. The Gaikwar was protected against the 
Peshwa, and Raghuba was pensioned off and died soon 
after (1784). 

For twenty years (1782-1803) the British and Maratha 
Governments remained at peace. It was during this period 
that the Maratha confederacy began to break up. The 
Gaikwar was detached by his acceptance of British protection 
(1782); Sindhia had become accustomed to act alone in 
Hindustan, and took no part in the Mysore War (1785-92); 
while the Berar chiefs were encouraged by the British to follow 
a policy of their own. In Gujarat there was little improvement 
in the government during this period, though, in spite of 
disputes in the Gaikwar’s family and intrigues at the Poona 
court, a semblance of order was preserved by British influence 
from 1782 to 1799, wdien the Gaikwar took Ahmadabad 
and imprisoned the Peshwa’s agent. Further disturbances 
then took place, which were put down by a British force 
(1803). In 1799 the Peshwa farmed his rights to the Gaikwar, 
who entered into subsidiary alliance with the British. Nego- 
tiations followed between the British, the Peshwa, and the 
Gaikwar, which ended in the cession to the first named of 
certain districts and rights in Gujarat. The British Govern- 
ment had annexed Surat in 1800, on the death of the Nawab, 
whose family were pensioned off, and had conquered Broach 
from Sindhia in the war of 1803. 

After the peace with the English (1782) the first care of 
Nana Famavis was to regain, by an alliance with the Nizam, 
the territory with which the Peshwa had bought the aid of 
Mysore in 1779. This object was attained in 1787, but Tipu 
renewed the war, and by attacking Travancore drove the 
British to join the alliance against him (1790). In 1792 he 
made peace at the cost of half his dominions, of which the 
Peshwa obtained the portion north of the Wardha river. The 
accession of Raghuba's son, Baji Rao, to the Peshwaship (1796) 
caused the fall of Nana Farnavls and the ruin of the Maratha 
power. Through his efforts to secure the throne and to shake 
off first Nana Famavis and then Sindhia, Baji Rao incurred 
the distrust of all parties and plunged the Deccan into civil 
wars in which the Rajas of Satara and Kolhapur took part 
He intrigued both with the British and with Tipu, but took n<£ 


Break-up 
of the 
Maratha 
confede- 
racy. 

Extension 
of British 
power, 
1782- 
1803. 



3 2 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


1803-27 
Organiza- 
tion of the 
Bombay 
Presidency 
and fall 
of the 
Peshwa, 


Mount- 
stuart El- 
phinstone. 


part in the last Mysore War (1799), at the en( * °* which te 
found himself hemmed in between a British protectorate 
(Hyderabad) on the east and British Districts on the south. 
The Marquis Wellesley now invited him to enter the system of 
subsidiary alliances. In fear of Holkar, who had seized Poona 
in revenge for the murder of his brother, Baji Rao signed the 
Treaty of Bassein (1802). The British restored him to Poona, 
defeated Sindhia and the Berar chief, who had taken up arms 
on hearing of the Treaty of Bassein, at Assaye, at Argaon, and 
in Hindustan, and forced them to sue for peace (1803). The 
Bombay Government took but a subordinate part in these 
proceedings, as from 1774 their foreign policy had been 
controlled by the Supreme Government at Calcutta, and in the 
Deccan campaign of 1803 the chief part was taken by Madras 
troops. The Presidency then included only Salsette, the 
harbour islands (from 1774), Surat (from 1800), and Bankot 
(from 1756), the affairs of Northern Gujarat and the Deccan 
being the business of the Governor-GeneraPs Agents at Baroda 
and Poona respectively. 

It was between the years 1803 and 1827 that the framework 
of the Bombay Presidency took its present shape. The first 
Districts to be organized were those of Gujarat, which were 
taken over by the Bombay Government in 1805, and enlarged 
in 1818. The Gaikwar was already under British protection, 
and the Peshwa’s rights were acquired partly by treaty and 
partly by conquest. The Districts were organized on the 
Bengal model, and the change from native rule was rather in 
men than in measures. The first steps towards the settlement 
of Kathiawar and Mahl Kantha were taken between 1807 
and 1820. After Baji Rao’s restoration the Deccan suffered 
severely from famine ; and robbery, oppression, and corruption 
were rampant. After long vacillation, Baji Rao, the last of 
the Peshwas, attempted to shake off British control, but was 
defeated, captured, and pensioned off (1817-8). A kingdom 
was created for the Raja of Satara, the heir of SivajI, out of 
part of the Peshwa’s dominions, and two parganas were given 
to Kolhapur; the rest was placed under a British Com- 
missioner (1819). The settlement of the Presidency was com- 
pleted by Mountstuart Elphinstone (Governor in 1819-27), 
whose aim was to govern on the best native lines, avoiding 
changes until the people should be fitted for them by educa- 
tion. He pacified the Deccan, set up the Sadr Court, codified 
the laws, and opened schools. The grosser abuses of Baji 
Rao’s days were ..stopped,, and, the peasantry were contented 



HISTORY 


33 

and orderly, though the Brahmans and the soldiery felt the 
loss of their former chances of distinction and plunder. 

Elphinstone’s governorship was followed by a period of 1827-52. 
retrenchment and slower progress, marked chiefly by the ^eaTof" 
enlargement of the Presidency through the lapse of Native the Presi* 
States, the addition of Aden (1839) and Sind (1847), and the dency * 
lease of the Panch Mahals from Sindhia (1853). Something 
was done for education, irrigation, public health, and railways, 
and in 1843-5 a somewhat serious rising in Kolhapur was put 
down. The government had the defects of its qualities. 
Taxation was lighter than before, but more strictly exacted. 

Criminal trials were more regular, but punishment was less 
certain. Now that order reigned, more land was tilled and 
trade was safer, but for that very reason there followed a great 
and general fall in prices, which increased the pressure of the 
land tax. In the Deccan a premature attempt at a new settle- 
ment led to great distress. The new rates were at once 
reduced, and after twelve years of inquiry the principles which 
are still the basis of the Bombay land revenue system were 
formulated in 1847. The operations of the new survey 
generally resulted in a reduction of assessment, and there 
ensued a period of great agricultural prosperity. The survey 
brought to light many cases of lands held rent-free without 
authority, and the Inam Commission was appointed to inquire 
into all such claims (1852). 

Under Lord Elphinstone (1853-60), though the landholders Lord El- 
had been alarmed by the proceedings of the Inam Com- 
mission and by the use of the doctrine of ‘lapse,’ the Presi- 
dency passed through the crisis of the Mutiny without any 
general rising, for the local rebellions in Gujarat, among the 
Bhlls, and in the Southern Maratha Country lacked concert 
and cohesion, and the outbreaks among the troops at Karachi, 
Ahmadabad, and Kolhapur were quickly put down. The 
most dangerous rebel, Tantia Topi, was headed off from 
Gujarat and hunted down in 1859. After the Mutiny progress 
was much more rapid, especially as regards education, railways, 
and the cotton industry. 

Under Sir Bartle Frere (1862-7) agricultural prosperity Sir Bartle 
reached its highest point, owing to the enormous demand for 
Indian cotton in Europe during the American Civil War 
(1861-5). The wealth thus poured into the country led to 
an extraordinary epidemic of speculation, known as the * Share 
-Mania’ (1864-5), which ended in a serious commercial crisis 
.and the failure of the ,Bank of Bombay (1866). But the 

D 


BO. I. 



34 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Deccan 

famine, 

1876-9. 


peasantry on the whole gained more than they lost, and in 
the long run the trade of Bombay was not seriously injured, 
At this time the main lines of railway were opened, and the 
Presidency was covered with a network of roads. 

In 1868 the monsoon failed and the condition of the 
Deccan began to cause anxiety, owing to the indebtedness of 
the peasantry. Their relations with their creditors led to riots 
and outrages (1873), which were inquired into by a special 
commission; but before any action was taken on its report, 
the monsoon of 1876 failed and the great famine of 1876-8 
set in. The monsoon of 1877 was again irregular, and was 
followed by epidemic fever and a plague of rats (1878), so 
that relief measures were not discontinued until 1879. The 
direct result of the famine was the construction of new railways 
and irrigation works in the Deccan, and the formation of 
Government forests on a large scale for the purpose of 
improving the rainfall and securing the supply of wood. 
A measure was also passed to protect agriculturists against the 
grosser forms of fraud on the part of money-lenders (1879). 

There followed a brief period of prosperity in which much 
was done for education and local self-government. About 
1890 a series of bad seasons began. Hindu feeling was much 
excited by discussions on the Age of Consent Bill, and by the 
preaching of the Cow Protection Societies, which embittered 
the relations between Hindus and Muhammadans to such an 
extent as to cause riots in Bombay City and many other places 
(1893-4). 


Famine, Worse, however, was to follow. The rains of 1895 were 
dSec^kelow the average, and the failure of those of 1896 caused 
tion, 1896- famine throughout the Deccan in 1896-7. After one poor 


J 9 02 * and one fair season there followed the great famine of 1899— 
1902, which desolated Gujarat and the Northern and Western 


Deccan, and was accompanied by a virulent outbreak of cho- 


lera. Plague appeared in Bombay City in August, 1896, and 
has since spread by land and sea to every part of the Presi- 
dency. The original plague measures caused great alarm and 
discontent, and were violently opposed in 1898 at Sinnar and 


Bombay. When the most stringent and costly efforts failed to 
stamp out the disease, it became clear that a permanent plague 
policy could not be based on them. From October, 1898, 
therefore, more use was made of native volunteer agency, the 
restrictions on travelling were relaxed, and the discretional 
relief fund was started to help the poorer sufferers. The in- 
quiries of the Plague Commission (1898-9) resulted in still 



HISTORY 


35 


further relaxations, which came into force under the orders of 
the Government of India from July, 1900. The people are 
now generally accustomed both to the plague and to the exist- 
ing plague measures, and accept both with resignation. Down 
to the end of March, 1904, over one million deaths had been 
reported in the Presidency as due to plague. Bitter feelings 
against Government found vent in the native press, in an at- 
tempted strike against the payment of revenue (1896-7), and 
in disturbances arising out of forest grievances in Thana (1896), 
and culminated in the murder of the chairman of the Poona 
plague committee and another officer by a band of Brahman 
fanatics in June, 1897. Trade and industry suffered very 
severely during these years. 

Except a few dolmens and implements of the stone age, Archaeo- 
there are no remains in Western India older than the inscrip- logy * 
tions of Asoka (250 b.c.) at Junagarh and Sopara. The 
oldest buildings were of wood, but were copied in hundreds of 
Buddhist caves dug out of the trap cliffs on the main routes 
from the Deccan to the coast. The best-known groups are at 
Bhaja (200 b.c.), Bedsa (ioo b.c.), Karli (50 B.C.), Junnar 
(a.d. ioo), Nasik (ioo b.c.-a.d. 200), and Kanheri (a.d. 
100-500). In each group is at least one pillared hall with a 
barrel roof and a relic shrine {chatty a) and a number of square 
chambers (vihara), out of which open cells for monks and 
travellers. There are no separate relic shrines (stupas), rails, or 
pillars of archaeological importance. Both Jains and Hindus 
imitated the Buddhist caves ; but, except the Hindu caves at 
Elephanta and Badami (seventh to eighth century), their 
best work is found in the Nizam’s dominions. All temples in 
Western India have a cell which contains the idol, with a tower 
above it (vimana) and a pillared porch or hall (mandapa) in 
front. The oldest structural temples (seventh and eighth cen- 
tury) are to be found at Aivalli, Pattadkal, and Badami 
in Bijapur District One of these resembles a chaitya cave, 
while others show the terraced tower of the Dravidian or the 
four-sided spire of the Indo-Aryan style. The latter is the 
true local style of the Deccan, where hundreds of temples, 
which are now ascribed in the Maratha districts to Hemadpant 
and in the Kanarese country to Jakhanacharya, were built 
between 1000 and 1300. The term Hemadpanti, which is 
applied to old temples, reservoirs, and wells in Khandesh and 
the Deccan, is derived from the name of the minister of Ram- 
chandra (1271), the Yadava ruler of Deogiri, who is supposed 
to have introduced some change in architectural style. But 
d a 



BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


36 

the word has lost the special meaning which it once possessed, 
and is loosely applied to any old stone building dating from 
the period mentioned. This was the great age of temple-build- 
ing in Gujarat also, where the Jain style with its domed porches 
and rectangular courtyards grew up at Girnar and Shetriya. 
Ambarnath is the best known, and Gondesvar near Sinnar the 
most perfect, example of the Indo-Aryan style. To the same 
period belongs the secular architecture of Jhinjhuvada and 
Dabhoi, and a number of large wells and tanks in Gujarat and 
the Deccan. The earliest Musalman work of note is the Jama 
Masjid at Cambay (1325), built from the spoils of Jain temples. 
During the best period (1411-1511) of the Gujarat Sultans, 
Ahmadabad, Mahmudabad, and Champaner were adorned 
with many beautiful mosques, tombs, and palaces of Moslem 
design worked out by Hindu artists. In the Deccan the most 
notable Muhammadan remains are the tombs, mosques, and 
palaces erected at Bijapur between 1557 and 1657. Since the 
fourteenth century the Hindus have built little of note except 
some forts, such as those constructed or repaired by Sivaji. 

The history and archaeology of Sind are dealt with in the 
article on that Commissionership. 

Popula- The Census of 1901 showed the Bombay Presidency to 
tlon * contain 331 towns, 40,694 villages, and 5,004,095 houses, with 
a population of 25,468,209. Of these, 18,515,587 were in 
British territory, 6,908,648 in Native States, and 43,974 in the 
Density, outlying settlement of Aden. The density for the Presidency 
as a whole is 135 persons per square mile. Sind has a popu- 
lation of 3,210,910, with a density of 68; the Northern Divi- 
sion 3,513,532, density 256; the Central Division 5,944,447, 
density 160; and the Southern Division 5,070,692, density 
203. Bombay City has a population of 776,006*, equal to 
35,273 persons per square mile. The Native States belong to 
four mam groups— Gujarat, population 4,361,666, density 94 ; 
Konkan, 350,684, density 225; Deccan, 373,779, density 78; 
Carnatic, 1,623,206, density 234. Khairpur in Sind has a 
population of 199,313 and a density of 33. In British terri- 
tory the density of population varies from 449 (Kaira District) 
to 27 (Thar and Parkar) ; in the Native States, from 319 (Kol- 
hapur) to 20 (Khandesh Agency). Bombay City has a density 
nearly double that of Madras City, exceeding 500 to the acre 
in its most populous sections. 

Towns and The Presidency as a whole contains 1 1 towns of more than 
villages. 50,000 inhabitants, and 313 of between 5,000 and 50,000. 

1 The population in 1906 was 977,822, accoiding to a special census. 



POPULATION 


37 


Villages of between 500 and 5,000 (including a few classed as 
towns in the Census) number 12,951, and villages of less than 
500 inhabitants, 27,747. 

Less than one-fifth of the population (19 per cent.) are to 
be found in towns of 5,000 and over. The percentage of the 
urban population has increased from 17 to 19 in the ten years 
since 1891 ; but in the face of the opposing influences of plague 
and famine, it is difficult to assign any definite significance to 
this increase. Except in the Konkan, where the houses are 
often widely scattered, the majority of the village population 
are crowded together on limited sites. Famine tends to drive 
villagers to centres of trade in search of employment, while 
plague acts as a deterrent on those who would otherwise resort 
to infected centres. Since the first plague epidemic in 1896, 
there has been a noticeable movement from town and village 
sites to the fields in the vicinity. The six most populous 
towns in British territory are Bombay City (776,006), Ahmad- 
abad (185,889), Poona (153,320), Surat (119,306), Karachi 
(116,663), and Sholapur (75,288). Further details of the 
population by District and State are given in Table I on 
PP- 133 - 4 . 

An estimate of the population, prepared in 1854, gave a Growth of 
total of 1 5,578,992. In 1872 the first decennial Census showed P°pula- 
that the actual number was 23,099,332. In 1881, in spite of ton ' 
the severe famine which occurred in 1877, the total reached 
23,432,43^ and this had again increased in 1891 to 26,960,421. 

The decrease of population since 1891 by reason of famine 
and plague amounts to about if millions, and has affected 
every District in the Presidency proper except Dharwar and 
Ratnagiri, which show an increase of 6 per cent. The Mahi 
Kantha and Khandesh Agencies have lost 38 and 43 per cent, 
of their population. Sind alone shows an increase of over 
11 per cent., which is due to immigration as well as to natural 
growth. The brunt of the loss was experienced by the Native 
States and Gujarat, which suffered most severely from the 
famine of 1899-1900. The mortality caused by famine and 
plague between 1891 and 1901 is roughly estimated at 

3.000. 000, of which one-third occurred in British territory and 
two-thirds in the Native States. 

The Presidency possesses an immigrant population of Migration. 

800.000, the most noteworthy immigration being into Sind, 
where the bringing of fresh land under cultivation draws many 
cultivators from Baluchistan and the Punjab. There are now 
more Baloch in Sind than in the whole of Baluchistan. A 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


38 

large number of labourers from Kolaba and Patnagiri Districts 
and from the Ghat villages of Ahmadnagar, Poona, and Satara 
are found in Bombay City, where they are employed in the 
docks, or in the many factories and cotton-mills. It is remark- 
able that Bombay draws labourers even from the United 
Provinces, 36,000 immigrants from that area having been enu- 
merated in 1901, On the other hand, the Census showed a 
total of 600,000 emigrants from the Bombay Presidency in 
other Provinces and States (excluding Baroda), so that streams 
of migration to and from the Presidency very nearly neutralize 
each other. These emigrants are chiefly found in Hyderabad 
State, Central India, and Berar. There is some emigration 
from the coast of Kathiawar to South Africa. 

The record of ages in an Indian Census is notoriously 
untrustworthy, owing to the widespread ignorance of correct 
ages. In 1901 the population of the Presidency (excluding 
Aden) was 25,424,235, including 3,024,460 children under five 
years of age. The age distribution for each sex shows a pre- 
ponderance of females in the periods 0-10 and over 40. 


1881. 

1891. 

1901. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

0-10 . 2,726 

2,815 

3,853 

2,983 

2,562 

2,669 

IO-15 . 1,236 

1,039 

1,063 

886 

1,326 

1,148 

15-25 . 1,626 

1,676 

1,645 

i,688 

1,662 

1,699 

25-40 . 2,482 

2,400 

3,439 

2,355 

2,482 

2,408 

40 and over 1,930 

2,070 

2,000 

2,088 

1,968 

2,076 


The only interesting conclusion to be drawn from the age 
statistics recorded in 1901 is that, in Districts severely affected 
by famine, the proportion of the population in the age periods 
0-5 and 60 and over is markedly less than elsewhere, an indi- 
cation that the greatest sufferers in the famine period were 
young children and old people. The mean age of the popu- 
lation is 27, and is highest (29*4) among the Parsis owing to 
the steady decrease in the birth-rate of this community. 

Vital The registration of births and deaths is compulsory in Bom- 

Diseases' k a y City, and is enforced more or less imperfectly under by- 
laws in most other municipal towns. In rural areas the village 
officers are held responsible for omissions and do their work with 
fair accuracy, except in Sind. The record of deaths is usually 
better than that of births. In a normal year the proportion of 
deaths to births is as 3 to 4 ; but since 1896 plague and famine 
have caused a large increase in the mortality, and have also 
affected the birth-rate. Of late years Bombay City has had 




POPULATION 


39 


the highest death-rate (66 per 1,000) owing to plague, and the 
lowest birth-rate (14) owing to the small proportion of women 
and to the immigrant nature of its population. The highest 
birth-rate occurs in Khandesh, and the lowest death-rates in 
Sind (16 to 22), where registration is defective, and in Rat- 
nagiri (25). The figures for 1900 in the table given below for 
British Districts show very clearly the effects of famine : — 


Year. 

Population 

under 

registration. 

Ratio of 
registered 
Births 
per 1,000 

Ratio of 
registered 
deaths 
per i,ooo. 

Deaths per 1,000 from 

Cholera. 

Small- 

pox. 

Fever. 

Bowel 

com- 

plaints. 

18S1 

16,454,414 

27.9 

23-2 

1*0 

0.0 

16.6 

1.8 

1891 

18,857,044 

3 6 '3 

27*3 

0.9 

0.1 

19.6 

2-0 

1900* 

if 

26*9 

70-I 

8.7 

o -5 

28.9 

n-6 

1901 

18.515,587 

25.2 

37 ' 1 

0-7 

o *3 

15.8 

3*3 

1902 

» 

34*2 

39 -° 

... 

0*2 

14.7 

3*2 

I 9°3 

a 


43-9 

O-I 

0.2 

I4.I 

3 *o 


* Famine jear. 


Cholera is prevalent in the hot season in years of short rain- 
fall, and fever on the Ghats and in tracts liable to flooding in 
the autumn and winter. Small-pox is held in check by vacci- 
nation. Plague broke out in Bombay City in August, 1896, 
and has spread to every District, causing a large number of 
deaths in each succeeding year except 1900. The total plague 
mortality in 1903 was 15 per 1,000, Belgaum, Dharwar, Shola- ’ 
pur, Ahmadnagar, Satara, Kaira, and Bijapur suffering most. 

The deaths returned as from fever probably include many due 
to plague. The present policy is to provide hospitals for the 
sick and camps for the healthy, and to offer inoculation to those 
who desire it ; but compulsion is avoided as far as possible. 

The proportion of sexes is vitiated to some extent by failure Ser. 
to enter females at the Census enumerations. The general 
proportion of females recorded in 1901 is 938 to 1,000 males 
in the British Districts, In Sind the proportion of women is 
very low. An excess of females over males is particularly 
noticeable among the low castes and wild tribes. Infanticide 
formerly prevailed among the Rajputs and Kunbis of Gujarat, 
but is believed to be no longer practised. The cause of this 
barbarous practice was the difficulty of securing bridegrooms 
from the sections of these castes with whom custom prescribed 
that intermarriage should take place. 

Statistics of civil condition are shown in the table on the next Civil 
page. condition. 

. According to the results of the Census of 1901, males in the 




4a 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


age period 10-15 show 85 per cent, still unmarried, but females 
only 50 per cent., in the Bombay Presidency including Native 
States. Females married in the age period 0-10 are more than 
three times as numerous as males. This is due to the very 
early age at which Hindu parents are accustomed to marry 
their female children. Among Hindus polygamy, though 
allowed, is rare, and divorce and widow marriage are marks 
of low status. 



1891 

1901 


Persons. 

Males. 

Females. 

Persons. 

Males 

Females 

Unmarried 
Married . 
Widowed. 
Civil con- 
dition not 
returned . 

10,753.459 
13. 385.644 

2,758,003 

19,236 

6,536,214 

6,675,545 

660,854 

10,579 

4,217,245 

6,710,099 

2,097,149 

8,657 

10,334,421 

11,974,989 

3,114,825 

6,261,568 

5,972,759 

831,555 

4,072,853 

6,002,230 

2,283,270 

Total 

26,916,342 

13,883,192 

WlbW 

25^24,235 

13,065,882 

12,358,353 


The proportion of widowed females to 1,000 widowed males 
is very high in Ratnagiri (5,862), Satara (4,005), Kanara (3,924), 
and Kolaba (3,794). The plague epidemic in Bombay City, 
to which the male population of these Districts emigrate an- 
nually, seems to have caused the death of the husbands. 

Language. The table below gives the language statistics for 1891 and 
190T, excluding Aden : — 



Persons. 

1891. 

1901. 

Marathi 

Gujarati 

Kanarese 

Sindl 

Hindi 

Bhll dialects .... 
Others 

Total 

10,550,848 

8,633,332 

3,068,453 

2,564.845 

1,194,112 

125,496 

779,256 

10,338,262 

7,140,613 

3,097,325 

2,934,711 

1,124,171 

119,946 

669,207 

26,916,342 

25424,235 


In the north, Sind! is the mother-tongue of all save a small 
minority, who for the most part speak either Marwarl, Baluchi, 
or Gujarati. South of Sind, Cutchl or Kachhi, now recognized 
as a form of Gujarati, is spoken in Cutch. Gujarati and West- 
ern Hindi are the principal languages in the five Districts of 
Gujarat, the former merging into the dialects of primitive races 
where the province approaches the hills on the borders of Raj- 




POPULATION 


4i 


put£na. Thana and the Central Division are the home of 
Marathi, different forms of which are spoken above and below 
the Ghats. In the wilder parts of Khandesh the hill tribes 
express themselves in dialects that resemble either Gujarati or 
Marathi according to their distance from places where these 
languages are in use. The Southern Division is divided be- 
tween Kanarese and Marathi, the former slightly ahead of the 
latter numerically. Marathi is most common on the coast 
portions. Kanarese extends as far north as the southern part 
of Sholapur District and is spoken by an appreciable num- 
ber in the south of Satara. The Native States resemble the 
adjacent British Districts. Arabic and Somali are the chief 
languages in Aden and Perim. 

The Linguistic Survey of India has now advanced suffi- 
ciently to enable the languages and dialects of the Presidency 
to be classified on a scientific basis. It is probable that the 
completion of the survey will lead to the elimination of many 
dialects entered in the provisional lists framed during its pro- 
gress. Meanwhile the Census Report for 1901 gives the 
numerical results of this preliminary classification. The fol- 
lowing figures show the number in every 10,000 of the popu- 
lation who speak each of the four main languages (including 
kindred dialects) of the Presidency : — 

Marathi , . , 4,066 Kanarese . . 1,218 

Gujarati . . , 2,809 Sind! , . . 1,154 

Thus more than 90 per cent, of the population use a lan- 
guage or dialect included in these four. The only other 
languages of any importance are Western Hindi, Rajasthani, 
Bhll, Telugu, and Baluchi, of which all but Hindi and Bhil 
are the languages of immigrants, such as merchants and 
bankers from Marwar, or cultivators and landowners from 
Baluchistan. Western Hindi for the most part covers the, 
tongue affected by the Musalman population outside Sind, 
and includes the dialect known as Hindustani. 

It should perhaps be added that in this brief description 
Konkani has been treated as a dialect of Marathi, in accor- 
dance with the classification adopted in the Linguistic Survey* 
The decision is contested by many, who would derive Konkani 
direct from the Prakrit and claim for it an antiquity exceeding 
that of Marathi as a spoken language. The point is one for 
experts to decide, though it may be remarked that modern 
Konkani is certainly permeated with corrupt forms of words 
found in a purer state in Marathi, and is also to no little extent. 



42 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


dependent on words borrowed from Dravidian languages.- 
KonkanI is spoken, as the name implies, in the Konkan, in- 
cluding the Konkan Ghat Matha or 'spurs of the Ghats/ 
Unlike Marathi, Gujarati, and Kanarese, it has practically no 
literature except that written by Roman Catholics of Goa. 

Tribes and The Bombay Presidency intersects many of the social strata 
castes. deposited by early invasions of India, and contains within its 
limits a variety of castes and tribes hardly equalled by any of 
the other great Provinces. 

The natural divisions of the Presidency, distinguished by 
special influences on the development of caste and tribe, are 
five in number : Sind, Gujarat, the Deccan, the Konkan, and 
the Carnatic. To Sind and its predominant Musalman popu- 
lation reference is made below. Gujarat has remained for 
the most part true to Hinduism, though petty Muhammadan 
kingdoms, as well as the supremacy of the Mughals of Delhi, - 
have left their influence in many parts of the province— an 
influence to be traced in the formation of certain castes of con- 
verts, such as the Momna Kunbls and Molesalams, looking to 
Islam for their religion and to Hinduism for their social struc- 
ture. The former numerous political subdivisions of the pro- 
vince, which was for centuries split into rival Hindu kingdoms, 
display the effects of political boundaries on the evolution of. 
caste divisions. The large caste groups designated compre- 
hensively by the terms Brahman and VanI exhibit in Gujarat 
a minuteness of subdivision elsewhere unrivalled ; and the fact 
that many of these smaller groups bear the same name — e. g. 
Agarval, Harsola, Kapol, Khadayata, Khedaval, Mewada, 
Nagar, Osval, and Srimali— lends support to the inference 
that a common cause of caste fusion in the past is to be traced 
to the influence of political boundaries. 

In marked contrast to Gujarat with its amplitude of caste 
divisions, the Deccan contains a comparatively homogeneous 
population. Of the total inhabitants of the Deccan Districts 
30 per cent, are Marathas, between whom intermarriage is per- 
missible, provided that there is comparative equality of social 
position, while of the 6 per cent, of the remainder who are 
Brahmans, only 13 local divisions are to be found to compare 
with the 170 of Gujarat. The causes which have led in the 
past to the crystallization of small fragments of castes farther 
north have evidently been inoperative in the Deccan. 

The coast-line of the Konkan, or submontane tracts, pos- 
sesses a special feature in the large number of Christians, for 
the most part Roman Catholic, which its population contains,. 



POPULATION 


43 


and exhibits the singular spectacle of the maintenance of caste 
distinctions within the fold of an essentially casteless religion. 
The sixteenth century witnessed, in the halcyon days of Portu- 
guese dominion, the forcible conversion of many local castes, 
of "which the unconverted fragments remain to add to the diver- 
sity of social divisions, largely due to the arrival of numerous 
immigrants by sea. 

The Carnatic, or Southern Maratha Country, is the seat of 
Lingayatism, a Hindu reforming movement of the twelfth cen- 
tury. Social divisions among the Lingayats, who form the 
majority of the population in this portion of the Presidency, 
would seem to be based on both religion and function, accord- 
ing to the stage in the history of the reformation at which the 
convert caste accepted the new social system that it evolved. 

In the Ghat tracts of the Deccan and Khandesh, where the 
broken ground and thin soil scarcely permit remunerative culti- 
vation, Bhll and Koll tribes eke out a precarious existence as 
hunters and collectors of forest produce. They represent the 
nearest approach to the aboriginal inhabitants of the country. 

The terms e caste ? and £ tribe’ are commonly used without 
any clear perception of the precise significance of either ; nor 
is it easy to arrive at a satisfactory definition which is not too 
greatly at variance with their common or colloquial meaning. 
It has been aptly said that * caste J is the largest group based 
on common occupation, and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 tribe J the largest group based on 
common descent ; but in practice the former, at least, of these 
definitions proves somewhat too restricted. Castes may be 
found which are based on religion and descent, such as the 
Lingayats or Marathas of the Bombay Presidency, while the 
premier caste of all, the Brahmans, seems at the present day 
to be identifiable more by social precedence involving the right 
to perform certain ceremonies than by any common form of 
occupation. 

The main castes and tribes, which in most instances include 
numerous endogamous subdivisions, number over 500; but 
of these only a small number exceed 100,000. In the whole 
Presidency (excluding Sind) these are, in order of numerical 
importance : — 


1. Marathas. 

2. Kunbls (other than Maratha 

Kunbis). 

3. Kolis. 

4. Lingayats. 

5. Dhers, Mahars, and Holias. 

6. Brahmans. 

7. Vanis, 


8. Dh an gars, Kurabas, and Bhar- 

vads. 

9. Bhils. 

10. Rajputs. 

11. Mochis and Chamars, 

12. Mails. 

13. Mangs. 

14. Kumbhars. 



44 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


15. Sutars. 

16 Agris. 

17. Sonars. 

18. Hajjams and Nhavls. 

19. Berads 

20. Bhandaris. 
ax. Varlis. 


22. Darzls. 

23. Telis and Ghanchls. 

24. Thakurs. 

25. Lohars. 

26. Vanjaris. 

27. Rabans. 

28. Ahirs. 


Marathas. The Marathas consist of 1,900,000 Kunbls, 350,000 Kon- 
kanis, and 1,400,000 Marathas not otherwise specified. The 
term Maratha is in some respects so loosely applied that it is 
difficult to determine its precise significance. It is variously 
used to describe members of several castes living in Maha- 
rashtra, those whose mother-tongue is Marathi, and, more 
correctly perhaps, to designate the descendants of Sivaji’s war- 
riors, including the present Maratha Kunbi and the below- 
Ghat Maratha, who were the backbone of the Peshwa’s con- 
federacy. It is the common impression at the present day’ 
that the Marathas properly so called are divided into two groups 
which do not intermarry, the Kunbi or agriculturist being the 
inferior, and the warrior, landowner, or high-class Maratha 
claiming a superior origin. The latter indeed profess to be 
of Rajput descent, to consist of ninety-six clans or families, 
and to be entitled to the dignity of Kshattriya. They support 
their claims to ascendancy in the social scale by favouring 
infant marriage, forbidding the marriage of widows, and wear- 
ing the sacred thread. The Kunbi, on the other hand, does 
not claim to be a Kshattriya, allows adult marriages and the 
marriage of widows, and wears no thread to indicate the twice- 
born status. But the dividing line is not of the nature of a 
permanent barrier, and can be passed by wealthy Kunbls with 
ambition in proportion to their means. There is some his- 
torical evidence in support of the claims of certain Maratha 
families to Rajput descent. This does not, however, throw 
light on the origin of the main portion of the caste, or tribe as 
it should correctly be styled. The indications of a former 
social organization of the tribe on a totemistic basis, which are 
now attracting attention, would seem to point to a mixed origin 
for the greater number of the present-day Marathas. 

Lingayats. The Lingayats, who number 1,422,000, are a religious com- 
munity, resident in the southern portions of the Presidency. 
Having first come into prominence in the days of the religious 
reformer Basappa of Kalyani, who lived in the twelfth century, 
they seem at first to have disregarded caste distinctions, and 
the social organization of the highest groups among the Lin- 
gayats appears to. be dependent on initiation to the present 



POPULATION 


45 


day. Converts who joined at a later date are ranged in sub- 
divisions based on 'profession, ordinarily that of their unre- 
generate days, while a third class of half Lingayats, or low 
castes attached to the community for menial services, is recog- 
nized. One of the tests of a Lingayat’s claim so to describe 
himself is his right to the ashtavarna or 4 eightfold sacrament.* 
Lingayats of the present day are disposed to call themselves 
Hindus, and to apply to their subdivisions Manu’s fourfold 
caste system. 

Brahmans number 1,053,000. Apart from the intellectual Brahmans, 
and social pre-eminence of the majority of those who have so 
described themselves, the special feature of the Brahman 
caste is its very extensive system of subdivision into endo- 
gamous groups. There are over 200 such groups, each of 
which is again subdivided into sections the members of which 
must marry outside their limits. The origin of many of these 
endogamous divisions is believed to have been political ; geo- 
graphical names, such as Agarval, Khedaval, and Sihori, of 
which there are many, are evidence in support of this assump- 
tion. The connecting link between the numerous divisions 
is that of common social predominance, combined with the 
right to perform certain ceremonies. 

Vanls, numbering 1,054,250 (Hindus 976,128), are traders. Vanis. 
The common bond is one of occupation. Ethnically they 
consist of groups of widely divergent origin. The endo- 
gamous subdivisions are almost as numerous as in the case 
of the Brahmans. Ordinarily, the Vam claims to rank as a 
Vaishya of Manu’s fourfold classification scheme, and wears 
the sacred thread. 

The remaining larger castes and tribes of the Presidency 
proper may be roughly classified as follows : — 

Wild or semi-civilized tribes— Kolis, BhIls, Berads, 

Varlls, Thakurs, Vanjaris, and Ahlrs. 

Shepherds and herdsmen— Dhangars, Kurabas, and Bhar- 
vads. 

Low caste and menials— Dhers, Mahars and Holias, 

Mochis and Chamars, and Mangs. 

Artisans— Lohars, Sutars. Darzls, Sonars, Kumbhars, 
Bhandaris, Malls, Hajjams, and Nhavls. 

These, with a few additional cultivating castes of the status 
of the Maratha Kunbl— e.g. Agris, Kunbis, and Rabanis— make 
up the greater portion (85 per cent.) of the population of the 
Presidency proper. Details of the strength of the remaining 
castes are given in the tables of the Census Report of 1901* 



4 6 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Sind tribes. The province of Sind, which since an early period of its 
history has been under the sway of invading Musalman tribes, 
contains a population bearing little affinity to that of the 
remainder of the Presidency, Here the tribal units occupy 
the leading place, while castes are relegated to a compara- 
tively subordinate position. 

The Musalman tribes of the province consist of ten main 


groups 

Arab. 

Afghan or Pathan. 
Baloch. 

Brahui, 

Jat 


Makranl. 

Mughal. 

Shaikh. 

Sindl. 

Menial and slave tribes. 


In the Census of 1901 an attempt was made to ascertain 
the numerical strength of the most important subdivisions of 
these groups. The attempt was only partially successful, owing 
to the tendency of members of such tribal subdivisions to 
return the name of the subdivision only when it is one of 
admitted local importance. In cases where the number of 
unspecified was very high, the record of subdivisional strength 
was omitted. In the case of the Baloch tribes the record of 
subdivisions seems to have been successfully accomplished. The 
Baloch number 542,000, divided into sixteen important tribes. 
The Rind—with its offshoots the Dombki, Khosa, Jamali, 
Jakrani, Lighari— includes 270,000; the Chandias, 75,000; 
the Burdis, 68,000; and the border tribes, Marri and Bugti, 

37.000. Among the first are the Talpurs, historically of interest 
as the last independent rulers of Sind. 

Arabs number 261,000 in the whole Presidency, of whom 
130,000 described themselves as Saiyid, Sind alone contains 

122.000. The term Saiyid, strictly interpreted, means ‘lord* 
or ‘chief,’ and is applicable to the descendants of the Prophet’s 
daughter, Bib! Fatima. Some caution, however, is necessary 
in accepting the returns of Saiyid, the title being popular among 
Musalmans who are certainly not of Arab origin, and thus not, 
strictly speaking, entitled to use it. A similar error may result 
from classing as Arabs those Shaikhs who are ordinarily 
nothing more than converts to Islam, whereas a Shaikh 
should properly signify an Arab or descendant of the Prophet’s 
relations. Shaikhs, who number 968,000, have therefore to be 
kept distinct from the Arabs. The Kalhora tribe, which 
preceded the Talpurs as rulers of Sind, numbers more than 

23.000. The Samo and Samro divisions of the Sind! tribes 
controlled the fortunes of the province for seven hundred 



POPULATION 


47 


years previous to the middle of the sixteenth century. Ac- 
cording to the recent Census these tribes are now represented 
by 124,000 Samros and 794,000 Samos. There are 48,000 
Brahuis, 27,000 Mughals, and 170,000 Pathans. 

The caste organization in Sind has undergone considerable Caste in 
modification, owing to contact with the alien and dominant Sind * 
social system of the Musalman tribes referred to above. Brah- 
mans number only 14,000, or 0*4 per cent, of the population, 
compared with 4-7 per cent, in the rest of the Presidency. 

They are a degraded and illiterate caste. With their fall 
from the commanding position that they occupy under a 
Hindu regime, their influence on subordinate castes has 
diminished, until, in place of a general tendency on "the part 
of the latter to imitate their social system and religious cus- 
toms, it will be found that the premier Hindu caste in Sind, the 
Lohanas, wear the beard of the Musalman conqueror, and 
permit themselves the luxury of animal food, provided that 
it has been slain after the orthodox fashion of Islam. 

The chief Sind castes (numbering over 4,000) are : — 


Bhfl. 

Brahman. 

Charan. 

Dher or Mahar. 
Khitri. 


Koll. 

Knrnri. 

Mazhabi Sikh. 
Odd. 


Rajput. 

Shikari. 

Sonar. 

Vam. 


Statistics regarding religion for the whole Presidency in 1891 Religion, 
and 1901 are given below : — 


Religion. 

Persons. 

1891. 

1901. 

Hindu . . 

Animist . 

Jain .... 
Musalman 

Pars! . . 

Christian . 


21,438,244 

292,023 

S55.209 

4 . 355.803 

76.456 

167,004 

19,916,438 

94,845 

535,950 

4 , 567,295 

78,552 

216,118 

Native Christians . 

Europeans and Eurasians 

129,308 

37.696 

180,841 

35,277 

Others 

• • 

31,604 

15,037 


Total 

26 , 916,342 

25,424,235 


About 78 per cent, of the population is Hindu, 18 per cent. 
Muhammadan, 2 per cent, Jain, and less than 1 per cent. 
Christian. No very strict line can be drawn between Animists 
and low-class Hindus. Hindus are for the most part either 




48 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Vaishnavas, Saivas, or Lingayats, the first being most common 
in Gujarat and the last in the south of the Presidency. The 
leading Vaishnava sects are those of Ramanand (fourteenth 
century), Vallabhacharya (1479—1531), Swami Narayan (1780- 
1830), and Kablr (c. 1400). 

Muhammadans are chiefly (97 per cent.) Sunnis, though the 
Shiah sect is also represented, especially in Bombay City, where 
the Ismailiya Shiahs or Khojas form an important community 
under the spiritual headship of the Agha Khan. They are 
supposed to represent the Assassins (Hashishin) of the cru- 
sading epoch. A new sect of Moslems known as the Ahmad- 
iyyas and numbering over 10,000 was recorded in 1901. They 
are spiritual followers of the chief of Kadian, who resides in 
the Punjab. Among Jains, the Svetambara, Digambara, and 
Dhundia sects are all represented, though the two former have 
numerical preponderance. The Pars! community is divided 
between Bombay City and Surat. Sikhs are mainly found in 
Sind, and Jews in Bombay City and the coast Districts. 

Christian Twenty-six Protestant missionary bodies are to be found in 

missions. the Presidency. The work of the Irish Presbyterian Mission 
and the Salvation Army in Gujarat, of the American Marathi 
Mission in the Deccan, and of the Basel German Mission 
in the Kanarese Districts deserve special mention. The 
stations of the S.P.G. and the C.M.S. are more generally 
distributed. Sind is included in the Anglican diocese of 
Lahore, and the rest of the Presidency in that of Bombay. 
The greater part of the Presidency is comprised in the Roman 
Catholic Archbishopric of Bombay, Poona being the seat of 
a Suffragan Bishop. Diu, Daman, Thana, Kolaba, and parts 
of Bombay City are in the diocese of Daman. About one-sixth 
of the Christians are members of the Anglican communion, 
while one-half are Roman Catholics, many of these in Kanara 
and Thana being descendants of converts made by the Portu- 
guese. There are a few thousand Methodists and Presbyterians. 
In only five Districts does the Christian population exceed 
10,000; these are Thana, Kaira, Ahmadnagar, Poona, and 
Kanara. During the decade ending 1901 the Christian popu- 
lation increased by 30 per cent., mainly owing to conversions 
among the lower classes. 

Occupa- The classification of the people in British Districts accord- 
j n g to occupation shows 540,000 persons (or 3 per cent, of 
the total, in Government service; 11,000,000 (59 per cent.) 
engaged in agriculture; 320,000 (i-8 per cent.) in trade or 
commerce; 3,400,000 (19 per cent.) in manufactures and 



POPULATION 


49 


arts; 590,000 (3 per cent.) in domestic occupations. These 
figures include dependants or persons supported by the 
occupation referred to in each case. The chief occupation 
is agriculture. The industrial section of the population in 
most of the rural Districts forms an insignificant section of 
the whole. The leading industrial Districts are Ahmadabad, 
Surat, Karachi, and Shikarpur (now Sukkur), with 27, 35, 24, 
and 31 per cent, respectively of their population following 
industrial occupations. 

Food is taken twice a day, between ten and twelve in the Food, 
morning and eight and ten at night. For the morning meal 
a family in good circumstances will take rice of fine quality, 
split pulse boiled and seasoned with spices, cakes of wheaten 
flour spread with clarified butter, and some vegetables. At the 
evening meal there are cakes, milk boiled and mixed with sugar, 
vegetables, and pickles. It is rare for high-caste Hindus to eat 
animal food, though certain coast Brahmans allow themselves 
fresh fish. The diet of the poorer classes is jozmr or bdjra 
bread, rice, split pulse, and vegetables. To this the lower 
castes add mutton and the flesh of fowls. The wild tribes 
eat the cheapest grains, such as ndgli and kodra , and partake 
freely of game. The unclean castes will eat anything, including 
the flesh ,of animals that have died a natural death. Musalmans 
will eat only the flesh of animals killed with a prayer uttered at 
the time of cutting the throat. To Jains and Lingayats of all 
ranks animal food is forbidden. 

People of the better class do not ordinarily touch liquor. 

The low castes and wild tribes are fond of toddy and cheap 
country spirits, though excess in drinking is rare. For stimu- 
lants and narcotics, opium and tobacco are widely used in 
moderation. The practice of tea-drinking, especially during 
railway journeys, has recently made great progress, and the 
habit of chewing betel-nut is almost universal with both sexes. 

Fifty years ago a man’s costume would have sufficed to Dress, 
serve as an indication of his caste. Nowadays even the types 
of pagrts or turbans are losing their significance, and a dis- 
tressing form of pork-pie cap, garnished with a border of 
coloured flowers, frequently tends to conceal the social status 
of the wearer. The heavy pagri of the Maratha, the high 
headdress of the Bania, closely imitated by the head-covering 
of the Pars!, the tightly bound turban of the Prabhu, and the 
double-peaked pagri of the Bhatia can still, however, be 
readily identified. Most Hindus retain the fine cotton dhoti 
as a leg covering, though European influence is making itself 

BO. I, £ 



5 ° 


BOMBA V PRESIDENCY 


felt in the cut and texture of the coat that covers the upper 
part of the body, and the shirt and collar that are to be 
detected underneath. Musalmans and Parsls wear trousers. 
The women are far more simple in their costume, being com- 
monly content with a long robe or sort, wound round the legs, 
and drawn across the breast to fall over the head and shoulder. 
To this a choli or short tight bodice is frequently added, and 
in Gujarat a petticoat. On the other hand, they delight in a 
great diversity of ornaments, from gems and necklets of solid 
gold, such as the richer classes wear, to the long brass anklets 
affected by the Bhlls and gipsy women, or the many pounds’ 
weight of beads and berries that cover the breasts of the primi- 
tive cultivating and fishing classes. For the most part the 
bright-coloured saris of the women are still woven on the 
village loom. 

Dwellings. People of almost all classes consider it a point of honour 
to have a house of their own. The character of the dwelling 
depends mainly on the materials available, the amount of the 
rainfall, and the means of the owner. Where timber is scarce, 
roughly made mud bricks are in use, and a foot or two of solid 
earth on a layer of rafters serves to protect the inmates from 
the great heat and the scanty rainfall. On the coast two- 
storeyed houses are common, with projecting roofs covered 
with country tiles. Here the poorer classes are content with 
wattle-and-daub huts, thatched with grass or dried palm-leaves. 
Houses above the Ghats, within the zone of heavy rainfall, 
do not differ materially from those on the coast, though more 
wood is used in their construction when timber is plentiful. 
There is little luxury in the furnishing— a few strong wooden 
boxes, some tape-bound wooden cots, mattresses, cotton car- 
pets, and the indispensable cooking-pots make an ample 
outfit for a well-to-do cultivator. The poorest classes are 
content with a mattress and a few earthen jars. 

Amuse- Perhaps the most interesting characteristic of the people is 
their fondness for caste feasts and pilgrimages. Trade dinners 
are given either by the whole caste or by a member of it. 
Social dinners are given by a caste member, or are held as 
picnics, each supplying his own food. It is usual to celebrate 
a family event, such as the wife’s first pregnancy, an investiture 
with the sacred thread, a marriage, or a death, by a feast given 
to all the members of the caste. Several days are spent in 
laying in supplies and collecting cooking-pots; all lend a 
willing hand in the preparations. The food is distributed 
by the host and his family to the men and boys, who feed 



POPULATION 


5i 


first, and after them the women are allowed to sit down to the 
feast. Among the more popular forms of sport are bullock- 
racing in light carriages, and ram-, cock-, or quail-fighting. 

Outdoor games for youths generally take the form of gymnastic 
exercises, including wrestling and putting a weight, though of 
recent years cricket has come greatly into fashion in all parts 
of the Presidency, and lawn-tennis is not unknown. Children 
are fond of kite-flying. Indoor games include chess, cards, 
and songati or Indian backgammon. Dramatic performances 
are popular, and some of the wild tribes are skilful in devising 
extempore plays for the entertainment of visitors. But the 
time to see the people of the country-side at their best is at 
the fair. At the oncoming of the hot season, when the harvest 
has been gathered in, the thoughts of the simple peasants will 
turn to one of the many shrines of the country-side. Some 
will shoulder the yellow flag of SivajI, the bhagva jhcnda^ and 
trudge sturdily along the dusty Deccan roads to the tomb of 
Jnaneshvar at Alandi. Others in their best costume climb the 
steep slopes of Harischandragarh, to seek the tank and temples 
of the Gauli Raja with shouts of 4 Gyanoba Tukaram 1 Gyanoba 
Tukaram 1 5 The sacred shrines of Gokarn will draw thousands 
from all parts of the Konkan and Carnatic to worship the 
mighty Siva, and join the merry crowd of bathers in the long 
rollers of the Indian Ocean. Endless bands of women-folk, 
packed twenty or thirty in a country cart, will rumble along 
for days to the rocky hill near Saundatti, making the country- 
side re-echo to the long-drawn cries of 'Ai Yellamma — oh ! 5 
Happy in the anticipation of the harmless merry-making of 
these gatherings, the weary journey is a holiday picnic, in which 
good temper and stout hearts prevail, for a simple peasantry 
with simple pleasures, bearing with equanimity the scourge of 
famine and pestilence, and ever ready for the final pilgrimage 
when the greatest of all shrines shall lie open to them. 

The joint family system is everywhere supreme. The Nomencla- 
Hindus of the Presidency generally have three names, the tTlre * 
first their own, which is given to them jon the twelfth day 
after birth, the second the father’s, and the third a surname 
(the family designation). The surnames are in some cases 
professional appellatives, and in others are derived from places, 
e.g. Belgaumkar, Poonekar, which once signified that the 
bearer had special rights in such places, though the signifi- 
cance of such terms is rapidly disappearing with their in- 
creasing popularity. The Parsls have two names like the 
Hindus, to which they add such surnames as 1 Contractor^ 



52 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Agricul- 
ture. 
General 
agricul- 
tural con- 
ditions. 


‘Engineer,’ &c., and at times the names of their grandfathers 
are used in the place of surnames. Among low-class Hindus 
the word bin or walad (both meaning ‘son’) is inserted between 
a man’s name and his father’s, which is coupled to it, while 
women add their husband’s name, after the word kom, to 
their own. 

Honorific suffixes are common. Thus, in Gujarat, rai, lal \ 
shetjl ; in the Deccan, rao, naik , sahib ; and in the Carnatic, 
appa or gauda — with corresponding terms for females, such as 
bai and amnia. Pant and shet generally denote a Brahman 
and a goldsmith. The common form of address is Rdjmanya 
Rajeshri. In the case of persons of lower rank Rajeshri alone 
is used. Tirthswarup or Chiranjvo are added in addressing 
old or young relatives respectively. To parents Tirihrup is 
used, instead of Tirthswarup , Before the names of married 
women the word Saubhagyavati is used, and in the case of 
widows, Gangarup. Learned Brahmans are styled Vedmurti , 
and the rich Shrimant , while in the Carnatic it is usual to 
address persons of rank as Swami (‘lord’) or Devaru (‘god’). 

The soils of the Presidency vary according to the natural 
divisions which have been already described. In Sind the 
soils are wholly alluvial ; they vary in character from drift-sand 
to light clays, and are often strongly impregnated with salt. 
In Gujarat they are classed in two main divisions, kali and 
goradu. The first is black cotton soil, of which extensive 
tracts are found in Broach and Surat. It is supposed to be 
the result of an alluvium brought down by the Tapti and 
Narbada rivers, and corresponds to the regar of the Central 
Provinces. Goradu soils are characterized by immense depth, 
varying from the drift-sands of Ahmadabad to the rich loam of 
Kaira. They are entirely alluvial. 

Characteristic of the Deccan is the black soil formed from 
the weathering of the trap rock, of which the broad wheat, 
cotton, and jowdr lands of Khandesh, Nasik, Ahmadnagar, 
Sholapur, Bijapur, and Dharwar are formed. Near the hills 
the soil is lighter-coloured and less rich. In the valleys of the 
south-west the reddish-brown laterite is terraced into rice 
lands, and the beds of the streams grow rice crops during the 
hot season. The bottom soils are clay loams of great natural 
fertility. These form the greater part of Belgaum and Dhar- 
war. The Kanara spice gardens are formed in soil closely 
resembling the red loam of the hilly tracts in Belgaum and 
Dharwar. In the Konkan, soils are classified as rice, garden, 
or rnrkas (the light and poor soil of the uplands). The open 



A GRICUL PURE 


S3 


tracts of land at the bottom of the coast valleys are rice lands. 

Where the soil is light and easily worked, with a good supply 
of fresh water, gardens are formed. On the uplands the varkas 
soils yield coarse grains at long intervals. 

The dark deep soils described above grow the richest crops 
— wheat, cotton, gram (Cicer arietinum ), jowar (Sorghum 
vulgare ), and bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum ). With irrigation 
the better red soils may produce spices and sugar-cane, which 
are still more valuable, but for the most part they grow rice. 

The lightest soils on the hill slopes yield coarse grains such as 
ndgli (Eleusine coracana ), and require frequent fallows. The 
light soils, under a heavy rainfall, give one crop at the end of 
the south-west monsoon. Elsewhere the crops are divided 
into hhanf or early crops, sown from May to July and reaped 
from October to December ; and rabi or late crops, sown from 
August to October and reaped from February to April. In 
good soils a double crop is occasionally gathered, the first 
being sown with the early rains, and the second in October 
to be harvested in March or April. 

The system of cultivation varies with the soil. In the black System of 
soil plains of the south-eastern Deccan ploughing is resorted to j^ lva ” 
only when fields have grown foul. The surface must be kept 
free from weeds, and is thoroughly harrowed before sowing. 
Cattle-manure is applied when available, and a common 
method of application is by folding sheep and goats when 
the flocks of professional graziers pass through the country. 

In the uplands subject to heavy rainfall, where ndgli and vari 
are grown, and on the coast for rice cultivation the reddish 
soils are terraced with great care to hold the flow of prater 
during the monsoon. Here the soil requires regular ploughing, 
and the heavy clods must be broken by manual labour before 
sowing commences. The seed is usually sown on a small plot 
of land upon which a layer of dry grass, leaves, and twigs has 
been burnt (rab\ and the seedlings are afterwards transplanted 
from the nursery to the fields. Sometimes the whole field is 
sown broad-cast. In Kolaba and Kanara the wasteful form 
of tillage known as dalhi or humri was formerly common, a 
patch of forest land being prepared by lopping and burning 
the trees, and abandoned after two or three crops had been 
raised. The system is now dying out. Another special 
method of cultivation in the forest tracts is the growing of 
waingan or hot-season rice. By damming the pere nnial 
streams of the Ghats, the river valleys are converted into 
stretches of verdant cultivation during the hot months. The 



54 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


spice gardens of Kanara yield valuable crops of cardamoms, 
betel, and pepper. The areca-palms and betel-vines require 
extensive manuring, which the garden owners provide from 
stable sweepings and decaying leaves. The mixture is heaped 
round the base of the tree, and covered with branches freshly 
lopped from the adjacent forest. 

Where the water-supply is less plentiful, crops are raised 
by well-irrigation. Near large cities such as Poona, the use 
of poudrette is becoming popular, and in the Konkan fish- 
manure is often used. Throughout the greater part of the 
Presidency, however, owing to the common practice of using 
cow-dung for fuel, and to the prejudice against certain other 
forms of manure, the application of fertilizing materials is 
carried out on a very limited scale. 

In irrigated lands, crops such as sugar-cane, yams, turmeric, 
suran ( Amorphophallus campanulatus ), sweet potatoes, &c., 
alternate with each other. In ‘dry-crop’ land, jowar in 
heavy soils and bajra in light soils alternate with cotton. 
The rotation is extended by growing tur ( Cajanus indicus\ 
til, or a rabi crop of wheat when the fields have grown foul and 
require cleaning. The practice of growing mixed crops, i. e. 
leguminous crops with cereals, reduces the necessity of main- 
taining strict rotation of crops, the former supplying nitrogen 
to the soil. Nitrogen is the essential plant-food in which 
Indian soils are poorest. 

Except in Sind and on the poorer lands of the Konkan, 
fallows are not common, owing in some measure to the assess- 
ment on the land being payable irrespective of whether culti- 
vation takes place or not. 

About three-fourths of the population of the Presidency are 
engaged in, or dependent on, agriculture. Outside the large 
centres of industry, such as Bombay City and Ahmadabad, 
the population may be said to consist almost entirely of the 
land-owning classes, and of agricultural labourers who assist in 
the preparation of the land for sowing, in the guarding of the 
growing crop, and in the subsequent harvesting operations. 

Principal The principal food-crops are rice, bajr a, jowar , and wheat ; 

food-crops. n ce being specially characteristic of the Konkan and wheat of 
Sind, Northern Gujarat, and the Deccan, while bajra and jowar 
are grown almost everywhere except in the Konkan. Of non- 
food crops, cotton is by far the most important, and is 
characteristic of Gujarat, the Tapti valley, and the south- 
eastern Deccan. The average yield per acre of cleaned rice 
is 1,200 to 1,320 lb. j that of wheat on irrigated land 1,000 to 



AGRICULTURE 


55 


1,320 lb., and on ‘dry-crop ’ land 460 to 900 lb.; that of bdjra 
about 350 lb. ; that of jowdr from 1,500 lb., if irrigated, to 
540 lb. if not; and that of cleaned cotton from 90 lb. in 
Khandesh to 130 lb. in Broach. 

Throughout the greater part of the Presidency very little 
cultivable land remains uncultivated. Since 1881 the area 
cultivated in the Presidency proper has increased from 33,971 
to 47,155 square miles ; and in Sind, where irrigation has been 
extended, the area taken up for cultivation expanded from 
4,539 square miles in 1881 to 13,052 in 1903-4, and the 
area actually cropped from 2,821 to 5,932 square miles. No 
important improvement can be recorded in the selection of 
seed during this period, the experiments conducted with that 
object on Government farms not having yet achieved results 
that can be made the subject of more extensive trials. These 
farms are situated at Poona, Surat, and Nadiad. Important 
experiments are being made there with the object of improving 
the staple of indigenous cotton and discovering a rust-proof 
variety of wheat. 

The Land Improvement and Agriculturists’ Loans Acts Land Im- 
provide for small advances being made to cultivators for the P™ 7 ®®™ 4 
purpose of improving their fields by digging wells, erecting culturists’ 
protective banks, weeding, &c., or for the purchase of seed ^ ns 
and cattle. Such advances were not unknown in the days 
of Maratha rule, but until lately they have not been gener- 
ally popular except in the Southern Deccan. The famines 
of the last few years have made the system better known ; 
and it is probable that, as it is improved and developed, the 
sums expended each year will very greatly exceed the totals 
hitherto reached, the highest of which was 94! lakhs in the 
famine year, 1900-1. Loans for the purchase of seed and 
cattle are repayable in short periods of one to two years, 
subject to the discretionary power of the Collector to extend 
the period to not more than ten years. Loans for the improve- 
ment of land must, in default of special sanction from Govern- 
ment, be repaid within twenty years, the instalments commenc- 
ing from the date when the improvement is estimated to yield 
a return. Bad debts are rare, and the chief difficulty is to meet 
the very numerous demands received for advances. Agricul- 
turists are specially protected by the Dekkhan Agriculturists’ 

Relief Act (1879), the most important provisions of which 
have been extended to the whole Presidency, but many of 
the original peasant proprietors have become the tenants of 
money-lenders. Statistics of agriculture and irrigation, in 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


56 

square miles, for the Bombay Presidency, are shown in 
Table II on p. 135. 

Cotton. The cultivation of the great export staple, cotton, is suffi- 
ciently important to deserve special mention. Even before the 
close of the eighteenth century India exported a considerable 
amount of raw cotton to England, but this was mainly shipped 
from Calcutta. Bombay, which had previously exported cotton 
to China, does not seem to have entered into the business until 
about 1825. For many years afterwards the shipments of 
cotton were liable to great vicissitudes, depending chiefly upon 
the yield of the American crop. But the Indian cultivators 
found their opportunity when the war between North and 
South in the United States cut off the supplies of the English 
manufacturer and caused the ‘cotton famine’ in Lancashire. 
During the five years ending 1853-4 the export of cotton 
from Bombay had averaged less than if million cwt., valued 
at 250 lakhs ; in the five years ending 1868-9 the average 
quantity had risen to 3f million cwt., and the average value 
to nearly 20 crores. In the single year 1864-5 the value 
reached 30 crores. A collapse came in 1865, on the termi- 
nation of the American Civil War. Prices have fallen very 
heavily, but the quantity of cotton grown is maintained. In 
1 880-1 the extent of land under cotton in the whole Presi- 
dency, including Sind and Native States, was returned at 
6,563 square miles. Of this area, 5,469 square miles were 
planted with indigenous and about 1,094 square miles with 
exotic cotton. The quantity exported in the same year was 
returned at over 3^ million cwt. from Bombay, and 100,000 
cwt. from Sind. By 1891, the area under cotton (exclusive 
of Native States) had increased to 4,934 square miles, and 
the total exports to 4§ million cwt. In 1901, owing to the 
drought, the area decreased to 3,701 square miles, and the 
exports to less than 3 million cwt.; but in 1903-4 the area was 
5,906 square miles, and the exports were 6-7 million cwt., of 
which Germany and Japan each took about 1*4 million cwt., 
Belgium and Italy 0-9 million cwt. each, Austria 0-7 million 
cwt., and the United Kingdom 0*4 million cwt. 

The growth of the local mill industry has naturally been 
accompanied by a largely increased local consumption of 
cotton, the Bombay mills being almost entirely dependent on 
the indigenous variety. This is a short-stapled cotton which is 
not suitable for the spinning of yarns above 32’s. Cotton of 
longer staple when sown in the best cotton-growing tracts soon 
degenerates to the local standard. Numerous efforts have 



AGRICULTURE 


57 


been made by Government and private persons to introduce 
a seed that will furnish a better stapled cotton, but hitherto 
with little success, except in Sind. The most recent experi- 
ments have been directed towards the production of a hybrid 
possessing the hardiness of the local plant and a staple resem- 
bling that of imported cottons. 

The Bombay Presidency was formerly famous for its hardy Domestic 
ponies which supplied the Maratha cavalry with their means of aDimals * 
rapid movement. The most valuable breeds were the Kathia- 
wari, and the Deccan ponies from the Bhlmthadi or valley 
of the Bhima river. Both breeds are still met with, though the 
latter is now very nearly extinct. Efforts are made by Govern- 
ment to improve local stock by maintaining stallions, chiefly 
Arabs, at central stations, and by annual horse shows, at which 
prizes are offered for promising young stock or good brood 
mares. Up to the year 1903-4, 46 stallions were thus main- 
tained; but, on May 31, 1903, 31 of them, located in Poona 
and Ahmadnagar Districts, were transferred to the charge of 
the Army Remount department. At present the Civil Veteri- 
nary department has only 12 stallions, 6 of which are located 
in Gujarat. Annual shows are held at Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan and Jacobabad in Sind. Locally bred ponies are 
hardy and make good hacks ; but they are frequently under- 
sized, vicious, and ill-formed. The horses in use are mainly 
imported Arabs, Persians, and Australians, the trade in which 
centres in Bombay City. 

A military remount depot exists at Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan, where young stock are kept in paddocks, and are 
trained to draught and saddle. Mules and donkeys are 
numerous, the former being used for military purposes, and 
the latter, which are usually under-sized and ill-nourished, for 
the conveyance of earth and stones. 

Cattle are in general allowed to breed promiscuously. Good 
milch cows are raised in the Gir forest of Kathiawar, while the 
plains of Gujarat support cattle of exceptionally fine type, large, 
big-boned, powerful, and docile. The best cattle in the Deccan 
are bred in the Kistna valley, but throughout the greater part 
of the Deccan and Carnatic the cattle are of no fixed type 
or particular breed. They are small, hardy, and active. In 
Sind good cattle are bred, of medium size but sturdy propor- 
tions ; the milch cows are well-known and are exported to 
other parts of the Presidency. The following prices are obtain- 
able for cattle of these different descriptions : Gir cow Rs. 60, 
bullock Rs. 75 ; Gujarat cow Rs. 8q, bullock Rs. 125 ;« Deccan 



58 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

cow Rs. 50, bullock Rs. 35; Sind cow Rs. 70, bullock 
Rs. 35. 

Buffaloes are of four types : namely, Jafarabadi, Delhi, Surati, 
and Deccani. They are usually kept for milk, but in Districts 
of heavy rainfall buffaloes are often used for draught purposes 
in preference to bullocks. A good cow buffalo fetches Rs. 150. 
Sheep and goats are numerous throughout the Presidency. 
The former are of four breeds : Gujarati, Deccani, Rajputani, 
and the dumba sheep of Sind with a fat tail. The wool of all 
varieties is short, coarse, and hair-like, and is chiefly used for 
the manufacture of country blankets. Goats are regularly 
milked, and their flesh forms a common article of diet. The 
number of cattle was greatly reduced by the famine years 
between 1896 and 1901. In Sind more than 100,000 camels 
are used for the conveyance of passengers and goods in the 
desert. 

The broad plains of Sind and Northern Gujarat furnish 
abundant pasture. In Central Gujarat the best milch and 
plough cattle are stall-fed, while the herds of the Deccan for 
the most part pick up what they can on the borders of the 
fields, except where, as near the Ghats, there are forest lands 
Open to grazing. There are no great yearly cattle fairs. The 
common cattle diseases are rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, 
and anthrax. There are in the whole Presidency 21 veteri- 
nary dispensaries, at which 34,320 animals were treated in 
1903-4. ^ . 

The Civil Veterinary department of the Presidency, which 
is under the control of the Director of Land Records and Agri- 
culture, is responsible for horse-breeding operations, having 
twelve stallions in its charge for this purpose, and also 
supervises the working of the various District veterinary 
dispensaries, seventeen of which are stationary, while four are 
travelling dispensaries, each in charge of a veterinary graduate. 
The largest hospital under this department is at Parel on 
Bombay Island. Horse-breeding operations in Sind are con- 
trolled by the Superintendent, Civil Veterinary department, 
Baluchistan and Sind, under the direct supervision of an 
Inspector-General for all India. 

Irrigation. All tillage in Sind is dependent on the rise of the Indus, 
which takes place from March to August owing to the melting 
of the Himalayan snows. The fields are watered either by lift 
or by flow from innumerable canals and watercourses. The 
chief systems which take off from the right bank of the river 
are the Begari, the Desert, the Ghar, the Western Nara, and 



AGRICULTURE 


59 

the Unharwah canals; and from the left bank, the Eastern 
Nara, the Dad, the Nasrat, the Fuleli, and the Jamrao. 

In the rest of the Presidency 4 dry 5 and ‘wet’ crops are 
found everywhere side by side. Wells are the chief source of 
irrigation, but canals have also been made, which are supplied 
with water either from artificial tanks or from rivers that 
have been dammed up. The largest of such canals are the 
Nira at Poona, which is fed by the Nira river and a reservoir 
at Bhatghar, and the Gokak canal in Belgaum District, which 
draws its supply from the Ghatprabha river and from storage 
works. Outside Sind the irrigation revenue is raised by 
a special assessment in addition to c dry -crop 7 rates on land 
irrigated from all works for which capital and revenue accounts 
are kept, except in the case of some small systems. From old 
works, for which only revenue accounts are kept, a revenue 
of about 8 lakhs is derived. The irrigation share of this sum 
is about 5 lakhs, but this is not credited in the Finance 
Accounts to irrigation but to land revenue. There is a third 
class, called Agricultural Works, or works for which neither 
capital nor revenue accounts are kept, yielding a revenue of 
about Rs, 12,000 wholly credited to land revenue. The 
revenue is collected by the Revenue department. In the 
Presidency proper the total capital outlay on irrigation works 
up to 1903-4 was about 3 crores; the cost of maintenance 
during 1903-4 was about 3 lakhs, and receipts during the 
same year about 8 J lakhs, giving a return of nearly 1 *89 per 
cent, on capital outlay. The figures include twelve c major ’ 
works and thirty-one c minor 5 works for which capital and 
revenue accounts are kept. 

Tanks are specially numerous in the Southern Carnatic, 
where almost every village has one, from which coco-palms, 
sugar-cane, and other rich crops are irrigated. The tendency 
is for such reservoirs to silt up rapidly, and funds are not 
always readily available for their clearance. Forced labour 
is no longer exacted for the repairs of these works, though 
voluntary subscriptions are accepted. 

Wells used for irrigation in the Presidency, exclusive of 
Sind, numbered 241,600 in 1903-4. They are of two kinds: 
pakka or masonry wells, costing from Rs. 250 to Rs. 750, and 
averaging 10 to 20 feet in depth; and kachcha or unfaced 
wells, mere holes in the earth, used for one season, and 
costing from Rs. 10 to Rs. 50, according to the depth at which 
water is found. From these wells a few acres of wheat, gram, 
sugar-cane, fodder-crops, &c., are irrigated, according to the 



6o 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


nature of the soil. They are worked either by a rahat or 
Persian wheel (an endless chain of buckets), or by a kos or 
mot , a large leathern bucket, so suspended as to discharge 
itself on rising to the surface. The motive power is supplied 
by a pair of bullocks advancing and retreating on an inclined 
plane, or moving in a circle. In a few cases a hand-lever and 
bucket are used to raise water near the surface. Wheat, rice, 
and sugar-cane are the chief irrigated crops. 

Fisheries. The sea fisheries are important and give employment to 
numerous castes, chief of which are the Kolis. Pomfret, sole, 
stone, and lady-fish are sold fresh, while others, such as the 
bombily are salted and dried. Large quantities of small fry are 
sold as manure. The palla , found in the Indus, and the maral 
and mahseer are the principal fresh-water fish, 

Rent, In the greater part of the Bombay Presidency land is held 
^ on the ryotwari system and is in the occupation of the culti- 
Rent. vator, who pays revenue direct to Government for his holding. 
When, as frequently occurs, he has alienated his holding to 
a member of the non-cultivating classes as security for a loan, 
the rent exacted from him for continuing to cultivate the land 
depends very largely on the will of the money-lender. It may 
be roughly asserted that the occupant is left enough to cover 
the cost of cultivation and to allow a bare subsistence for 
himself and his immediate relations. The rest of the produce, 
after defraying the Government assessment, passes into the 
hands of the sahukar (money-lender) until the debt is paid 
off. Land held by females and persons unable to cultivate 
it themselves is usually sublet for a rent amounting to half 
the produce after deducting expenses of cultivation. 

Rents of these descriptions are generally levied in kind, in 
contrast to the Government demand, which is payable in cash. 
Originally payments in kind for rent were universal, and this 
system is still common in the estates of Gujarat and Kathiawar 
where land is held by a class intermediate between the state 
and the ryot It is usual to set aside a share of the grain 
for the cost of cultivation and for special cesses, such as the 
hereditary village servants are entitled to levy. The remaining 
produce is divided equally between landlord and tenant. An 
interesting light is thrown on the probable value of land to the 
cultivator by the fact that good land will frequently sell for 
fifty times the Government assessment, and will pay a money 
rent of from two to seven times the assessment. 

The summary process of revenue courts is only put into 
force to enable landlords to recover rent from their tenants 



RENTS, WAGES, AND PRICES Si 

when the revenue officer is satisfied of the fairness of the 
demand, and when assistance is called for during the year 
in which the rent is payable. Otherwise the landlords must 
have recourse to the civil courts, where, under the provisions 
of the Dekkhan Agriculturists’ Relief Act, their claims may be 
regulated on an equitable basis. The result of this Act has 
been in some cases to lead to a more equitable adjustment 
of the burden on the borrowers than was previously possible ; 
but it has also led to evasion, by the exaction of a deed of 
sale from the borrower in place of a mortgage bond. In newly 
occupied land on the Sind canals, and in certain cases in the 
Presidency proper, it has recently become the practice to 
make the occupancy right conditional on the holding not 
being alienated, and thus to protect the occupant against 
himself. 

The rates for skilled and unskilled labour in the different Wages, 
divisions of the Presidency are: in Sind, skilled 12 annas to 
R. 1 a day, unskilled 4 annas to 8 annas ; in Gujarat, skilled 
8 annas, unskilled 3 annas ; in the Deccan, skilled 9 annas, 
unskilled 3 annas; in the Konkan, skilled 10 annas, unskilled 
4 annas; in the Carnatic, skilled 12 annas, unskilled 4 annas. 
Women, as a rule, earn two-thirds of a man’s wages, and 
children one-half. Payment of agricultural wages in kind 
is common throughout the Presidency, grain being given at 
the rate of 12 to 15 lb. per diem for a man, 8 lb. for a woman, 
and 4 lb. for a child. In Bombay City the demand for 
labour and the high cost of living have raised the daily cost 
of unskilled labour to 6 annas for a man and 4 annas for 
a woman. Skilled operatives in mills and factories earn at least 
double these rates, the following being the average rates of 
wages : — 



Rs. 

a. 

P* 


Rs. 

a. 

P- 

Blacksmith 

• 0 

14 

11 

to 

I 

3 

0 

Fitter . 

. 0 

8 

0 

to 

I 

4 

0 

Carpenter 

. 0 

12 

0 

to 

I 

2 

0 

Bricklayer 

. 0 

12 

0 

to 

I 

0 

0 

Mason 

. 0 

12 

0 

to 

I 

0 

0 

Weaver (man) . 

. 0 

7 

6 

to 

0 

8 

0 

Spinner (man) . 

. 0 

8 

0 

to 

I 

0 

0 

Dyer 

. 0 

8 

0 

to 

0 

9 

0 

Engine-driver . 

. 0 

12 

9 

to 

I 

11 

0 

Boiler-man 

. 0 

5 

8 

to 

0 

9 

0 

Messenger 

. 0 

5 

0 

to 

0 

5 

10 


In the export season the great demand for unskilled labour 
raises its remuneration to 8 annas and over a day, as much as 
Lia day being paid in times of brisk trade and a scanty 



6 2 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Prices. 


Material 
condition 
of the 
people. 


supply of labour. Such a rate can, however, remain in force 
only for a few days, as it serves to swell rapidly the available 
supply from the almost limitless reserves of the Ghat villages, 
whence cultivators proceed in large numbers to Bombay to 
work for a few months and return with their savings to their 
villages, either at the Holi festival (March) or at the com- 
mencement of the south-west monsoon. It is a noticeable 
feature of the Bombay industrial market that weavers are 
attracted from regions as remote as the United Provinces. 

It is difficult to arrive at conclusions regarding the progress 
of prices in the case of the staple food-grains during recent 
years, owing to the fluctuation in the value of the rupee and 
the effect of famine years on the general level of prices. The 
average cash rates per maund of 40 seers (about 80 lb. avoir- 
dupois) have been as follows : — 



Joivar. 

Bajra . 

Rice. 


Rs. a. p. 

Rs. a p. 

Rs. a. p. 

IS80-I . 

I 15 4 

258 

400 

1890-1 . 

1 14 0 

220 

3 H 0 

1900-1 . 

2 10 I 

2 13 6 

400 

1902-3 . 

209 

2 3 10 

3 10 5 

1903-4 . . 

1 10 8 

1120 

3 13 0 

The actual rates at 

the chief centres of trade in i 


dency are given in Table III on p. 136. The recent years of 
famine and bad harvests have been largely responsible for the 
excess in price-levels of 1900-1 over those of earlier years. 
Grains such as gram (Cicer arietinvm ), which are used for food 
in a less measure than jowar, bajra, , and rice, have risen in 
price far more than the staple foods. There is no evidence 
that rates of wages have risen with the price of food, but the 
system of recording prices current in the Presidency does not 
seem to justify complete confidence in these data. 

The material condition of the people differs little in the 
various parts of the Presidency, though the standard of comfort 
among the proletariat is lowest in the case of the wild tribes 
and highest in the wealthy cities of Gujarat. For the ordinary 
cultivator a daily ration of 2 lb. of grain with a little vegetable 
and spice, and an annual supply of coarse cloth, a little 
tobacco, and some betel-nut; generally represents the sum 
of his requirements. A few rupees must be spent on country- 
made sans for his women-folk, and perhaps, if the harvest is 
a good one, a few more will be devoted to joining the annual 
pilgrimage to some popular shrine. With the hill tribes this 
modicum of necessaries is reduced by a simplification of the 
costume, which consists of a head-scarf and a few inches of 



FORESTS 


63 


cloth at the waist. The diet consists of the coarser grains, 
nachni and kodra replacing jowar and rice. An occasional 
bout of drinking will offer the only opportunity for spending 
a few coins from their scanty earnings. 

Among village officials and middle-class clerks the standard 
of comfort is undoubtedly rising. A new fashion in clothing, 
and an increasing use of cheap European commodities, offer 
objects of expenditure unknown to previous generations. 

Houses with some pretension to comfort replace the mud 
hovel of the labourer or the mat shelter of the wandering 
hillmen; and in the case of a rising official or prosperous 
trader, the house will be supplied with articles of furniture, 
such as lamps, chairs, and tables, in European style. 

It seems probable that the majority of the community, that 
is to say, the agriculturists, can live in comfort on an average 
daily income of from 3 to 4 annas ; while the petty officials 
and village merchants would experience no difficulty in main- 
taining the standard of their class on a monthly average of 
from Rs. 20 to Rs. 30. In this and the superior ranks of 
society the influence of European fashions is specially notice- 
able. 

The forests of the Presidency extend over an area of about Forests. 
15,000 square miles, varying in type from the babul groves of Classes of 
Sind to the magnificent timber tracts of the Western Ghats. 

They may be classified as (i) Babul forests, in which this 
species is mixed with Prosopis spicigera and Tamarix dioica. 

(ii) Scrub jungle, merging gradually into fuel and pole forests. 

(iii) Mixed forests, in which are found teak poles and larger 
timber of the less valuable kinds, such as am, black-wood, 
anjan , , dhowra , bibla, hed , and kalam . (iv) High timber forests, 
chiefly found in North Kanara District and in Western Khan- 
desh. The valleys of the Kalmadi in Kanara produce excellent 
teak, in association with bamboo, Dalbergia Stssoo , Terminalia 
iomentosa, , and Xylia dolabriformis. In Khandesh also teak 
of good quality is present, though there the stock has suffered 
much from fire and shifting cultivation, (v) Evergreen forests 
of varying constitution, consisting in places of mere scrub 
jungle, but also containing dense groves of lofty trees whose 
timber is often valuable in the cabinet-maker’s trade. These 
forests extend along the line of the Western Ghats from 
Khandesh to Kanara. 

About 600 square miles of forest are set apart as pasture Adminis- 
land, and the remainder is, in respect of technical management, tratlon ' 
placed in charge of the Forest department. For purposes of 



64 


B OMB AY PRESIDENCY 


Relations 
with the 
people. 


control, the forests of the Presidency proper are divided into 
the Northern circle, with 1,667 square miles of ‘reserved’ and 
652 square miles of ‘protected’ forests; the Central circle, 
with 6,259 square miles of ‘reserved’ and 99 square miles of 
‘protected’ forests ; and the Southern circle, with 4,495 square 
miles of ‘ reserved ’ and 568 square miles of ‘ protected ’ forests \ 
These circles correspond closely with the Revenue Divisions, 
and each is supervised by a Conservator, who is furnished 
with the usual staff of deputy and extra-deputy-Conservators, 
assistant and extra-assistant Conservators, rangers, foresters, and 
guards. This staff consisted in 1904 of 24 Imperial Service and 
23 Provincial Service officers, and of 47 rangers, 168 foresters, 
and 3,394 guards, maintained at a cost of about 6| lakhs per 
annum. The forests of Sind, which are included in the figures 
last given, comprise r,o66 square miles of Reserves, and are 
similarly supervised by a deputy-Conservator, who exercises 
the power of a Conservator. Responsibility for the executive 
management of the forests of each District, save in matters 
relating to professional forestry, is vested in the Collector, who 
issues his orders direct to the divisional Forest officer. Con- 
servators confine their attention to purely professional matters 
of forest management, and do not interfere in details of 
administration. 

In spite of the care which is taken to control forest opera- 
tions in the interests of the people, these operations are not 
popular, as the mass of the population are unable to compre- 
hend the necessity of foresight in forest utilization. The 
peasant is as a rule wasteful in the extreme: he will not 
hesitate to burn a valuable forest for the sake of a temporary 
supply of green fodder or to lop and fell trees in order to 
provide manure for his crops, without thought as to whether 
the supply of forest produce will continue to meet the needs 
of his successors. In the same way, accustomed as he is 
to permit his cattle to graze at will throughout the whole 
forest area, he resents measures taken to protect the regrowth 
from their depredations, while ignorance of the rights or 
privileges that have been accorded to him by Government 
too often places him at the mercy of the members of the 
subordinate forest staff, whom it is at times impossible to 
restrain from taking advantage of their official position. The 
illicit grazing of cattle in areas under regeneration is often 
a serious check to both the improvement and the sustained 
yield of the forest ; and another source of injury exists in the 
1 The figuies are for 1903-4. 



FORESTS 


6S 


practice of shifting cultivation, which, before systematic regu- 
lation came into force, was responsible for the destruction 
of large forest areas. Such systematic regulation has, however, 
been effective in Khandesh, where Bhll settlements are located 
in various Reserves, and in Thana, Kolaba, and Kanara, where 
suitable lands have been allotted for dry-ash cultivation. 

It has already been remarked that intentional firing of the Fire con- 
forests with a view to obtaining a fresh crop of grass is not S€rvanc y- 
uncommon, and much damage is also caused by conflagrations 
due to the carelessness of wayfarers and other accidental 
causes. The system of fire conservancy consists m the 
clearing of fire-lines and the protection afforded by patrolling 
guards. In 1903-4, when 9,441 square miles were under 
protection from fire at a cost of Rs. 42,905, no less than 1,572 
square miles were nevertheless burnt. The annual proportion 
of failures in fire conservancy averages about 16 per cent. 

In the case of forests which are commercially valuable, Working- 
working-plans have been prepared in order to regulate felling plans * 
and regeneration, and to define the areas in which the exercise 
of local rights of grazing and cutting may be enjoyed. These 
working-plans are compiled by the officers of the Forest 
department, with the approval of the Collector and the 
sanction of Government. They are based on the principle 
that the forest interests must be subordinated to those of 
the agricultural population when there is any conflict between 
the two. 

The yield of the forests may be divided into major and Yield of 
minor produce. In 1903-4 the output of timber was 4,740,000 the forests * 
cubic feet, realizing about 15J lakhs. The production of 
first-class logs is confined almost exclusively to the Kanara 
forests, whence the timber is brought to depbts on the 
Southern Mahratta Railway. It consists of teak and black- 
wood of very fine quality, which commands a ready sale, 
while at the same time these forests yield annually about 
100,000 sleepers of teak and jamber. From the forests of 
Kanara, Belgaum, Dharwar, Thana, and Khandesh several 
hundred thousand teak rafters used in native house-building 
are exported. Firewood sales in 1903-4 amounted to nearly 
47,000,000 cubic feet, of an estimated value of 6| lakhs. The 
North-Western and Southern Mahratta Railways receive the 
bulk of this out-turn, and the remainder is absorbed in the 
Bombay market or utilized locally. Besides this, large quan- 
tities of fuel are granted free of charge to those living in 
the vicinity of the forests. The yield in minor forest produce 

BO. 1, f 



Revenue 
and expen- 
diture. 


Mines and 
minerals. 


Arts and 
manu- 
factures. 


Cotton- 

weaving. 


66 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

is also of importance. In 1903-4 the revenue derived from 
this source amounted to Rs. 1,60,000 (exclusive of 3^ lakhs 
derived from grazing and grass), of which the chief item was 
myrabolams, exported to Europe for tanning purposes. Next 
in importance come rosha grass, catechu or cutch, wax, honey, 
lac, mahua flowers, sago, shikakai , spices such as cinnamon 
and nutmeg, babul pods, leaves, bark, and medicinal seeds 
and roots. As a rule the collection of these products is 
carried out by contractors. 

The total forest receipts and expenditure for the financial 
' year 1903-4 amounted to 27-5 and 17*7 lakhs respectively, 
giving a surplus of 10 lakhs. The average figures for the 
ten years ending 1890 were about 26 and 16 lakhs, and 
for the following decade about 32 and 20 lakhs respectively. 
The surplus is mainly provided by the Southern circle, while 
the Central circle shows a deficit. 

With the exception of building stone and salt, the pro- 
duction of minerals in the Bombay Presidency is insignificant. 
The best stone for building is extracted from quarries near 
Porbandar and Dhrangadhra in Kathiawar, whence it is carried 
by sea in large quantities to Bombay. The production of salt 
is described below. Parts of Dharwar District are believed 
to have yielded in the past considerable quantities of gold. 
Even now small quantities of gold-dust are washed in some 
of the streams ; and in the east of the District, where the hills 
are known to contain gold, prospecting operations yielded 
favourable results, and a company with English capital is now 
at work. Mining operations undertaken recently at Alnavar 
in the same District were unsuccessful. Agates are found in 
small quantities in the Deccan and Gujarat. 

In the Bombay Presidency many years of competition 
between machine-made and hand-woven cotton cloth have 
still left a very considerable home industry, the hand-loom 
being at work in almost every District. The output is, how- 
ever, for the most part confined to sans and turbans, with 
a certain quantity of grey cloth of the very coarsest kind. 
Hand-spinning is not yet extinct, but is rarely relied on by 
professional hand-weavers for their supply of raw material. 

The number of hand-workers employed in cotton-weaving 
in 1901 was 183,000, with 167,000 dependants. They are 
for the most part Hindu Koshtis, Salis, Hatkars, and Devangs, 
with a certain number of Musalmans known as Julahas and 
Tais. The Districts of Poona, Nasik, Sholapur, Dharwar, 
and Belgaum are noted for weaving ; but the highest point 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 


67 


of excellence is reached in Ahmadabad and Surat, where some 
of the most skilful weavers in India are to be found. In the 
manipulation of designs woven into the cloth they are on 
a level with the best workers of Madras. The hand-made 
cotton fabrics compete in the market with an immense import 
of machine-made goods, but the few fabrics for which the 
workers still hold a reputation will probably continue for many 
years to be in steady demand. 

Dyeing of both yarn and cloth is carried on wherever sweet Dyeing 
water can be found, and supports a population of 36,000. In ^ pnnt ‘ 
the north of Gujarat the favourite colour is red, and in Kathi- 
awar red, deep-brown, and yellow. Blue and green, along 
with red and yellow, are more prevalent in South Gujarat and 
in the Maratha Districts. In addition to village dyers, about 
1,900 persons are employed in three steam dye-works at 
Bombay and in one at Ahmadabad, which yearly turn out 
goods (chiefly turkey-red) to the value of 30 lakhs. The old 
native vegetable dyes have been superseded by alizarine and 
similar colours. These, though cheaper, more easy to apply, 
and quicker in taking effect, are at best often harsh and glaring 
and soon fade. In Sind and in the Gujarati-speaking Districts 
printed cotton goods are extremely popular, whereas Marathas 
usually wear plain stuffs of cotton and silk, dyed in the thread, 
and decorated with metal-leaf, or with a simple border and 
a fringe (padar) of a different colour at one end. Ckandari 
or knotting is another method of decorating cotton and silk 
goods. 

About 63,000 people are supported by silk manufacture. Silk- 
The raw material is imported from China, Bengal, Persia, or weaving. 
Bangalore, either in the cocoon or in skeins, both raw and 
dyed. Silk goods are manufactured at Ahmadabad, Surat, 

Yeola, Nasik, Thana, and Bombay, all by hand-workers, except 
in the case of two mills with about 1,200 operatives at Bombay 
and one mill at Poona. The material is often decorated with 
printed or woven designs, knot-work or embroidery, and is 
prepared chiefly for saris , brocades ( kamkhwabs ), trouser stuffs, 
and turbans. 

Wire-drawn gold and silver threads are largely used in Em- 
ornamental edgings for saris, the richest of which are made broi(Jer y* 
at Poona and Yeola. At Bombay also gold and silver thread 
are used for making lace, but everywhere imported thread is 
displacing the locally spun article. Embroidery on silk and 
cotton cloth in gold, silver, and silk thread is produced at 
Hyderabad in Sind, chiefly for the European market The. 



68 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


best silk embroidery is produced at Navanagar and Gondal 
in North Kathiawar, though Cutch gets the credit of the 
manufacture. Baroda, Surat, and Bombay also supply em- 
broidery to Muhammadans and Parsis. 

Woollen There are three woollen mills in Bombay with 385 hands, 
goods. Woollen goods are in little demand, The only important 

product is the country blanket made in the Deccan and 
Carnatic by the Dhangars from home-grown wool. In Sind 
Fibres. saddle-cloths and blankets and felts are made. About 50,000 
persons in all parts of the Presidency are employed in cutting, 
retting, and scutching M/z-hemp for export, in twisting and 
spinning hemp, flax, and coir into ropes and cordage, and in 
plaiting and weaving them into mats, nets, and sacking for 
export and home use. 

Gold and The custom of investing savings in gold and silver orna- 
meiits. 0 ” 11 " ments ^ ves employment to many goldsmiths. The metal is 
usually supplied by the customer, and the goldsmith charges 
for his labour from 8 annas to Rs, 3 the tola, which is some- 
what less than \ oz, avoirdupois. The poorer classes often 
wear ornaments of baser metal. Sind goldsmiths’ work is very 
beautiful, but is rarely seen outside that province. The well- 
known Cutch gold- and silver-work is embossed by hand on 
a backing of soft lac. Many Cutch silversmiths have settled 
in Ahmadabad, Bombay, and Karachi. Silver-ware similar to 
the Cutch work is made at Ahmadnagar in the Deccan, and 
strong and massive articles of gold and silver are produced in 
Kathiawar. The women of Gujarat prefer ornaments of a plain 
and massive style, while those of the Deccan favour lighter and 
Brass- and more intricate patterns. Nasik and Poona are both celebrated 
copper- for their b rass _ warej and Bombay and Ahmadabad produce 
large quantities of copper vessels which are sent to almost 
every part of Western India. T he copper is all imported 
from Europe in sheets and is hammered into shape by the 

steel work l0Cal workmen ‘ The cutlei T and agricultural implements 
s ee work. the p eop i e are st jp f or ftg most part ma( } e i oca u y 

by the village Lohar or blacksmith. The only goods which 
have more than a local reputation are the spear-heads of 
Ahmadnagar, the knives and other tools of Amod in Broach, 
and the swords, spear-heads, and chain armour of Cutch, 
Kathiawar, and Baroda. 

The importation of kerosene oil in tins has given rise to 
a new industry. Enterprising Bohras in Bombay and up- 
country buy up the empty tin cases at from 2 to annas 
each, and fashion them into lanterns, kerosene lamps, cash- 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 69 

boxes, travelling-trunks, oil and glu pots, and other cheap 
articles. There is a tin factory in Bombay with 70 workers. 
Glass-making is confined to bangles and fancy articles, forGlass- 
which the chief centre is Kapadvanj. Lac is collected in^ king ’ 
Khandesh, and used in making bangles in the Panch Mahals 
and in lacquering furniture in Sind and Gujarat. In Bombay 
and Gujarat bangles are also made from imported ivory and 
tortoise-shell. 

Coarse pottery is made almost everywhere, but glazes are Pottery, 
seldom used. The best is made in Sind, whence the industry 
taught in the Bombay School of Art is derived. The humble 
brick-kilns of the village Kumbhar or potter have held their 
ground against steam factories. 

Ahmadabad and Surat are the chief centres of wood-carving. Wood- 
Carved black-wood furniture is out of fashion, but house fronts carvin 2* 
and wall ornaments are still popular. The best work in sandal- 
wood is done in Kanara. Country carts are made in every Carts and 
large town, and pony tongas at many places in the Deccan. boats * 
Native boats are built at most of the coast ports, especially in 
Surat and Kanara. Certain low castes all over the Presidency 
are expert at weaving matting and baskets of split bamboos. 

Shoes, sandals, harness, water-skins, and other leathern articles Leather, 
in general demand are made by the local Mochl, who is found 
in every village. He is usually his own tanner, and prepares 
his materials with the aid of the bark of the babul tree. Large 
numbers of people are employed in the curing of hides for 
exportation, of which 38 lakhs’ worth are sent to Europe yearly. 

In one factory leathern industries are carried on by the aid of 
machinery. Very good boots and shoes, saddles, and bags are 
made in European fashion by native workmen under European 
superintendence at Bombay and Poona. Fancy articles of Horn- 
bison and other horn are moulded and carved with consider- war€ * 
able skill in Ratnagiri and Kanara. Country cigarettes (bldis) 
are made on a large scale at Bombay from up-country tobacco, 
chiefly from Gujarat and the Deccan. The best snuff comes 
from Viramgam in Ahmadabad. Attempts have been made at 
Kaira to manufacture cigars to suit the European taste, but 
without success. Sugar is made wherever the cane is grown, Sugar, 
and very largely in Thana and Khandesh. Except in parts of 
Satara and Ahmadabad, iron roller-mills have superseded the 
primitive wooden sugar-mill. Oil-presses are numerous in Oil- 
every District, and oil is extracted from castor-seed, sesamum, P resses - 
tape-seed, poppy-seed, mahua (for soap-boiling), linseed, ground- 
nuts, and coco-nuts. In some branches the local industry has 



70 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Butter 


Sa’t, See. 


Printing 

presses 


Cotton- 

mills. 


suffered from the competition of kerosene oil, but this loss has, 
to a great extent, been balanced by the great and growing 
demand for vegetable oil for machinery. Grass oil is made in 
Pimpalner and West Khandesh. Two steam-power oil-mills 
are at work in Bombay, and another at Ahmadabad. The 
trade in clarified butter is very great, being of special impor- 
tance in Kaira and Khandesh. Large quantities of ghi, some 
of which is more or less adulterated with animal fat, are 
exported to Rangoon. There are a few model dairies pro- 
ducing good butter in Bombay and Poona. 

Salt is made in large quantities in the Government works at 
Kharaghoda and Udu in Ahmadabad, and is exported by rail 
to Gujarat and Central India, where it is known as Baragara 
salt. Sea-salt is very largely made on the Konkan coast for 
export to Malabar and Bengal. There are numerous small ice 
and soda-water factories in the larger towns. Though rice- 
husking is chiefly carried on without machinery, steam rice- 
husking mills have been started with success at Bulsar, Ahmad- 
abad, and Chinchni in Thana. Flour-grinding is still a 
domestic industry in most places except Bombay. 

High art hardly exists, though Portuguese, Parsis, and 
Hindus have done creditable work in illustration, design, and 
sculpture. Excellent English printing comes from presses 
managed by Europeans. Vernacular printing is improving, 
especially in Bombay, where the demand for newspapers and 
new books is rapidly increasing. 

Within the last twenty or thirty years the spinning and 
weaving of cotton by steam machinery has become an im- 
portant industry, a development favoured by the proximity 
of the supply of raw material. The first mill was started in 
Bombay in 1857. By 1881-2 the number had increased to 
49, and the industry has since expanded steadily, until in 
1904-5 there were 133 mills, exclusive of 2 hosiery factories, 
in the Presidency, and 3 others situated in Native States. 
Of the 133 mills, 55 were weaving and 78 spinning mills. 

Details of the cotton-mills are given in the following tables 



1881-2 

1891-2. 

1901-2. 

1904 - 5 . 

Number of mills 
„ looms . 

„ spindles . 

»» hands employed 

4? 

13,046 

1.237.536 

37.567 

96 

19,117 

2,380,178 

79.951 

129 
31,262 ! 

3, 3^,729 
U 9 , 929 

136 

35,887 

3 , 573,564 

132,170 


For many years the mills produced mainly yarns, chiefly of 
coarse counts, . to meet the demand of Indian hand-weavers 




ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 71 

and of the China market; but of late years many weaving- 
sheds have been erected. The best mills can now produce 
fine cloth manufactured from imported high-count yarns, and 
coloured as well as fancy goods of superior description. 

During the years of famine and plague between 1896 and 
1901, the industry passed through a period of depression, but 
brighter prospects are in store when the trade assumes its 
normal course. The cotton-mills consume annually about 

6.000. 000 cwt. of raw cotton. The output amounts to 

415.000. 000 lb. of yarn and 112,000,000 lb. of cloth for the 
whole Presidency (including Native States). Eighty-six (in- 
cluding 2 hosiery factories) of the mills are found in Bombay 
City and Island, where the moist atmosphere favours the pro- 
cesses of spinning and weaving. Outside Bombay, the city 
of Ahmadabad is the only centre of importance. The chief 
articles manufactured are yarns of counts up to 32’s, dhotis , 
shirtings, chadars , T cloths, sheetings, coloured and fancy 
goods. A large local demand exists for the products of the 
mills ; and there is also an export trade of considerable value, 
amounting to about 318,000,000 yards of cloth and 280,000,000 
lb. of yarn annually, with a total value of about 14 crores. 

The mills in Bombay draw large numbers of labourers from 
the Konkan Districts of Kolaba and Ratnagiri, and from 
Satara, Poona, and Ahmadnagar in the Deccan. These, for 
the most part, return to their homes at intervals for such 
agricultural operations as their continued connexion with the 
land requires. They earn good wages, which average for a man 
8 to 12 annas, for a woman 4 to 6 annas, and for a child 2 to 
3 annas daily. The hours of labour for women and children 
are strictly regulated by the Indian Factories Act ; and it does 
not appear that the work has any ill effect on the physique 
of the operatives, who compare not unfavourably with other 
labouring classes. 

Including cotton-mills, 432 factories, within the meaning of Othei 
the term in the Factory Act, were at work in the Presidency factones * 
in 1904. Of these, 213 are open throughout the year and 219 
at special seasons only. The City and Island of Bombay and 
the Districts of Khandesh and Ahmadabad contain the majority 
of these factories. Of the total number of operatives (182,910) 
employed in these factories, 146,208 are engaged in mills and 
factories dealing with cotton, 1,621 in other textile industries, 
such as wool and silk-weaving, 3,506 in printing presses, 561 in 
flour-mills, 27,336 in workshops, and 3,678 in miscellaneous 
works. The ginning, cleaning, and pressing of cotton occupies 



72 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


21 6 factories, the majority situated in the rich cotton tracts of 
Khandesh. There are fourteen iron and brass foundries, mainly 
in Bombay City, and a few flour-mills, printing presses, railway 
workshops, oil-mills, or mills for spinning and weaving silk and 
woollen goods. The recent attempts to start factory industries 
in matches, paper, carpets, and leather have not so far 
developed industries of importance. It is estimated that the 
total factory population of the Presidency, including workers 
and their dependants, amounts to about 250,000. 

Commerce Before the Maratha Wars, which led to the annexation of 
General Cr moSt P resent ® om W Presidency (excluding Sind), trade 
character, was carried on with the dominions of the Mughals and Marathas 
through the Company’s settlements at Bombay and Surat. 
Thence many a deeply-laden East Indiaman set sail, carrying 
fine cotton goods and spices for the London market. With 
the acquisition of Sind in 1843 the Presidency assumed its 
present configuration. Since then the trade with Europe has 
naturally been drawn to Bombay, which has the finest harbour 
in India, while the produce of Sind and the Punjab is exported 
from Karachi. Both have benefited largely by the opening of 
the Suez Canal and the consequent abandonment of the Cape 
route (1869). In the harvest season the broad plains of the 
Deccan and Carnatic furnish a steady stream of cotton, wheat, 
and seeds to the shipping in Bombay harbour, while Karachi 
exports wheat drawn from the irrigated areas of the Indus 
valley. In exchange, these ports receive numerous imports, 
of which the chief are cotton goods, metals and machinery, 
sugar, and kerosene oil. Aden is a port of call for the trade 
between Europe, East Africa, and Asia, and has a considerable 
local traffic in coffee with Arabia and the Somali coast. A 
small direct trade is carried in native craft between Broach, 
Bulsar, Surat, Honavar, and ports in Arabia and the Persian 
Gulf. The distribution of trade from the larger ports along 
the coast-line is effected by coasting steamers and native craft 
during the fair season. Bombay City, Karachi, and Aden 
have Chambers of Commerce and Port Trusts, and Bombay 
and Ahmadabad have influential associations of native piece- 
goods merchants. 

Within the limits of the Presidency trade is facilitated by the 
railways running north and south, and fed by cart traffic along 
metalled roads. In the hilly regions of the Ghats, trains of 
pack-bullocks are still to be met carrying salt from the coast 
up the passes that are too steep for carts, and returning with 
grain and molasses for residents of the lowlands 



COMMERCE AND TRADE 73 

The principal objects of internal trade are grain, metals, and Internal 
cotton goods. Conspicuous among the traders in every town trade * 
of importance will be found the Marwari Van! from Rajputana, 
the Lohana in Sind, the Yam, Bohra, and Memon in Gujarat ; 
these with the Bhatia, Khoja, and Pars! in Bombay, and the 
Lingayat Banjig of the south, are representative of the local 
castes in control of internal trade. Where pack-bullock trains 
are still in vogue, Lamanis and Vanjaris are in charge of the 
means of transport. The important trading centres of the 
Presidency, after Bombay and Karachi, are Ahmadabad, Surat, 
Bhusawal, Poona, Sholapur, and Hubli ; and in Sind, Hyder- 
abad and Sukkur. In the distribution of miscellaneous articles 
advantage is taken of the numerous fairs held at places of pil- 
grimage to establish temporary bazars, where a brisk business 
is done with the public. 

Rice, coco-nuts, salt, cotton, timber, and piece-goods are the 
staples of the coasting trade. The chief maritime Hindu 
castes are Bhandaris, Kharvas, Bhois, and Rolls ; but many 
of the best sailors are Musalmans from Cutch, Kathiawar, and 
the Maidive Islands. 

The value of the internal trade of the Presidency recorded 
for large areas or registration blocks in 1903-4 was about 
92 crores, of which one-quarter is sea-borne and the rest 
carried by rail. In 1903-4 about 128,000 vessels of 4,345,000 
tons burden engaged in the local coasting trade entered the 
ports of the Presidency, and about 114,400 vessels of 4,113,000 
tons burden cleared thence. Of the total number of vessels, 
about 6,000 were steamers. 

The total value of the trade of the Bombay Presidency with External 
other parts of India by sea and rail is 74-7 crores, consisting trade * 
of 43-2 crores imports and 31*5 crores exports. The chief 
articles of trade are piece-goods, grain, and coco-nuts. About 
13 per cent, of this trade is sea-borne, and the rest travels 
inland by road and rail. There is nothing to differentiate 
it from the internal trade of the Presidency, which has already 
been described above. A very considerable share of the trade 
of India with foreign countries is carried on from the ports 
of the Bombay Presidency. In 1903-4 this share had attained 
a total value of 146*6 crores : namely, imports 68 crores and 
exports 78-6 crores. Of this, a small portion (imports 47 lakhs 
and exports 41 lakhs) represents trade by land across the Sind 
frontier with Kandahar and Herat. The remainder is entirely 
maritime. Of the total foreign trade of the Presidency (exclu- 
sive of Sind), 28 per cent, in 1903-4 was with the United 



74 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Means of 
communi- 
cation. 
Railways. 


Kingdom, 16 per cent, with China, 6 per cent, with Japan, 
7 per cent, with France, 7 per cent, with Belgium, and 
6 per cent, with Germany. Other countries claiming at least 
3 per cent of the trade are Austria, Italy, and Mauritius. 
Table IV on pp. 136-7 gives the value of the chief imports 
and exports for the years 1891, 1901, and 1903-4. The 
figures shown above differ from those given in the table, as 
they include Government stores and treasure. It will be seen 
that the leading articles of import are cotton piece-goods, 
metals and machinery, sugar, oils, and silk and woollen manu- 
factures. The chief exports are raw cotton, grain and pulse, 
seeds, hides, and opium. The bulk of the imports is supplied 
by the United Kingdom, though Belgium has recently proved 
a formidable competitor in iron and steel. The exported 
cotton is mostly directed to the continent of Europe and 
Japan, while opium is sent to China, with cotton twist and 
yarn manufactured in the Bombay mills. During 1903-4, 
1,516 vessels of 2,158,000 tons burden engaged in foreign 
trade entered the ports of the Presidency, and 1,348 vessels 
of 2,150,000 tons burden cleared thence. 

At the close of the year 1904 there were 4,137 miles of 
railways in the Presidency. In that year there was one mile 
of railway to every 46 square miles of country, compared with 
one to every 61 in 1901. The chief railways are the Great 
Indian Peninsula, the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India, 
and the Southern Mahratta ; the first two with a 5^-feet-gauge, 
and the last with a metre-gauge line. The Great Indian 
Peninsula starts from Bombay and bifurcates at Kalyan to- 
wards Calcutta and Madras, climbing the Ghats by the Thai 
and Borghat passes. At Bhusawal the Calcutta line again 
divides, to join the East Indian Railway at Jubbulpore and 
the Bengal-Nagpur at Nagpur. The Calcutta and Madras 
lines are connected by the Dhond-Manmad section, which 
carries traffic between Madras and Northern India without 
compelling passengers and goods to descend and reascend 
the Ghats. The 2^-feet-gauge light railway which connects 
Pandharpur and Barsi town with Barsi Road junction is also 
under this company’s management Since 1900 the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway has been a state line, worked by 
a company. The Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Rail- 
way is a guaranteed line which was purchased by the state 
in 1906. It runs due north along the sea-coast past the 
cities of Surat, Broach, and Baroda, to Ahmadabad, where 
it connects with the Rajputana-Malwa metre-gauge state line 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 


75 


to the north. This line and its 17-mile branch from Palanpur 
to Deesa are worked by a company, as also are the Dabhoi 
2|-feet-gauge line connecting Padra and Chandod, the Mehsana 
metre-gauge railway 93 miles long, and the Vijapur-Kalol-Kadi 
metre-gauge line, completed in 1903. These three last lines 
belong to the Baroda State. A branch line connecting Ahmad- 
abad with Idar is also managed by the company. A westerly 
branch of the company’s system from Ahmadabad to Viramgam 
brings the Presidency into touch with the railway system of 
the Kathiawar peninsula, which comprises the Bhavnagar- 
Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar (334 miles), the Jamnagar (54), 
the Jetalsar-Rajkot (46), and the Dhrangadhra (21) railways, 
which are all metre gauge ; and a 2^-feet-gauge line (90 miles), 
connecting Morvi with Rajkot and Wadhwan, the greater part 
of which was converted to metre gauge in 1905. Another 
branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India, with 
a 5|-feet gauge, starting from Anand, connects with the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway through Godhra at Ratlam. From 
the junction the latter railway has a branch running south 
through Indore and Mhow to Khandwa, and a broad-gauge 
line is being made through Central India to Muttra. A chord- 
line from Baroda to Godhra has recently been opened. Other 
lines under the same management are the Rajplpla, 2^-feet 
gauge (37 miles), through Broach and Rajplpla, and two 
5^-feet-gauge lines, the Anand-Petlad-Tarapur (22 miles) link- 
ing Kaira, Baroda, and Cambay, and the Tarapur- Cambay 
(n miles). In Gujarat the Ahmadabad-Parantlj and Ahrnad- 
abad-Dholka metre-gauge lines are owned by private com- 
panies, with rupee capital raised in India, both being managed 
by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. An 
important line recently constructed, known as the Tapti Valley 
Railway, connects the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway at Surat with the Amainer-Jalgaon branch of the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Amain er. This is a stan- 
dard-gauge line owned by a private company, with rupee 
capital. The south of the Presidency is served by the Southern 
Mahratta Railway, which has two branches. One starts from 
Poona and runs south to Londa, where it doubles back towards 
Dharwar, Hubli, and thence south-east to Harihar, where it 
joins the Mysore State Railway, with a short extension from 
Londa to Castle Rock to connect with the West of India 
Portuguese Railway; the other branch connects Hotgi oft 
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (Madras line) with Gadag 
and Hubli through Bijapur. This is a state railway on the 



7 6 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


metre gauge, worked by a company. A metre-gauge branch 
line from Miraj Junction to Kolhapur, 29 miles in length, 
is under its management. It has access to the sea by the 
West of India Portuguese Railway, of which it has recently 
acquired the management, and which connects the Carnatic 
with the port of Marmagao near Goa. In Sind the North- 
Western Railway, starting from Karachi, travels up towards 
the Punjab on the right bank of the Indus, a branch on the 
left bank going from Kotri as far as Rohri. At Ruk it 
connects with the line to Quetta, and at Hyderabad with 
the metre-gauge line to Marwar Junction in Rajputana. It 
is a standard-gauge line owned and worked by Government. 
A direct line from Bombay to Sind is in contemplation. 

Bight An experiment in light railways was inaugurated in 1897, 

railways. w jj en ^ jj ne> f rom Bar S i Road on the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway to Barsi town, was opened for traffic. This 
line, which is 21J miles long, is constructed on a 2|-feet gauge, 
with a capital of 13^ lakhs of rupees, and is owned by a private 
company. In 1904 it carried 77,000 passengers and 60,000 
tons of goods, and made in net earnings over Rs. 65,000. 
It has recently been extended to Pandharpur in Sholapur 
District. The special feature of this line is the great carrying 
capacity of the trucks in respect to the width of the gauge. 

Tramways. There are three public tramway systems in the Presidency : 
in Bombay City, at Karachi, and at Nasik. The Bombay 
tramways, owned by the municipality and worked by a com- 
pany, have a length of track of 17J miles, mostly double, and 
carried about 25 million passengers in 1904. The Karachi 
tramway, owned and worked by the East India Tramway 
Company, carried over million passengers in 1904. The 
Nasik tramway, also owned and worked by a private company, 
with a capital of one lakh, runs between Nasik Road Station 
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and Nasik town. It 
conveys on an average 1 50,000 passengers a year over a length 
of 5 miles. Owing to successive years of famine and plague 
it has so far run at a loss. The Bombay tramway is now 
being converted from horse to electric traction. The other 
two are drawn by horses. None of the lines is guaranteed 
in any form. 

Coasting Communications are maintained along the coast by the 

steamers. British India line of steamers, sailing at regular intervals for 
Karachi and the Persian Gulf and for Mangalore. The coast 
ports between Mangalore and Bombay are served by vessels 
of the Bombay Steam Navigation Company, which leave daily 



FAMINE 


77 

for ports north and south of Bombay. A ferry service exists 
in Bombay harbour. 

There were in 1904 more than 6,550 miles of metalled Roads, 
roads in the Presidency, maintained at an annual cost of 
13 lakhs. The chief roads are the Bombay- Agra trunk road, 
starting from Bombay and running north-east through Thana, 

Nasik, and Khandesh ; and the road from Poona to Bangalore. 

About 3,700 miles of metalled roads are in charge of the 
Public Works department and 308 miles are under local boards. 

There are also 19,849 miles of unmetalled and unbridged 
roads, serving for communications between less important 
centres of trade. Of these, 15,631 miles are maintained by 
local authorities and 4,218 miles by the Public Works depart- 
ment. Native States maintain 2,061 miles of metalled roads 
and 3,550 miles of unmetalled roads. The cost of the former 
is about 3 lakhs. On the Ghats the hilly roads are served 
by pack-bullocks. 

The Presidency proper contained in 1903-4 1,962 post Post and 
offices. The inland mails are conveyed over 14,000 miles te ^ egra P h * 
of lines, and 10,000 persons are employed in postal work. 

Progress in this department of the administration has been 
steadily maintained since the opening of the first office in 
1853-4. During the last forty years the number of post 
offices has quadrupled, and the length of postal lines has in- 
creased by 30 per cent. In every branch of business the volume 
of work done expands continuously. 

The Presidency of Bombay and the Native States attached 
thereto (with the exception of Bhor and Junagarh, which have 
their own postal arrangements, and Khairpur) form, together 
with the State of Baroda and certain post offices in Hyder- 
abad State, a postal circle under a Postmaster-General. The 
post offices at Aden, Bushire, Basra, Baghdad, Muhammarah, 

Linga, Muscat, Bahrein, and Bandar Abbas are also controlled 
by the Postmaster-General of Bombay. The table on the next 
page shows the progress of postal business. Unless otherwise 
expressly stated, the figures do not include those of Baroda or 
of any post offices in Hyderabad State. Both the Post and 
Telegraph departments are directly controlled by the Govern- 
ment of India. A full account of them is given in Yol. Ill, 
chap. viii. 

The usual cause of famine or scarcity is partial or total failure Famine, 
of the crops due to insufficient or untimely rainfall. The effects 
of this failure are widely felt, owing to the large proportion of 
the population dependent on agriculture for a livelihood. In 



78 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


the case of the labouring classes usually employed in the fields, 
the pressure of bad seasons is enhanced by the fact that the 
same cause greatly increases the cost of food while it decreases 
the prospects of employment. Sind, being wholly cultivated 
with irrigation, is practically immune from famine. The 
western coast similarly suffers little from this calamity, being 
certain of an ample rainfall. In the Deccan plains and the 
East Carnatic the ordinary rainfall is so light that a very small 
reduction or postponement of the monsoon showers materially 
diminishes the output, and these tracts are therefore liable 
to frequent crop failures. In Gujarat rain failure occurs less 
frequently. In the famine tracts the most valuable crops are 
sown during the late rains, i.e. during September or October. 
Hence the early cessation of the monsoon produces the most 
serious results, far exceeding the loss caused by deficiency at 
the beginning. The chief late crops are cotton, wheat, jowar , 
gram, and oilseeds. If the failure of the monsoon is followed 
by widespread rise of prices and the influx of beggars into the 
towns, measures of relief will be required. 



1880-1. 

I89O-I. 

I900-I. 

1903 - 4 . 

Number of post offices 

688 

1,276 

1,494 

1,962 

Number of letter boxes 
Number of miles of 
postal commumca- 

1.839 

2,309 

4^84 

7,376 

tion 

Total number of postal 
articles delivered.— 

H.295* 

14,837* 

16,204* 

r 9,475* 

Letters ♦ , 

23.195,463* 

31,749,159* 

41,070,660 

49,148,162 

Postcards . 

2,734,137* 

22,346,786* 

43,432,418 

55,841,141 

Packets 

418,525* 

1,413,280* 

4,076,713+ 

5,4“,255+ 

Newspapers 

1,713,127* 

3,837,975* 

4,525,794 

5,224,506! 

Parcels 

134,294* 

255,787* 

354,545 

686,317 

Value of stamps sold 

Rs 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

to the public . 

Value of money orders 

11,73,676* 

18,57,710* 

23,30,234* 

30,57,708 

issued . 

Total amount of sav- 

47,08,720* 

1,65,54,290* 

3,11,11,400* 

3,08,44,507* 

ings bank deposits . 


'-97,68,3 96* 

2,67,45,794* 

3,38,19,038 
. 


* These figures include those of Baroda and of the offices in Hyderabad State under the 
Postmaster-General of Bombay, 
t Including unregistered newspapers. 

| Registered as newspapers in the Post Office. 

History records many famines in the area now constituting 
the Bombay Presidency. They have sometimes been caused 
by war, floods, or the depredations of rats and locusts, as well 
as by drought. Up to the nineteenth century the most note- 
worthy of these calamities occurred in the years 1259-62, 
1396-1407 (the great Durga-devl famine), 1472-3, 1629, 1681, 
1684, 1698, 1719, 1732, 1747, and 1791-2, 




FAMINE 


79 


Of the notable famines of the nineteenth century, those 1802-3. 
which affected considerable areas are described below, detailed 
information about local calamities being given in articles upon 
the Districts concerned. One of the worst occurred in 1802-3 
from the depredations of Holkaris army, which on its march 
to Poona laid waste the whole country-side. The Pindaris 
followed in Holkar’s wake and reduced the Deccan and 
Carnatic to such depths of misery and want that cows, 
buffaloes, and even human beings are said to have been de- 
voured by the starving peasantry. The price of grain stood 
at if lb. per rupee ; and notwithstanding the activity of pri- 
vate charity, and importations of grain and liberal remissions 
of revenue by the Peshwa’s government, continuous hordes of 
starving emigrants poured into the Konkan and Gujarat, leaving 
a trail of dead and dying behind them. The failure of the late 
rains of 1803 accentuated the calamity wrought by human 
agency ; the river at Poona was black with putrescent corpses ; 
and hunger, hand in hand with cholera, left numerous villages 
permanently desolate. Among those who endeavoured with 
some success to mitigate the prevailing misery were Lady 
Mackintosh in Bombay, who collected a subscription of 
£4,000 for relief, and General Wellesley, who improvised 
relief works and free doles for the people of Ahmadnagar. 

In 1812-3 the northern Districts of the Presidency were 1S12-3, 
attacked by swarms of locusts from Marwar, which covered 
Kathiawar and Gujarat as far south as Broach and entirely 
devoured the crops. No sooner had the scarcity thus caused 
assumed definite proportions than Gujarat had to face a total 
failure of rain which, coupled with enormous immigration of 
diseased and starving Marwaris, placed her in most pitiable 
straits. Private help was liberally but unmethodically bestowed, 
and every roadside was crowded with men, women, and chil- 
dren, famished and moribund. ‘During this time of misery/ 
wrote Captain Rivett Camac, ‘ I have seen a group of Marwaris 
deny a little water to a dying woman with a dead infant at her 
breast. Dogs, by feeding on human flesh, grew strangely fierce. 

I have seen a pack of them carry off a living child from its 
dead mother’s arms. Even among the higher classes so keen 
was the distress that for a few shillings Brahmans sold their 
relations, children, and wives/ Pestilence walked hard upon 
the heels of famine, and in Ahmadabad alone slew 100,000 
people. 

The famine of 1819-20, due in Broach to two years’ ex- 1819-20. 
cessive rainfall and in the Deccan to a failure of the monsoon, 



8o 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


was actually less severe, but remarkable for widespread panic 
which for seven or eight months emptied considerable tracts of 

1824. the Deccan of their inhabitants. In 1824, a year remembered 
as that of kharpad or ‘distress, 5 the failure of rain throughout 
the Presidency raised gram prices to famine level and caused 
widespread scarcity, which was only partially mitigated by large 
remissions of assessment and by the opening of relief works 
in various Districts. Emigration, notably to the Nizam’s 
territory, continued until October, when a timely fall of 

1832-3. rain brought relief. The scarcity of 1832-3, though affecting 
both the Deccan and the Carnatic, was chiefly felt in the latter 
region. Grain robberies were frequent ; lack of fodder caused 
high mortality among cattle, and drove shepherds and graziers 
from their homes ; the carrying trade in some places was tem- 
porarily brought to a standstill. The opening of relief works 
and orders to grain-dealers to keep down prices helped the 
people to tide over the scarcity, which lasted for eight or 
nine months. 

1834- A considerable portion of Gujarat and Khandesh was simi- 
larly affected in 1834, distress in the former area being aug- 
mented by the ravages of locusts. Grain was sold at Rs. 4 
a maund, and the cattle suffered severely from want of fodder. 
In Kaira alone remissions of Government revenue amounted 
to nearly 2 lakhs. Scarcely had the people time to recover 
from the effects of this famine, before they were plunged in 

1838-9. more acute distress by a total failure of rain in 1838. Not 
only Gujarat and Khandesh but also Thana District witnessed 
the wholesale desertion of villages \ and such live stock as sur- 
vived were driven to seek a bare sustenance among the hills. 
Portions of Thana were relieved by the timely arrival of 
shiploads of rice from Malabar ; but in the northern districts 
relief works had to be opened, and revenue, amounting in 
Khandesh to 6| lakhs and in Surat to 5 lakhs, was remitted. 

1853-4. Fourteen years later, in 1853-4, the Northern Konkan, the 
Panch Mahals, and parts of the Deccan were attacked by 
serious scarcity. Sholapur was the greatest sufferer among 
the Deccan Districts and poured hundreds of starving and 
destitute villagers into Bijapur, where they were employed by 
Government upon road construction. In Thana and Kolaba 
a failure of the late rains of 1853 was followed by an equally 
destructive excess of rain in 1854, while at the moment when 
the people might have commenced to profit by the liberal 
actions of Government, a terrific hurricane, sweeping across 
the coast villages, destroyed the last vestiges of crops and 



FAMINE 


81 


cancelled all hopes of speedy recuperation. In 1862 the 1862. 
whole Deccan suffered from a failure of the early rains ; and 
distress was so widespread and serious that relief works, chiefly 
road construction, were opened in every District. In Nasik, 
particularly, the price of grain rose more rapidly to famine level, 
owing to the reduction of the area under cereals caused by 
increased cotton cultivation ; but in the end each District was 
equally afflicted by a calamity, the severity of which is to some 
extent proved by the fact that grain compensation allowances 
were required for all Government servants in receipt of a 
monthly salary less than Rs. 200. 

The famine of 1876-7 was felt throughout the Deccan and 1876- 
Southern Maratha Country, though less severely than in the 
adjoining tracts of Madras and Mysore. The same meteoro- 
logical causes operated over all Southern India. The total 
rainfall of the year was everywhere deficient, but the disastrous 
effect upon agriculture was determined mainly by local varia- 
tions. The harvest of 1875 had also been below the average, 
so that the pressure of high prices fell upon a population already 
impoverished. In 1876 the summer rains of the south-west 
monsoon, which commence in June, were scanty, and the 
autumn rains, upon which the table-land above the Ghats is 
mainly dependent, failed altogether. The result was a general 
failure in the winter crops in the Presidency over an area esti- 
mated at 39,000 square miles, with a population of nearly six 
millions. Serious distress began in November, 1 876, and lasted 
for about twelve months. In April, 1877, the number of 
people employed by Government on relief works was 287,000. 

In July of the same year the persons in receipt of gratuitous 
relief numbered 160,000. The District most affected was 
Bijapur, bordering on the Nizam’s Dominions, where those 
relieved formed 14 per cent, of the total population, and the 
severity of the local distress was intensified by the lack of roads 
and railways. But these figures convey but an inadequate idea 
of the general impoverishment produced by this disastrous 
year. The statistics of the Bombay mint show in a decisive 
manner how even the well-to-do portion of the population 
suffered. In the two years 1877 and 1878 the total value 
of silver ornaments and disused coin brought into the mint 
as bullion exceeded 250 lakhs, compared with only Rs. 40,000 
in 1876. The Government endeavoured to provide work 
for the starving population; but notwithstanding the wages 
offered and the supplies of food brought into the country, 
the calamity proved beyond the power of administrative 

G 


BO. I, 



82 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


control. The deaths in the two famine years 1877 and 1878 
in the Bombay Presidency, excluding Sind, are estimated to 
have been 800,000 in excess of the usual number. 

1896-7. After 1877 a period of nearly twenty years elapsed without 
the occurrence of any famine of serious dimensions. In 1896 
the rain failed in the Deccan Districts and the East Carnatic, 
and severe distress followed. The total daily average number 
of persons in receipt of relief in these tracts, either employed 
on Government works or being fed in poorhouses or by village 
doles, during a period of fourteen months was 280,000, the 
maximum being 459,000 in September, 1897. The number of 
relief works open amounted to 180, and the expenditure in- 
curred on relief was 146 lakhs, of which 128 lakhs was con- 
tributed by Government and the rest by local bodies and the 
Indian Famine Fund. The rainfall of the succeeding year was 
more ample but still inadequate; and relief measures had 
again to be resorted to, the resources of the people being 
severely taxed. 

1899-1902. In 1899-1900 the rains failed in Gujarat, the Deccan, and 
parts of the Carnatic, causing a famine of unprecedented 
severity. In British Districts alone the daily average number 
of persons in receipt of relief from September, 1899, to No- 
vember, 1900, was 849,000, the maximum being 1,547,000 
in July, 1900. The daily average from December, 1900, to 
October, 1901, was 291,000, and from November, 1901, to 
October, 1902, 192,000. The number of works open was 367 
in 1899-1900, and 268 in the two following years; the total 
expenditure on relief measures exceeded 6 crores, while 2 \ 
crores of revenue was remitted. In Native States a daily 
average of 298,000 persons were relieved in 1899-1900, at 
a cost of 83 lakhs. This famine was marked by terrible 
mortality, the highest death-rate occurring in the Gujarat 
Districts and States, where the people, long unaccustomed 
to suffer from scarcity, frequently failed to take advantage of 
relief measures until the progress of exhaustion had rendered 
it impossible to save their lives. The wild tribes in the forest 
tracts of Gujarat, ignorantly distrustful of these measures, and 
opposed to all forms of regular work, died in numbers in 
the remoter jungles. Later on, when relief measures were 
making progress in public favour, virulent outbreaks of cholera 
slew thousands, and scattered the survivors beyond the reach 
of relief. 

It is difficult to separate the deaths caused by disease from 
the results of privation, and estimates of mortality are again 



FAMINE 


S3 


complicated by the prevalence of bubonic plague in certain 
of the famine areas. It is, however, estimated by the Pro- 
vincial Superintendent of the Census of 1901 that between 
1896 and 1901 the Presidency lost 3,000,000 of its popu- 
lation, owing to the combined ravages of famine and plague. 
Of this loss one-third occurred in British territory and two- 
thirds in Native States, and the greater part of it must be 
attributed to famine. 

In connexion with recent famines, it may be noted that 
the extension of the railway system of the Presidency has 
very largely reduced the difficulty of saving life, by providing 
for the transit of food-grains to the affected areas. In 1877, 
for instance, attempts made to import food into the Carnatic 
failed, owing to the difficulty of conveying grain from the coast 
by bullock-cart. In 1896-7 and in 1899-1900 the food- 
supply was everywhere adequate, though naturally costly. In- 
cidentally this advantage has been accompanied by a lesser 
but inevitable evil: namely, the raising of prices to a level 
formerly unknown m the tracts whence food-grains are ex- 
ported by the new T ly constructed means of communication. 
Another and more entirely satisfactory characteristic of recent 
famines has been the prompt recovery of the affected areas on 
the return of the normal rainfall. This happy result is to 
be attributed largely to the measures adopted by Govern- 
ment for facilitating the recommencement of agricultural opera- 
tions. The loss of valuable stock has been minimized by 
transporting cattle to the grazing lands in the forests, or by 
distributing large quantities of fodder gathered in these forests 
throughout the affected tracts. Advances of money on a 
liberal scale have been made to enable the small landowner 
to purchase seed and cattle, without which his lands must have 
remained unsown. Large suspensions and remissions of the 
land revenue demand were granted throughout the famine 
area. Efforts were also made, by employing the relief workers 
on the construction of irrigation works, to provide against the 
consequences of rain failure in the future. Measures of this 
description are unfortunately limited by the unsuitability of 
much of the country most liable to famine to large and com- 
prehensive schemes of irrigation. But the works constructed 
have been supplemented to some extent by the digging of 
numerous wells, for which loans were advanced to the cultiva- 
tors. Many of these were completed in time to furnish a small 
grain or fodder crop to the owner during the period of the 
famine, and the others have enabled a useful addition to be 

g 2 



84 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

made to his crop out-turn ever since. Much special relief was 
afforded between 1899 and 1902 by the Indian Charitable 
Relief Fund, from which 57 J lakhs was given to deserving 
sufferers in the affected Districts of the Presidency. 

Aclmims- The government of the Presidency of Bombay is admin- 
Governor * stere( * ^ a Governor-in-Council. This body consists of the 
in-Council. Governor as President, and two members of the Indian Civil 
Service, all of whom are appointed by the Crown. The term 
of office for both Governor and Councillors is five years. With 
a view to diminish the pressure of business, each member of 
Council takes immediate charge of certain departments. Ques- 
tions which present no special difficulty are finally disposed 
of by the member in charge of the department in which 
they occur. On more important questions, and on those in- 
volving the expenditure of any large sum of money, the 
opinion of a second member is sought; and should there 
be a difference of opinion, or should any case of peculiar 
difficulty or general public interest arise, the matter is settled 
according to the balance of opinion either as recorded by 
the different members, or after discussion at a meeting of 
the Council. 

In matters before the Council in their judicial capacity, 
and in the making, repealing, and suspension of the ordinary 
rules of civil administration, the opinion of the majority is 
decisive; but in any matter essentially affecting the safety 
or tranquillity of British India, the Governor can act on his 
own discretion even against the opinion of his Councillors. 
Secretariat. All papers connected with public business reach Govern- 
ment through the Secretariat, where they are submitted to 
the members in charge of the departments to which they 
belong. The Secretariat is divided into five main depart- 
ments : namely, (a) the Revenue and Financial; (b) the 
Political, Judicial, Legislative, and Special; (c) the General, 
Educational, Marine, and Ecclesiastical ; (d) Ordinary Public 
Works, including Irrigation ; and ( e ) Railways ; and each de- 
partment has at its head a secretary, who is usually assisted by 
an under secretary and an assistant secretary. In departments 
(a), (b) 3 and (c) the secretaries and under secretaries belong 
to the Indian Civil Service ; in (d) and (e) they are Royal 
or Civil Engineers ; group (d) being in charge of two joint 
secretaries, with an under secretary for irrigation matters. The 
senior of the three civilian secretaries to Government is en- 
titled the Chief Secretary. The Separate department, which 
deals with the dispatch and receipt of correspondence from 



ADMINISTRA T 10 N 


*5 


the India Office, and is in charge of the Secretariat build- 
ing, is under the Chief Secretary, assisted by the under secre- 
tary, Revenue and Financial department 

Under the Govemor-in-Council, the Presidency is admin- Divisions, 
istered by four Commissioners — the Commissioner in Sind, 
who has special powers, and the Commissioners m charge 
of the Northern, Central, and Southern Divisions. Sind con- 
tains six Districts: namely, Karachi, Hyderabad, Larkana, 

Sukkur, Thar and Parkar, and Upper Sind Frontier, the first 
four of which are in charge of Collectors and the last two 
of Deputy-Commissioners. The Revenue Divisions of the 
rest of the Presidency contain the following Districts, each 
in charge of a Collector, who is generally an Indian Civilian, 
but may belong to the Statutory or the Provincial Service : — 

Northern Division. — Ahmadabad, Broach, Kaira, Panch 
Mahals, Surat, Thana. 

Central Division. — Poona, Satara, Sholapur, Nasik, Khan- 
desh (now East and West Khandesh), Ahmadnagar. 

Southern Division . — Belgaum, Dharwar, Bijapur, Kanara, 
Ratnagiri, Kolaba. 

The head-quarters of the Commissioner, Northern Division, 
are at Ahmadabad ; the Commissioner, Central Division, re- 
sides at Poona, and the Commissioner, Southern Division, 
at Belgaum. 

Each District has one or more Indian Civilians as Assistant 
Collectors in charge of subdivisions, and one or more Deputy- 
Collectors of the Provincial Service similarly employed. A 
Deputy-Collector is in charge of each District treasury. 

A Collectorate contains an average of from eight to twelve Villages. 
tdlukaSy each consisting of 100 to 200 Government villages : 
that is to say, villages of which the whole revenues belong 
to the state. Each village has its regular complement of 
officers, some or all of whom are usually hereditary. The 
officers on whose services Government is mainly dependent 
are the pdtel^ w T ho is the head of the village for both revenue 
and police purposes ; the kulkarni or talati, who is the clerk 
and accountant; the messenger; and the watchman. The 
pdiel and kulkarni sometimes hold -a certain quantity of rent- 
free land, but are now almost universally remunerated by 
a cash payment equivalent to a percentage on the collec- 
tions. . The messenger and watchman, and sometimes other 
village servants, hold land on special terms as regards assess- 
ment, and receive grain and other payments in kind from 
the villagers* The remaining village servants include the 



86 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Taluka , 
sub- 
division, 
&c, 


Native 

States. 


carpenter, blacksmith, potter, barber, and others whose ser- 
vices are necessary to the community. A village is, for Govern- 
ment or social purposes, complete in itself, and, so to speak, 
independent of the outer world. But owing to the greater 
centralization and complexity of the system of government, 
its autonomy is now less than it was under native rule. 

Over each taluka or group of villages there is an officer 
termed mamlatdar , whose monthly salary varies from Rs. 150 
to Rs. 250. The mamlatdar is responsible for the treasury 
business of his taluka ; he has to see that the instalments 
are punctually paid by the several villages ; that the village 
accounts are duly kept ; that the occupants get their payments 
duly receipted ; that the boundary marks are kept in repair ; 
and, in general, to secure that the village officers do their work 
properly. He has also to look after the administration of the 
local funds, and is a subordinate magistrate. The taluka is 
subdivided into groups of villages, each of which is under 
the immediate supervision of a subordinate of the mamlatdar 
termed ‘circle-inspector.’ The Assistant or Deputy-Collector 
placed in charge of a District subdivision, containing three 
or four talukas , has to travel about them during seven months 
in the year, to satisfy himself by personal inspection that the 
revenue work is being properly done; during the rains he 
resides at the District head-quarters. The Collector and 
Magistrate is placed over the whole District, and has to 
travel for at least four months in the year. The Commis- 
sioners exercise a general superintendence and control over 
the revenue administration of their Divisions. 

The control of the Bombay Government over the Native 
States of the Presidency is exercised through Political Agents. 
The position and duties of the Agent vary very considerably 
in the different States, being governed by the terms of the 
original treaties, or by recent sanads or patents. In some 
instances, as in Cutch, the functions of the Agent are con- 
fined to the giving of advice and to the exercise of a general 
surveillance; in other cases he is invested with an actual 
share in the administration; while States whose rulers are 
minors — and the number of these is always large— are directly 
managed by Government officers The characteristic feature 
of the Bombay Native States is the excessive number of petty 
principalities, such as those of the Rajput and Bhll chief- 
tains. The peninsula of Kathiawar alone contains no less 
than 193 separate States. The recognition of these innumer- 
able jurisdictions is due to the circumstance that the early 



ADMINISTRA TION 


*7 


Bombay administrators were induced to treat the de facto 
exercise of civil and criminal jurisdiction by a landholder as 
carrying with it a quasi-sovereign status. The rule of succes- 
sion by primogeniture applies only to the larger principalities, 
and consequently the minor States are continually suffering 
disintegration. 

The States may be conveniently divided into three classes. 
First, there are important States in each of which the British 
Government is represented by an Agent who corresponds with 
the Darbar, or State administration, and is a member of the 
Bombay Political service, specially appointed to the post. 
Second, groups of smaller States in charge of a Political 
Agent, who resides in a central station, and is also a mem- 
ber of the Bombay Political service. Third, isolated States in 
close proximity to British Districts, the Collector of which 
is ex-officio Agent for the State. According to this classifica- 
tion the States attached to the Bombay Presidency are as 
follows : — 

Class I. — Kolhapur, Savantvadi, and Cutch. 

Class II. — Mahl Kantha States, Palanpur States, Kathiawar 
States, and Southern Maratha Jaglrs. 

Class III. — Khairpur, Rewa Kantha, Cambay, Dharampur, 
Bansda, Sachin, Jawhar, JanjTra, Surgana, Akalkot, Bhor, 
Aundh, Phaltan, Savanur, Jath, and the Bhil States in Surat. 

The Native States are either subordinate to other States 
or in direct relation with the British Government. Thus 
Kolhapur has direct dealings with Government, while its feuda- 
tory, Kagal, is in relation with the Kolhapur Darbar. The status 
of the feudatories is usually guaranteed by Government. All 
classes are administered, subject to the orders of the chief, 
by the Darbar of ministers, who issue orders to the executive, 
usually through the chief minister or Dlwan. The powers 
of the chiefs are regulated by treaty or custom, and vary from 
authority to try all criminal offences not committed by British 
subjects, and complete civil authority, as in the case of the 
Maharaja of Kolhapur, to the mere right to collect revenue 
in a share of a village, without criminal or civil jurisdiction, 
as in the case of the petty chiefs of the Kathiawar peninsula. 
When the chief lacks the power to dispose of criminal or 
civil cases, they are dealt with by the Political Agent. Appeals 
from the judicial decisions of chiefs with large powers lie to 
the Governor-in-Council, and are not cognizable by the ordi- 
nary courts of justice established for British territory. With 
the object of providing a tribunal by which speedy justice 



BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


might be dispensed to the wild tribes inhabiting the border 
States of Gujarat and Rajputana, and to repress border raids, 
a system of Border Panchayats was instituted in 1838, which 
subsequently (1876) developed into regular courts under two 
British officers, one of whom represents the Rajputana State 
and the other the Bombay State concerned in the inquiry. 
The system still exists and the courts assemble as occasion 
requires. 

Aden. In Aden the local administration centres in the Resident, 
who is the General in command of the troops, 'and has three 
Political officers as Assistants in the former capacity. 

Law and The Legislative Council of the Presidency is composed of 

ieTsla- the members of the Executive Council, with the Advocate- 

tion. General and twenty Additional Members nominated by the 
Governor, eight of them on the recommendation of—(i) the 
corporation of Bombay, (2) the municipal corporations of the 
Northern Division, (3) the District boards of the Southern 
Division, (4) the District boards of the Central Division, (5) 
the Sardars of the Deccan, (6) the jagrddrs and zaminddrs 
of Sind, (7) the Chamber of Commerce, Bombay, and (8) the 
Senate of the Bombay University. 

The non-official Additional Members of this Council have 
the privilege of recommending one member for a seat as an 
Additional Member in the Legislative Council of the Governor- 
General. The members of the Legislative Council avail them- 
selves freely of the right to interpellate Government regarding 
matters of general administration, and to discuss the annual 
financial statement. 

The chief legislative measures affecting Bombay which have 
been passed since 1880 by the Governor-Generars Council 
are : The Indian Merchant Shipping Act (Act VII of 1880), 
the Bombay Revenue Jurisdiction Act (Act XV of 1880), the 
Indian Factories Act (Act XV of 1881), the Indian Trusts 
Act (Act II of 1882), extended to Bombay in 1891, the Land 
Improvement Loans Act (Act XIX of 1883), extended to 
Bombay in 1886, the Indian Steamships Act (Act VII of 
1884), the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act (Act IX of 
1887), the Land Acquisition Act (Act I of 1894), the Cotton 
Duties Act (Act II of 1896), the Sind Encumbered Estates 
Act (Act XX of 1896), and the Epidemic Diseases Act (Act 
III of 1897). Of the enactments passed by the Bombay 
Legislative Council during the same period the chief are : The 
Bombay Local Boards Act (Act I of 1882), the City of Bom- 
bay Municipal Act (Act IV of 1888), the Bombay Village 



LAW AND JUSTICE 


89 


Sanitation Act (Act I of 1889), the Bombay Salt Act (Act II 
of 1890), the Bombay District Police Act (Act IV of 1890), 
the City of Bombay Improvement Act (Act IV of 1898), the 
Bombay District Municipal Act (Act III of 1901), the City 
of Bombay Police Act (Act IV of 1902), the Bombay Land 
Record-of-Rights Act (Act IV of 1903), the Bombay Motor- 
Vehicles Act (Act II of 1904), and the Bombay Court of 
Wards Act (Act II of 1905). 

The administration of justice throughout the Presidency High 
proper is, under a statute of 1861 (Indian High Courts Act) Court - 
and the letters patent of 1865, entrusted to the High Court, 
which has both ordinary 7 and extraordinary civil and criminal 
jurisdiction, original in the City and Island of Bombay and 
appellate in the other Regulation Districts. It also exercises 
the functions of an insolvency court, and possesses the civil 
and criminal jurisdiction of an admiralty and vice-admiralty 
court in prize causes and other maritime questions arising in 
India. The Court consists of a Chief Justice (a barrister) and 
six puisne judges who are either Indian Civilians, barnsters, or 
native lawyers. 

In Sind the Court of the Judicial Commissioner (consisting 
of three judges, one of whom must be a barrister) is the highest 
court of civil and criminal appeal, and the High Court at 
Bombay has no jurisdiction over that province, except as re- 
gards a few special matters. The Judicial Commissioner’s 
Court is a colonial court of admiralty, from which an appeal 
lies to a full bench of the same court and ultimately to His 
Majesty in Council. 

The lower civil courts are constituted under Act XIV of Civil 
1869, which defines their powers. In most cases the court courts ‘ 
of first instance is that of a Subordinate Judge of the first 
or second class according to the valuation of the suit. The 
court of first appeal is that of a District or Assistant Judge, 
or of a first-class Subordinate Judge with special powers. The 
jurisdiction of the District, Additional, and Assistant Judges 
is conterminous in each District. The Subordinate Judges are 
usually recruited from the ranks of the local pleaders, while 
the District and Assistant Judges are Indian or Statutory 
Civilians or members of the Provincial Service. A Subor- 
dinate Judge of the second class has original jurisdiction in 
suits of less than Rs. 5,000 in value, but no appellate powers ; 
while a Subordinate Judge of the first class has jurisdiction in 
all original civil suits, except those in which Government is 
a party. The latter may be invested with appellate jurisdiction 



9 o 


BOMBA V PRESIDENCY 


Criminal 

courts. 


and with the summary powers of a Small Cause Court Judge 
for the trial of suits not exceeding Rs. i,ooo in value. An 
Assistant Judge may try such original suits of less than 
Rs. 10,000 in value as the District Judge refers to him, and 
may be invested with appellate jurisdiction, in which case his 
powers are the same as those of a District Judge. The District 
Judge exercises a general control over all courts within his 
charge, and refers such suits as he deems proper to the Assis- 
tant Judge. In certain parts of the Presidency the services 
of an Additional Judge are employed. This officer, with the 
title of Assistant Judge, has all the powers of a District Judge 
in civil matters, and nearly all the administrative powers. An 
appeal from the decision of a Subordinate or Assistant Judge 
in cases exceeding Rs. 5,000 in value, and from the decision of 
a District Judge in all original suits, lies to the High Court. 
Any Subordinate Judge can be invested with certain powers 
as regards small debts ; and special Small Cause Courts exist 
at Bombay, Ahmadabad, Nadiad, Broach, Surat, Poona, and 
Karachi. The Dekkhan Agriculturists’ Relief Act is adminis- 
tered in the Presidency proper by a Special Judge and two 
first-class Subordinate Judges, with the aid of a number of 
Village Munsifs and conciliators. 

In Sind the judicial system nearly resembles that of the 
Regulation portion of the Presidency. In Aden and its depen- 
dencies the Resident has rather more extensive powers than 
a District and Sessions Judge, but his decisions are in certain 
cases subject to revision by the High Court at Bombay. 

Mamlatdars have, under Bombay Act III of 1876, jurisdic- 
tion in suits regarding immediate possession of immovable 
property. Their decisions are subject to revision by the High 
Court. 

District and Assistant Judges, under the title of Sessions 
Judges and Assistant Sessions Judges, exercise criminal juris- 
diction throughout the Presidency. But original criminal work 
is chiefly disposed of by the executive District officers, who, in 
addition to their revenue duties, are invested with magisterial 
powers under the Code of Criminal Procedure. The total 
number of magistrates of all classes (inclusive of 242 honorary 
magistrates) in 1904 was 1,128, of whom 24 were District 
magistrates, 4 Presidency magistrates, 31 1 magistrates of the 
first class, 259 magistrates of the second class, and 288 magis- 
trates of the third class. Under the general title of Courts of 
Sessions three grades of officers are included : the Sessions 
Judge, who is the District Judge; the Additional Sessions , 



LAW AND JUSTICE 


9 r 

Judge, who is the Assistant Judge with full powers ; and the 
Assistant Sessions Judge. Whereas the Sessions Judge can 
try any offence and pass any legal sentence, subject in the case 
of a capital sentence to confirmation by the High Court, the 
Additional Sessions Judge can try only such cases as he is 
empowered by the Government to try or which are made over 
to him by the Sessions Judge. The Assistant Sessions Judge 
can try only such cases as the Government may direct or as 
are made over to him by the general or special order of the 
Sessions Judge. A sentence passed by him may not exceed 
imprisonment or transportation for seven years. The jurisdic- 
tion of the three classes of Judges is conterminous in each 
District of the Presidency. 

Particulars of civil suits and criminal cases instituted before 
these different courts are given in the following tables : — 


Statistics of Civil Justice in Bombay Presidency 


Classes of suits. 

A\ erage 
for ten 
\ears 
ending 
1890 

Average 
for ten 
years 
ending 
1900 

1901. 

1904 

Suits for money and movable 
property .... 
Title and other suits . 

i 5 i j 4 3 4 

15.510 

160,369 

3 t .289 

147.815 

38,593 

120,227 

40,276 

Total 

166,934 

191,658 

186,408 

160,503* 


* Besides these, there were 4,608 suits under the Dekkhan Agriculturists’ Relief Act. 


Statistics of Criminal Justice in Bombay Presidency 





























ggigj 




Civil suits tend to increase steadily, except in years of 
famine or scarcity. Thar and Parkar in Sind and Satara in the 
Deccan are remarkable for litigation, whereas the fewest suits 







92 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Registra- 

tion. 


Finance. 


in proportion to the population are instituted in Bombay City 
and in the Gujarat Districts. Criminal offences are mainly 
petty assaults and thefts. In famine seasons gang robberies 
or * dacoities ’ are doubled, and thefts show a similar increase 
r~the natural outcome of widespread privation. Convictions 
are obtained only in less than half the cases brought into court 
—an eloquent indication of the difficulties under which the 
courts labour in endeavouring to arrive at a conclusion regard- 
ing the guilt of the accused. It is probable that the prisoner 
is more often acquitted on account of the unsatisfactory de- 
meanour of the witnesses than because the charge is untrue. 

Documents regarding rights in immovable property, and 
those dealing with movable property of over a certain value, 
are required to be registered. Sub-registrars are maintained 
in taluka head-quarters for this purpose, and are bound to 
require evidence of execution before proceeding to register. 
Collectors are ex-officio Registrars for their Districts, and the 
department is controlled by the Inspector-General of Registra- 
tion. The number of offices and of documents registered in 
the Presidency, excluding Native States, but including Aden, 
Deesa, and Bhuj cantonments, was as follows: offices (in 1881) 
255, (1891) 224, (1901) 257, (1903) 261; average number 
of documents registered (in 1881-90) 111,441, (1891-1900) 
186,476, (1900-1) 199,156, and (1903-4) 161,593. 

The financial system of the Marathas was largely the result 
of the historical events leading to their political ascendancy. 
Thus the revenue raised in the svaraj, or area in which their 
sovereignty was unchallenged, was wholly theirs. Elsewhere 
the revenue was divided between them and the Mughals, or 
later, between them and the Nizam, though a sardeshmukhi 
or overlordship charge of 10 per cent, was levied and retained 
by the Marathas. The revenue was raised almost entirely 
from the land assessment and special cesses known as paltis, 
such as a butter tax, a grain and grass tax, a house tax, and 
a tax on female buffaloes. Broadly speaking, the sum col- 
lected was divided into two portions: the babti or chiefs 
share, and the mokasa or share given away by the chief, three 
parts of the revenue being treated as babti and one part as 
mokasa. Thus a Maratha budget for outlying territory would 
roughly have been as follows 

Sardeshmukhi per cent. 

Share due to Mughals or Nizam . 45 )f 

Maiatha share- ||^ 3 j| ^ „ 

Total 100 



FINANCE 


93 


But the division of the revenues was in practice greatly com- 
plicated by special assignments made to the great hereditary 
officers, such as the Pant Sachiv. The total demand was 
never realized, and the receipts varied greatly from year to 
year. 

Under British rule, up to the year 1S70 there was but one 
common purse for all India, of which the Government of India 
held the strings. Since then, the distribution of revenue and 
expenditure between the Supreme and Provincial Governments 
has been regulated by the Provincial settlement system, a 
description of which will be found in Vol. IV., chap. vi. In Settlement 
1871-2 an allotment was made to the Government of Bombay of 187 r * 
for certain services transferred to its control, such as police, 
education, jails, registration, equal to the estimates for those 
services for 1870-1, less a lump deduction of 6*6 lakhs neces- 
sitated by financial exigencies. This settlement was accom- 
panied by a general promise that, except in the event of war, 
famine, or other severe financial exigency, the assignments 
would not be reduced. 

In 1877 the system was expanded by assigning to the Local 1877. 
Government a proportionate share in certain growing heads of 
revenue, from which it was to meet the expenditure on the 
ordinary Provincial services. These included land revenue, 

66 lakhs ; excise, 40 ; stamps, 45 ; law and justice, 3 ; and 
other items amounting to 4 lakhs. The result was to raise 
the income of the Local Government by about 153 lakhs per 
annum. This second settlement was fixed for five years. It 
was seriously disturbed by the famine of 1877, an ^ could not 
in consequence be strictly adhered to. The Provincial revenue 
and expenditure during this period averaged respectively 347 
and 336 lakhs. 

In 1882 a third quinquennial settlement was arranged, the 1882. 
terms of which were far more favourable to the Local Govern- 
ment than in the two previous cases. The principle adopted 
was to extend the interest of the Provincial authorities in the 
development of the revenue by a system of sharing several of 
the old and some new heads, instead of allotting certain heads 
entirely to Provincial funds. Thus, it was arranged that the 
Bombay Government should receive half of the revenues under 
forest, excise, assessed taxes, stamps, and registration, and 
should receive in their entirety the proceeds of local rates, 
minor departments, law and justice, marine, police, education, 
medical, stationery and printing, miscellaneous receipts under 
customs and salt, and certain items under interest, pensions, mis.- 



94 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


cellaneous, and public works. The Local Government was to 
look for no special aid in future from Imperial sources, except 
in the case of severe famine, and then only within certain 
definite limits ; and, on the other hand, the Supreme Govern' 
ment was to make no demand on the Provincial authorities 
except in the case of abnormal disaster. This settlement 
opened with a credit balance of 29 lakhs, and, after contributing 
20 lakhs to make good deficiencies in Imperial accounts, closed 
with a balance of nearly 55 lakhs. The revenue and expendi- 
ture during this period averaged respectively 380^ and 380! 
lakhs. 

3887. In the fourth settlement (1887) the principle of dividing 
receipts as well as expenditure under certain heads was ex- 
tended, and some changes were made in the proportion of the 
shares. The estimates of the receipts thus provincialized fell 
short of the expenditure by nearly 82 lakhs, which was met by 
an assignment from the Imperial share of the land revenue 
receipts. The closing Provincial balance under this settlement 
was about 40 lakhs. The revenue and expenditure during this 
period averaged respectively 390^ and 393! lakhs. 

3892. The fifth settlement (1892) was marked by some slight 
changes in the classification of revenue and by the cessation of 
all inter-Provincial adjustments. The special feature of this 
settlement was that it was a consolidated one, intended to 
secure to the Local Government a total sum for all heads taken 
collectively instead of a contract figure for each major head 
of receipts. The revenue and expenditure during this period 
averaged respectively 41 1 and 416 lakhs. In 1897, when the 
settlement came to a close, the balance had fallen to 18 lakhs. 
The decrease was caused by the demands made for special 
expenditure in connexion with famine and plague. Owing to 
the disturbance in Provincial finance due to continued famine 
and plague, the Government of India limited the 1897 settle- 
Subsequent ment to a period of one year. Towards the end of 1898, 
ment^" w ^ en extension of this settlement was discussed, it was 
found that the Presidency had not recovered from the effects 
of the famine of 1896-7 ; and it was decided to continue its 
contract with the Government of India on the lines of the fifth 
settlement (1892-7), the fixed assignment being curtailed by 
Rs. 94,000 on account of some special reductions in Provincial 
services. The year 1898-9 opened with no balance, and it 
was therefore directed that the Provincial share of special 
famine arrears of land revenue should remain unspent until 
the minimum balance of 20 lakhs had been restored. The 



LAND REVENUE 


95 


occurrence of a still more severe famine in 1899-1900 entirely 
upset these arrangements, and further grants-in-aid by the 
Supreme Government became necessary. On March 31, 1902, 
the sixth settlement expired; but, for the reasons already 
given, it had never amounted to more than an arrangement 
of accounts. The state of affairs at the close rendered it diffi- 
cult to fix standards for either revenue or expenditure ; and, 
mainly for this reason, it was decided to continue the former 
Provincial arrangements till March 31, 1905. Imperial reve- 
nues bore all direct famine expenditure during the period 
1897-1903, excepting a sum of 2*52 lakhs in 1898-9, which 
was debited to Provincial revenues. The details of this ex- 
penditure were, in thousands of rupees, as follows 

1897-8 .... 94,26 

1899- 1900 .... 1,15,43 

1900- 1 .... 2,84,02 

1901- 2 .... 77,63 

1902- 3 .... 39,99 

Total 6,11,33 

The chief features of the new settlement, which came into 
force on April 1, 1905, are that the period of its duration is 
not fixed, an annual assignment of Rs. 42,77,000 is made to 
Provincial revenues under the Land Revenue head, and the 
proportions between Provincial and Imperial accounts of the 
shared heads of revenue and expenditure have been materially 
changed in favour of the Bombay Government. That is to 
say, the Provincial share of the revenue has been raised to the 
whole under the head Registration, and to one-half under 
the remaining divided heads. On the expenditure side the 
proportions are the same, except that Land Revenue is wholly 
Provincial. The scope of the settlement has been enlarged by 
the provincialization of one-half of the revenue and expenditure 
under Irrigation. 

Tables VI and VII on pp. 139-40 show the chief sources 
of revenue and the chief heads of expenditure between 1880 
and 1904. 

The table on the next page shows, in thousands of rupees, 
the gross Provincial receipts and expenditure, as well as the 
opening and closing balances for the years 1897-8 to 1903-4. 

In the Bombay Presidency (outside Sind) the land revenue Land 
system is with few exceptions ryotwari\ that is to say, a^end 
system of settlement with the ryots or cultivators of small hold- method of 
ings, whose revenue payments are fixed after careful measure- assessment, 
ment and classification of the land in their possession. The 



9 6 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


settlement, once made, is in force for a period of thirty years, 
during which the ryot is at liberty to alienate his occupancy 
right ; but he cannot be dispossessed by Government so long 
as he regularly pays the several instalments of land revenue. 
At the conclusion of the term of settlement, the revenue pay- 
able is liable to revision; but the tenant has a continued 



Opening 

balance. 

Gross 

receipts 

Gross 

expenditure 

Closing 

balance 

1897-8 . 

17.97 

4,29,01 

4.41.9 8 


1898-9 . 

5 

4,61,62 

4 . 5 I > 5 8 

I 5,°4 

1899-1900 . 

15.04 

4.15.76 

4,40,81 


1900-1 . 

... 

4.52.25 

4.52,20 


1901-2 . 


5.15.36 

4 , 57.13 

58,23 

1902-3 . 

58,23 

4,68,85 

4 , 93 .o 8 

34,00 

1903-4 . . 

34 >°° 

4,61,86 

4,63,09 

32,77 


right of occupancy provided that he agrees to accept the new 
terms. His position is thus more secure than it was before 
the advent of the British Government. In earlier times, it is 
true, the hereditary occupant, or mirasdar> held land on terms 
which precluded its forfeiture on failure to pay the revenue 
demand, unless he absented himself for a term of over thirty 
years. But, on the other hand, he was liable to extra and 
arbitrary impositions, and was responsible for the default of 
neighbouring mirasdars , while his lien on the land was also 
conditional on his reimbursing all arrears due and expenses 
incurred during default. The original settlement of the 
revenue demand from each occupant made by the British 
Government was based on the investigations of a Survey de- 
partment, specially organized for this work. After measuring 
and mapping every holding, the Survey officers proceeded to 
classify the fields according to depth and quality of soil, theif 
situation, and natural defects, such as liability to inundation 
and the like. In this manner the field was placed in a class 
corresponding to a certain 4 anna valuation ’ or fractional share 
of the maximum rates calculated in terms of 16. Subse- 
quently villages were grouped into blocks with reference to 
their nearness to markets, to means of communication, and 
other economic conditions. The maximum rates for the block 
were then fixed with reference to these conditions, and to 
average prices. A field bearing a 12-anna valuation would 
thus, if situated in a village with a maximum rate of Rs. 4, 
bear an assessment of Rs. 3 per acre, 
position of ^ observed that in this manner the ryot is called 

the ryot . upon to pay a yearly revenue in proportion to the probable 




LAND REVENUE 


97 


income that he can derive from his holding. The advantages 
offered to him by the system are security of tenure, power of 
alienation, either temporarily by mortgage or permanently by 
sale, and a fixed annual demand, subject to revision only at 
the expiry of the settlement period. The disadvantages are 
that the revenue is payable in cash, which may involve forced 
sales of produce j that, being fixed on the average capacity of 
the land, it is payable, in theory at least, whether the crops are 
good, bad, or a total failure ; and that, in the case of thriftless 
occupants, who are the majority, the power to alienate the 
holding, combined with fixity of assessment, has in many 
instances facilitated reckless borrowing, ultimately reducing the 
occupant to a mere serf of the money-lender. In other words, 
the underlying assumption involved in the original survey 
settlement of Bombay was that, with a moderate and fixed 
demand of revenue, combined with permanency of tenure, the 
occupant would be encouraged to thrift and disposed to make 
improvements. Experience shows that these very features of 
the settlement have stimulated a natural disposition to reck- 
less borrowing on the part of the occupant, while offering to 
capitalists inducements to make advances that never before 
existed. Recent inquiries tend to the conclusion that, as a 
result, in some parts of the Presidency nearly three-fourths of 
the ryots have mortgaged their holdings. Legitimate borrow- 
ing by an agriculturist for the development of his land is 
a process which Government may view with equanimity. 
Reckless recourse to the money-lender for sums to be dissi- 
pated on marriages or other forms of domestic expenditure 
tends to substitute for the state a landlord concerned only in 
extracting from the cultivator the full measure of his dues, 
however excessive the share claimed may be when compared to 
the total produce of the land. Under such landlords the state 
of the cultivating classes may not inconceivably constitute a 
grave political embarrassment. 

The original survey settlement of Bombay commenced in Financial 
1835 and was concluded in 1882, except in North Kanara and 
Ratnagiri, which were completed respectively in 1891 and men t. 
1893. Survey operations are now in progress in the Akhrani 
pargand) a wild and isolated portion of Khandesh District. 

The settlement imposed a total revenue demand of 2*7 crores 
on the twenty-four Districts of the Presidency. The first 
revision settlement raised this sum by 22 per cent., the revised 
demand amounting to 3*3 crores. In all but three cases the 
District revenue was increased, the maximum increases being 

H 


BO. 1. 



BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


Settlement 

rates. 


Special 

tenures. 


98 

50 and 46 per cent, in the case of North Kanara and Thar 
and Parkar. For the last thirty years it has been an accepted 
principle of revision that in no circumstances shall the increase 
of revenue exceed 100 per cent, on an individual holding, 
66 per cent, on a village, or 33 per cent, on a group of vil- 
lages. Improvements effected by occupants in their holdings 
from private capital are exempt from taxation at a revision 
settlement. The special Survey department, having completed 
its work, has been abolished, and revisions of the revenue 
settlements are now entrusted to the Assistant or Deputy- 
Collectors in charge of the District subdivision. 

The maximum and minimum rates per acre of assessment 
on ‘dry-crop 5 and garden land in the various Divisions of the 
Presidency, under the revised survey settlement, are— Northern 
Division: ‘dry crop, 5 6J annas to Rs. 8-13; garden land, 
11 annas to Rs. 16-9 ; Central Division : ‘dry crop, 5 3 annas 
to Rs. 2-1 1 ; garden land, 10 annas to Rs. 14-14; Southern 
Division : ‘ dry crop, 5 1 anna to Rs. 3-4 ; garden land, 8 annas 
to Rs. 14-13. In Sind the rates vary from R. 1 to Rs. 6-8 per 
acre. When land held under the survey settlement is sublet, 
the rent paid by the tenant varies from two to seven times the 
Government assessment. In cases of sales, the prices realized 
average about twenty-five times the assessment, and in some 
cases are as high as fifty times that sum. It is a noticeable 
fact that twenty times the assessment of the land will be ad- 
vanced to the occupant on a mortgage-deed, whereas, if history 
is to be credited, land would not sell for more than two or 
three years 5 purchase, and could not be mortgaged for more 
than half the gross yearly produce, before the days of British 
government. 

Besides the survey or ryotwan tenure just described, the 
chief forms of tenure in the Bombay Presidency are known as 
talukdari , mehwasi , udhad jamabandi \ khoti , izdfat \ and 
revenue-free lands. 

The talukdari tenure is found in Gujarat, principally in 
Ahmadabad District. Talukdars are absolute proprietors of 
their respective estates, subject to the payment of a Govern- 
ment demand, periodically revised. They do not cultivate the 
land, but are sharers in its profits, with power to mortgage 
their shares. Permanent alienation requires Government 
sanction. These landowners levy rent from their tenants, 
either by bhagbatai y i.e. taking a share of the crops, or by 
bighoti, i.e. a fixed rate per acre. The mehwasi tenure, also 
found in Gujarat, is a system of paying revenue in a lump sum 



LAND REVENUE 


99 


for the village, the amount being fixed at the discretion of the 
Collector. The payments are made by joint owners of the 
villages, who are descendants of Koll or Rajput chiefs, formerly 
subject in most cases to tribute. Udkad jamdbandi is a fixed 
assessment, not liable to revision, on villages, or groups of vil- 
lages. The khoti tenure of the Konkan consists in the holding 
of village lands by families, who make an annual agreement 
with Government, and have the right to lease out lands on 
their own terms. They pay a lump assessment fixed on all the 
village lands by the Survey department, which is liable to 
revision. Izdfat tenure has arisen from the holdings of heredi- 
tary’ local officers, whose services are no longer demanded but 
whose holdings pay the full revenue demand, subject to certain 
concessions. Indms , jagirs, &c., are tenures, wholly or partly 
free from assessment, of land allotted for services in connexion 
with the state, temples, &c. The distribution of the lands of 
the Presidency among the different forms of tenure in 1903-4 
was as follows: ryotwari , or survey tenure, 1,392,740 holdings ; 
tdlukdari , 4973 mehwasi , 62; udhad jamabandi, 95; khoti, 

3,684; izdfat, 30; indms, jagirs, &c., 2,199. In Sind land is 
held on the irrigational settlement, based on the mode of irri- 
gation adopted. The occupants are liable for the full assess- 
ment on each survey number when cultivated, and fallows are 
assessed once in five years. The land is mostly held by zamtn- 
ddrs or large landholders. There are special forms of tenure 
in Bombay Island unknown throughout the rest of the Presi- 
dency, which are described in the article on Bombay City. 

The land revenue administration of the Presidency is regu- 
lated by Bombay Act V of 1879 and the rules passed there- 
under. 

It is not easy to arrive at any estimate of the land revenue Land 
raised from the area of the Presidency before British rule, for 
the accounts kept by the Peshwas were very incomplete, and Maiathas. 
the records which have been preserved are fragmentary. The 
practice was to entrust the collection of the revenue to farmers 
(or ijaradars) \ a certain maximum assessment known as the 
kamdl was imposed on each village, and the government 
realized from the farmer as large a proportion of the kamdl 
as it was able to obtain. At harvest time a division of the 
crops ( bhdgbatai ) was made, and the farmer took from the 
peasant the government share, which varied from one-third to 
one-half, after deducting the cost of cultivation. The farmer 
received as his profit the balance between his collections from 
the cultivator and his payments to the Peshwa. In bad 



100 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


seasons extensive remissions appear to have been made to the 
farmers, and may have reached the cultivators. In many 
villages the kamal has been found to be twice as high as the 
assessment now levied under the survey settlement. In spite 
of the enormous increase in the area now cultivated, it is 
probable that the total assessment now raised in the Presi- 
dency is far lower than the value of the contributions ex- 
tracted from the villagers under the Maratha system. Further, 
it was customary to supplement the land revenue demand by 
cesses on houses and trades, and for special objects such as 
the ghas-dana (expenditure on grass and grain). All such 
cesses have been abolished by the British Government; their 
only counterpart being a rural cess of one anna in the rupee 
for the maintenance of roads and schools. 

Remissions It has already been observed that the original survey assess- 

present^ raent waS mtenc ^ e ^ to * ev ' lei d * n seasons good or bad, or 

system, even of total crop failure. Numerous experiments tend to 
prove that the demand averages about 8 to 12 per cent, on the 
gross out-turn from the land. The large profit made by the 
cultivator in a good year was theoretically expected to cover 
the revenue demand when the season was bad. As a matter 
of fact, extensive remissions have been granted during famines 
or other natural calamities ; but hitherto the burden of proving 
incapacity to meet the revenue demand has been imposed 
upon the occupant, the dues being collected even in famine 
tracts unless the occupant can satisfy the authorities of his 
inability to pay. Apart from the reasons already given, the 
justification for this course lay in the indebtedness of the culti- 
vator. It was argued that wholesale remissions would chiefly 
benefit wealthy capitalists, who stood in no need of relief. 
But, owing to the recent succession of unfavourable seasons, 
great practical difficulties arose in discriminating the private 
circumstances of individuals; and, by a change of system 
introduced in 1907, remissions are in future to be determined 
solely by the failure of crops and the depressed condition of 
agriculture in definite tracts. 

Restric- Two important enactments have a special bearing on the 

thTtosfer land revenue P olic y of the Bombay Government. In 1879 

of land, the Dekkhan Agriculturists’ Relief Act was passed to cope with 
agrarian discontent in four Deccan Districts— Poona, Satara, 
Sholapur, and Ahmadnagar. The Act provided for the ap- 
pointment of a special judge and numerous conciliators, who 
were empowered to investigate mortgages and similar aliena- 
tions of land, to revise the terms of the contract, and to 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 


iot 

arrange for an equitable settlement of claims, with a view 
to restoring the original rights of the occupant. The agrarian 
agitation which led to this measure being passed has not since 
recurred, but the Act is held to have led to an increase in 
sales of land in the Districts to which it applies. The Bom- 
bay Land Revenue Code Amendment Act of 1901 introduced 
some changes in the law regarding the grant of survey settle- 
ment occupancies, the Collector being empowered, after for- 
feiting land on which arrears of revenue were due, to grant it 
free of all incumbrances to an occupant on condition that 
it should not be mortgaged or otherwise alienated. Infringe- 
ment of these conditions entails forfeiture of the holding. 

The object of this amendment was to restrict alienations. Its 
operation has not so far been sufficiently extensive to justify 
any conclusion regarding its probable results. 

No opium is grown in the Bombay Presidency. Revenue is Miscel- 
raised from this drug by means of a duty payable on importa- 
tion or on issue from the Government depot, supplemented by Opium 
fees for the right of vend. Opium intended for local con- (3ut >'* 
sumption pays a duty of Rs. 700 per chest of 140^ lb. A 
regular export of opium from Bombay to China has existed for 
many years. The duty on such opium was raised from Rs. 500 
to Rs. 600 per chest in 1904. The average volume of this 
trade is 25,000 chests per annum. The annual local con- 
sumption of the Presidency is about 550 chests, equal to 0*13 
tola per head of population. During recent years the volume 
of trade in opium and the duty raised therefrom has been as 
follows : — 


Imports in 

Chests. 

Duty in thou- ' 
sands of rupees. | 

1880 (ending August) 

38,541 

2,70,05 

1890 (ending August) 

1900 (ending August; 

30,079 

21,638 

1,80,69 | 

1,08,36 | 

1902-3 (ending March, for eight months) 

15,211 

76,28 j 

1903-4 (ending March, for twelve months) . 

27,498 

1.38,32 1 

1 


The opium to which these figures refer is nearly all grown 
in Malwa and imported into the Presidency by rail; a small 
quantity is also raised in the Native State of Baroda. The 
4 opium ’ revenue proper consists only of the duty on exported 
opium ; the duty and the receipts from local consumption are 
credited to ‘excise.’ The local transport and sale of opium is 
permissible only under a licence, and the amount which a 
private individual may possess or cany on his person is strictly 



102 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


limited. There is a central opium warehouse in Bombay City. 
Elsewhere opium is stored in, and issued from, the Govern- 
ment treasuries 

Vend fees. The retail vend arrangements fall under two classes : (i) 
The ‘selection farming’ system, which prevails in the Districts 
of Ahmadabad, Kaira, Panch Mahals, Broach, Surat, Poona, 
Sholapur, Ahmadnagar, and Nasik, by which the monopoly 
of retail vend for a District, at shops licensed by the Collector, 
is granted year by year to a farmer selected by Government. 
The farmer has to contribute to the cost of the Government 
preventive establishments, but otherwise pays nothing for his 
privilege over and above the duty on the opium he sells. 
Maximum and minimum prices are prescribed in his licence. 
He may procure his supply direct from Malwa, or from the 
opium warehouse at Bombay, or from local Government 
depdts. (2) In the Districts of Khandesh, Bijapur, Belgaum, 
Dharwar, Kanara, Ratnagiri, Satara, Thana, Kolaba, and in 
the City and Island of Bombay, at Aden, and in the Baroda 
cantonment, the ‘licence fee’ system is in force. Under 
this system the right of retail vend, either in single shops, or 
throughout a taluka, or an entire District, is disposed of by 
auction, the sum paid being in addition to the duty on issues. 
The licensee must procure his supplies from a Government 
depot, and is bound to sell subject to fixed minimum and 
maximum prices. 

The control of the Opium department in the Presidency 
proper is in the hands of the Commissioner of Customs, and 
centres in the Collector of each District, assisted by his ordinary 
establishment and a staff of opium police. In Sind the control 
is vested in the Commissioner. 

Arrange- Agreements are in force with all Native chiefs in the Presi- 

Native in ^ enc y t0 secure ^eix co-operation in stopping contraband 

States. traffic. Under these agreements the cultivation of the poppy 
is prohibited in the Bombay States, and the chiefs are required 
to supply themselves with opium from a British depot, by 
purchase wholesale in the Bombay market, or by direct im- 
portation from Malwa under pass, and to retail it to their 
subjects at prices not lower than the retail prices in British 
Districts. In return for these undertakings the States are 
allowed a refund of either the whole or a part of the duty. A 
few of the States in Mahi Kantha, Rewa Kantha, and Palanpur 
have been allowed annual compensation for the loss of transit 
duties. 

Salt. Salt is the subject of Government control in India, to enable 



MISCELLANEOUS EE VENUE 103 

the tax of R. 1 per maund of 82 lb. to be realized \ The salt 
revenue is raised by the sale of Government salt, by the levy 
of duty on imports, by leasing out private salt-works, and by 
selling salt on special terms for fish-curing. In the Bombay 
Presidency proper about 9,000,000 maunds of salt are manu- 
factured yearly, and there is also an import of some 300,000 
maunds. The gross revenue derived from taxing this pro- 
duction is about 2 crores, and the consumption amounts to 
nearly 3,000,000 maunds or about 9 lb. per head of the 
population. 

The long line of sea-coast which the Presidency possesses 
offers special facilities for the manufacture of salt. The chief 
centres of production are at Kharaghoda on the Rann of 
Cutch, where salt is produced from brine under Government 
management, and at Dharasna near Bulsar, Matunga in 
Bombay, Sanikatta in North Kanara, and similar factories, 
some owned by Government and some held by private indi- 
viduals, where salt is manufactured in pans from sea-water by 
evaporation. 

An extensive import of salt amounting to about 250,000 
maunds annually takes place from Portuguese territory. It 
is manufactured near Panjim, and passes into British territory 
at Castle Rock by the West of India Portuguese Railway. 
Small imports by pack-bullock are also registered along the 
numerous ghat roads that are too steep for cart traffic. The 
following statistics show the progress in the production and 
consumption of salt during the last twenty-four years in the 
Bombay Presidency, including Sind : — 



Salt delivered 
from salt- 
■works. 

Salt 

imported.* 

Salt 

consumed. 

Gross 
revenue 
from salt 

Average 
consumption 
per head. 

I 880-1 
1890-1 
1900-1 
1903-4 

Maunds. 

6,358,5'? 

8,852,045 
9,5 >4,462 
9,008,85-3 

Maunds. 

26,536 

13,482 

319,495 

293,580 

Maunds. 

3,670,657 

2,978,667 

3,173,089 

3,965,946 

Thousands 
of rupees. 

1,50,56 

3,16,80 

2,34,06 

1,86,77+ 

lb 

9-13 

8.83 

9*97 

9*°3 


4 The imports of salt in 1881 and 1891 do not include Goa salt, the special duty 
having been in force m those years. .. , 

+ Ihese figures exclude Aden but include certain miscellaneous items which are 
credited to other heads in Table VI on p. 139. 


For the protection of the salt revenue, and for the collection 
of the duty on manufactured or imported salt, a staff of 

1 The tax was reduced from Rs. a| per maund to Rs, 2 in 1903, to 
Rs. in 1905, and to its present rate in 1907. 




Excise. 
Sources of 
revenue. 


Country 

liquor. 


104 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

1 Collector, 10 Assistant Collectors, and 11 Deputy-Collectors 
is maintained, who are also responsible for the control of the 
customs outside the ports of Bombay and Karachi. This 
department is subordinate to the Commissioner of Customs, 
Salt, Opium, and Abkari. No salt may be manufactured, 
imported, transported, or exported without a permit from the 
Salt department. Breaches of the law under this head are 
punishable with fine and imprisonment. The salt not con- 
sumed in the Presidency is exported, after levy of duty, to 
the Madras Districts, Hyderabad, or Calcutta, or issued free 
of duty to the Native States of Janjlra, Patri, Jhinjhuvada, and 
Radhanpur, so long as these States agree to prohibit the 
manufacture of salt within their own borders. Small quantities 
of salt are also issued at special rates for use in recognized 
fish-curing yards, of which there are 1 5 in North Kanara and 
14 in Ratnagiri. The quantity of fish cured annually amounts 
to about 184,000 maunds. 

The statistics of salt production and consumption in Sind 
in 1903-4 were: delivered, 275,000 maunds; imported, 
12,725 maunds; consumed, 287,000 maunds; gross revenue, 
6J lakhs; average consumption per head, 7-37 lb. There 
is one fish-curing yard in Sind, curing annually about 5,000 
maunds of fish. 

The excise revenue is derived from duties, taxes, or fees 
levied on the manufacture and sale of country liquor, including 
toddy; the manufacture and sale of country liquors excised 
at rates leviable under the Indian Tariff Act; the sale of 
imported foreign liquors ; the manufacture and sale of intoxi- 
cating drugs other than opium as defined in the Abkari Act ; 
the local consumption of opium. 

The revenue from country liquor, which forms by far the 
most important of these items, is obtained by — 

(a ) ‘ The still-head duty, central distillery, and minimum 
guarantee system.’— This system prevails everywhere except 
in the City and Island of Bombay, the cantonment of Deesa, 
and the Districts of Thana, Kolaba, Ratnagiri, North Kanara 
(coast tdlukas ), Belgaum, Satara, Poona, Ahmadnagar, Nasik, 
and Khandesh. The exclusive privilege of manufacture and 
sale of country liquor in each District to which the system 
applies is farmed out to a contractor, who manufactures the 
spirit at a central distillery and pays a fixed still-head duty on 
passing it out for sale in his shops. The contractor pays 
nothing for the right of vend, but he has to furnish a ‘ mini- 
mum guarantee/ that is, he undertakes that Government shall 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 105 

receive not less than a fixed sum each year on account of still- 
head duty on liquor issued from the distillery , and he has 
thus a direct interest in the suppression of illicit distillation, 
and in the supply to the public from the central distillery 
of the quantity of liquor required for normal consumption. 
He is bound to sell spirit of authorized strengths only and 
within certain maximum prices prescribed. The rates of still- 
head duty varied in 1903-4 from 12 annas to Rs. 3-10 per 
gallon of spirit of 25 0 under proof, corresponding respectively 
to R. 1 and Rs. 4-13-4 per proof gallon, and from 6 annas 
to Rs. 1-14 per gallon of spirit of 6o° under proof. 

( b ) ‘The public or private distillery still-head duty and 
licence fee system.* — Under this system, which obtains only 
in the City and Island of Bombay, the manufacture of country 
spirit is separated from sale and there is no monopoly of 
either. The number of shops for the sale of country spirit 
is fixed, and the vend licences are disposed of either by 
auction or on payment of fees assessed periodically by the 
Collector on the basis of actual sales. The vendors are at 
liberty to procure their liquor, on payment of the prescribed 
rates of still-head duty, from any of the private spirit distilleries 
at Uran or from the public toddy spirit distillery at Dadar. 
There are no restrictions in regard to maximum price. The 
rates of duty vary from Rs. 1-1-10 per gallon of toddy spirit 
of 6o° under proof to Rs. 2-1-6 per gallon of 25 0 under proof. 
The duty per gallon of Uran spirit of any strength up to 
10 under proof is Rs. 4. 

A system in force in Thana, Kolaba, and Ratnagiri, and in 
the coast tdlukas of North Kanara District may be briefly 
described as a combination of these two systems. The rates 
of duty vary in different tracts from Rs. 2-5-4 to Rs. 3-8 
per proof gallon of mahud spirit, and from R. 0-11-1 to 
Rs. 2-2-8 on toddy spirit. 

(c) ‘Contract distillery and separate shop system.’ — This 
system has lately been introduced in the Districts of Belgaum, 
Poona, Ahmadnagar, Nasik, Khandesh, and Satara. Its main 
features are that the right of manufacture is separated from 
that of retail vend; the right of manufacture of spirit of 
specified strength at the Government central distilleries or at 
private distilleries, and of supply to retail vendors, is assigned 
on competitive tender; and the right of retail vend, subject 
to the purchased rates of duty, is put up to auction by shops 
separately, or by groups of shops, or by talukas . The rates 
of duty in 1903-4 varied from Rs. 3-10 in Satara to Rs. 4 



io 6 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

in Poona, corresponding respectively to Rs. 4 ” T 3“4 and 
Rs. 5-5-4 per proof gallon. 

(d) 4 Contract distillery, separate shop, and nrinimum 
guaranteed revenue system.’ — Under this system, which was 
introduced into Khandesh in 1903 and subsequently in Nasik, 
the privilege of manufacturing spirit and supplying it to retail 
vendors is assigned to tenderers offering to supply spirit ot 
the sanctioned strengths at the lowest rates, while the right 
of retail vend in shops is disposed of by a system of tenders 
of minimum guarantee of duty. The rates of duty vary from 
12 annas to Rs. 2 per gallon of 25 0 under proof, corresponding 
to R. 1 and Rs. 2-10-8 per proof gallon, and from 6 annas 
to R. r per gallon of 6o° under proof. 

(e) 4 The lump-sum farming system.’— Under this system, 
which obtains only in the cantonment of Deesa, the right to 
import spirit from the town of Deesa, in Palanpur territory, 
and to sell it at one shop in the cantonment, is sold by auction 
every year. No still-head duty is charged under this system. 

In 1903-4 the average incidence of abkari taxation was 
about 10 annas, and the consumption of country liquor 
8 drams per head of population. The average revenue 
realized was Rs. 3-1 1-9 per proof gallon, of which Rs. 3-3-8 
represents still-head duty. The retail price of country liquor 
ranged from Rs. 1-2 per gallon upwards, according to 
strength. 

Toddy. Toddy revenue is derived from a tax on the palms from 
which toddy is drawn, and licence fees for the right of vend. 
The rates charged per tree tapped vary materially in different 
Districts. In all Districts except Nasik the sale of toddy is con- 
ducted under the separate licensing system, under which three 
kinds of licences are ordinarily allowed : namely, shop licences, 
tree-foot booth licences, and domestic consumption licences. 
Shop and tree-foot booth licences are granted on payment of 
fixed fees— Rs. 10 in some Districts and Rs. 20 in others. 
Should there be more than one applicant for a shop, the right 
of sale is disposed of by auction. The domestic consumption 
licences, which are issued to owners of trees, are granted on 
payment of tree tax only. In Bombay City toddy shop licences 
are sold by auction or are granted on payment of fees assessed 
by the Collector. In Nasik District the exclusive right to supply 
and sell toddy is granted to a farmer under the ‘minimum 
guarantee system ’ : that is, the farmer has to pay tree tax on 
the trees from which he draws toddy, and, if the total amount 
of such tax is less than the amount of revenue guaranteed, he 



MISCELLANEOUS EE VENUE 


107 

has to make up the balance. The farmer has further to pay 
a fee of Rs. 15 for every shop opened by him. Maximum 
prices for the retail sale of toddy are fixed in all the Districts 
’ except Bombay City, where they apply only in the case of 
tree-foot booth licensees. 

There is one brewery in the Presidency, at Dapuri near Country 
Poona. The beer issued is excised at the tariff rate of one ^ors 
anna per gallon, and is sold along with imported liquors, at tariff 
Rum is manufactured at a sugar refinery at Mundhwa near rates * 
Poona, and issued to the Commissariat department and for 
sale by foreign liquor shop-keepers ; it also is excised at the 
tariff rate (Rs. 7 per proof gallon) 1 . Rum, spirits of wine, 
and methylated spirits manufactured at the Rosa (Shahjahan- 
pur) distillery in the United Provinces and at the Aska and 
Nellikuppam distilleries in the Madras Presidency are occa- 
sionally imported into Bombay on payment of duty at the 
tariff rates, and are sold under licences for the vend of foreign 
imported spirits. 

The duty realized on spirits, wines, and liquors imported Foreign 
from foreign countries is credited to customs revenue (Im- M uors * 
penal), the figures for the Presidency proper being as shown 
below : — 

Thousands of rupees. 

Average of ten years 1881-90 . . 12,20 

„ „ 1891-1900 . . . 19,15 

In the year 1900-1 21,42 

a l 9 ° 2~4 24,26 

The duty realized on spirits, &c., imported into Sind in 1903-4 
amounted to nearly 8 lakhs. A small charge for the right 
of vend at shops, hotels, refreshment rooms, and travellers’ 
bungalows forms the excise revenue from this class of liquor. 

The maximum fee for such licences is fixed at Rs. 500, except 
in the Cify. and Island of Bombay, where there is no 
maximum. 

The cultivation of hemp is restricted under the Bombay Intoxi- 
Abkari Act, as amended in 1901, to certain villages in the j: atin 2 
Khanapur taluka of Satara District, and in the Nevasa, gS ’ 
Ahmadnagar, Rahuri, and Kopargaon tdlukas of Ahmadnagar 
District. Drugs manufactured in these tdlukas are stored in 
central and bonded warehouses. Duty at the following rates 
is levied on intoxicating drugs issued from these warehouses 
or imported from outside the Presidency : bhang x 8 annas per 
seer (about 2 lb .) ; gdnja, Rs. 4 per seer ; ckaras } Rs. 6 per 

1 The Mimdhwa refinery is to be closed. 



Total 

excise 

revenue, 


Character 
of local 
consump- 
tion. 


xo8 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

seer (Rs. 2 prior to April 1, 1904). The wholesale business 
is separated from the retail vend. Licences for wholesale 
vend are issued to persons approved by the Collector and the 
Commissioner of Abkari on payment of a fixed annual fee 
of Rs. 15. The privilege of retail vend is sold for each shop 
separately by public auction. Gdnja comes to Bombay from 
the Central Provinces ; bhang from the Punjab and the United 
Provinces ; charas, through the Punjab, from Central Asia. 

The revenue under excise derived from the various sources 
mentioned above, for the two ten-year periods ending 1889-90 
and 1899-1900, and for each of the years 1 900-1 and 1903-4, 
for the Presidency (excluding Aden, Bhuj, and Baroda), was, in 
thousands of rupees : — 



Average revenue* 
for ten years. 

Realizations in 


1880-1 to 
1889-90 

1890-1 to 
1899-1900 

1900-1 

1903-4 

Country spirit and toddy 

66,72 

89-32 

85,29 

1,02,09 

Rum, &c,, excised at tariff rates 
Vend fee on imported foreign 

I, II 


34 

9 1 

liquors .... 

Intoxicating drugs other than 

1 

( 1,13 

1 . 4 * 

1,69 

opium .... 

L 99 

3-85 

4,75 

4>94 

Opium 

11,42 

12,39 


8,52 

Miscellaneous 

94 

88 

73 

79 

Total gross revenue 

82,18 

78,65 

1,08,00 

99,56 

1,18,94 

Total net revenue . 

1,02,92 

95,07 

1,12,56 

Incidence of net revenue per 

Rs. a. p. 

Rs. a. p. 

Rs. a p. 

Rs. a p 

head of population 

0 5 4 

061 

060 

0 7 T 


* These figures refer to the year ending July 31. 


The administration of the Excise department is similar to 
that which has been described in the case of opium. Some 
of the Native States have leased their excise revenue to the 
British Government for a period of years, in consideration of 
a sum paid annually in compensation, and these have been 
attached for excise purposes to the adjacent British Districts. 
Others work under the British system, while others again have 
agreed to maintain a shopless belt along the joint frontier. 

Foreign liquors are largely consumed in towns like Bombay, 
Poona, and Belgaum, where there is a numerous European, 
Eurasian, and Pars! population ; and to a smaller extent by 
the higher classes of Hindus in large towns. Consumption 
has undoubtedly been extended by plague, the use of these 
liquors being considered a prophylactic. Spirit distilled from 




MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 


109 


mahua is consumed in all Districts, except Ratnagiri, because 
this is the cheapest fermentable material. In Ratnagiri, 

Kanara (coast), the City of Bombay, and a part of Thana 
District, toddy spirit is largely used for the same reason; but 
in this case habit has something to do with the preference 
for this spirit. Rum or molasses spirit is used to a limited 
extent in Poona, Satara, Belgaum, and Dharwar Districts. 

Toddy is consumed in almost all parts of the Presidency, 
especially in Surat, Thana, Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, and 
Poona, where a large number of palms are available. Of the 
intoxicating drugs, ganja is principally used for smoking, 
particularly in Bombay, Poona, Ahmadabad, Surat, Khan- 
desh, and Kanara. Ganja smoking is regarded as a protec- 
tion against cold, and the consumption is greatest during 
the cold season. Bhang is used in the form of drink and 
of sweetmeats, but more particularly as a drink, in the City of 
Bombay, in the Gujarat Districts, and in the Native States of 
Cutch and Kathiawar. The drinking of bhang is regarded as 
having a cooling effect in hot weather. Charas , a very strong 
intoxicant, is used for smoking only in Bombay City and in 
Ahmadabad. Opium is largely consumed in Bombay, Poona, 
Khandesh, the Gujarat Districts, and the Native States of 
Cutch and Kathiawar. The consumption is greatest among 
races which were ' originally resident in Central India or in 
tracts adjoining it. 

The efforts .made by Government to restrict the consumption Efforts 
of liquors, intoxicating drugs, and opium may be summed up 
as follows *. — ment to 

(1) Imposition on these articles of taxation as high as is restnct 

v J * ... . . consump* 

compatible with the avoidance of illicit production or importa- ti 0 n. 

tion; 

(2) Abolition of the outstill system, and concentration of 
the manufacture of spirits at central or private distilleries 
under the supervision of Government establishments; 

(3) Limitation of the number of places at which liquor or 
drugs can be purchased, with due regard to the circumstances 
of each locality ; 

(4) Limitation of the quantity of liquor or drugs which may 
be legally transported or possessed ; and 

(5) Employment of preventive establishments to check pro- 
duction and smuggling. 

The general feeling of the public on the subject of intoxi- 
cants is adverse to their use, and there is a tendency to assume 
that the policy of Government encourages consumption. The 



no 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Excise on 

cotton 

goods. 


Stamps. 


secular education provided by the State undoubtedly has this 
effect, by weakening social and religious influences, and the 
example of Europeans leads the educated classes towards the 
consumption of foreign liquors. These effects are generally 
deplored. At the same time native publicists are apt to forget 
that fermented and distilled liquors, as well as opium and 
intoxicating drugs, have always been freely used in India. The 
existing system is entirely defensible in principle; and stanch 
advocates of temperance among the natives themselves admit 
that over large areas, and for large classes of the population, 
the use of a narcotic stimulant of some kind is actually neces- 
sary owing to climatic reasons and the conditions under which 
life has to be lived. There is no doubt room for improvement 
in detail, and the attention of Government is steadily directed 
to this— one of the most difficult problems with which it 
has to deal. 

In 1894 the taxation of imported cotton goods at 5 per cent, 
was accompanied by the passing of an Act imposing a similar 
tax on locally produced cotton goods. In 1895 the tax was 
replaced by one of 3$ per cent, on cotton fabrics, whether 
imported or locally produced by machinery, yarns being duty- 
free, The excise or local duty is collected, through the agency 
of the Bombay Custom House, by an assessment on monthly 
returns of cotton fabrics issued from the mills. The total 
net revenue derived from this source is 17 lakhs, the annual 
taxable output being nearly 113,000,000 pounds of cloth. A 
rebate of the full duty is allowed on cloth exported to foreign 
countries. 

The stamp revenue is collected under the authority of the 
Court Fees Act and the Stamp Act, which are uniform for all 
India and are described in Vol. IV, chap. viii. The revenue 
from judicial and non-judicial stamps during the last twenty 
years has been, in thousands of rupees 



1880-1. 

1890-1. 

1900-1. 

1903-4- 

Judicial . 
Non-judicial 

Total 

22,99 

18,72 

29,79 

23,77 

33.68 

25,22 

35.09 

20,39 

4^71 

53,56 

58,90 

61,48 


The sales of stamps of all descriptions are steadily increas- 
ing in normal years. In 1 900-1 the prevalence of widespread 
famine caused a slight falling-off in the sale of court-fee or 
judicial stamps ; but the decline was only temporary, and the 
sales have since recovered and exceeded their former volume. 




MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 


nr 


The income-tax revenue is collected under an Act applying Income 
to the whole of India, and is described in Vol. IV, chap. viii. tax * 

In Bombay City a special Collector is appointed for assessing 
and collecting the revenue; elsewhere the duty is entrusted 
to the ordinary revenue staff. The net annual revenue since 
the tax was introduced has been as follows, in thousands of 
rupees: (five years ending 1890) 34,24, (ten years ending 1900) 

38,59, (1900-1) 38,62. Of the total of 36J lakhs collected in 
i 9°3'"4j 2I i lakhs, or 59 per cent., was levied in Bombay 
City, which contributes nearly one-tenth of the yield of the 
tax for the whole of India. In the Presidency the incidence 
of the tax is about 3 annas per head, while the average number 
of assessees per 1,000 of population is 4. 

The customs administration of the Presidency (excluding Customs. 
Sind) is in charge of a Collector for Bombay, and a second 
Collector, who is also the Collector of Salt, for the smaller 
ports of the Presidency. In Sind there is a Collector of 
Customs at Karachi, subordinate to the Commissioner in 
Sind. A large preventive staff, under numerous Assistant 
Collectors of Salt and Customs, is maintained to patrol and 
guard the long coast-line, as well as the land frontier over- 
looking the Portuguese possessions and the Native States of 
Northern Gujarat Most of the dutiable articles imported 
pass through Bombay. Castle Rock on the Goa frontier is, 
however, a customs post of increasing importance, owing to the 
recent growth of direct trade between Marmagao and Europe. 

The respective share of the customs revenue of the Presidency 
collected at these several points in 1903-4 was: Bombay, 

174 lakhs; Karachi, 33 lakhs; land posts and minor ports, 

2^ lakhs. In 1904 the Kathiawar frontier line was opened, 
with a chief customs station at Viramgam. In 1882 the duties 
on imported goods not falling under special categories, such as 
arms, salt, and liquors, were abolished, to be replaced in March, 

1894, with the exception of cotton goods, which were not 
restored to the dutiable list till the end of that year. The 
cost of collecting the customs duties amounts to 4 per cent, on 
the total receipts. The chief items are derived (1903-4) from 
cotton goods, hardware and metals, oil, sugar, and liquors, 
as follows: cotton goods, 35 lakhs; hardware and metals, 

46 lakhs ; oil, 18 lakhs; sugar, 20 lakhs ; and liquors, 32 lakhs. 

In most cases the import duty amounts to 5 per cent, on the 
value. Cotton goods are admitted at 3 \ per cent., and arms 
and liquors pay at higher rates. There is an export duty of 
5 per cent, on all rice exported, yielding over 4J lakhs. With 



ii 2 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

a view to stimulating local industries, coal and machinery are 
allowed to be imported free. Dutiable goods re-exported 
within three years are, on satisfactory proof of identity and 
of payment of duty, granted a drawback amounting to seven- 
eighths of the duty paid. Table VIII, showing the annual 
yield of the import duties on the chief articles imported into 
the Bombay Presidency since 1895, when the tariff was put on 
its present basis, and the total yield for the same years, will be 
found on p. 141. 

Local self- Local control over certain branches of the administration 
* s secure< ^ by the constitution of local boards and munici- 
palities, the former exercising authority over a District or a 
taluka , , and the latter being entrusted with the care of a city 
or town. These local committees are composed of members 
either nominated by Government or elected by the people, 
who are empowered to expend the funds at their disposal on 
education, sanitation, the construction of roads and tanks, the 
prevention of nuisances, and generally in improving the area 
committed to their charge. 

District Each District has a District board, which receives the pro- 

boards^ ceec * s a cess amount ^ n § to one anna 1 n the rupee on all 
land revenue in the District, all toll and ferry funds, and some 
minor items. One-third of the funds thus received must be 
spent on education ; but the board is otherwise free to direct 
the expenditure of its funds as it pleases, subject to the limita- 
tions imposed by the law constituting the boards. The District 
boards make over a part of their revenues to the taluka boards, 
who may expend it on similar works within the limits of the 
taluka. The origin of these committees dates from 1863, 
when the Bombay Government sanctioned the establishment 
of Local funds for the promotion of education in rural Districts 
and the construction or repair of local roads. The District 
committees were to consist of the principal Government officers 
of the District, and other members to be selected by the 
Collector. Taluka committees were to be composed of the 
Collector, the subdivisional officer, the mdmlatdar , and three 
or more members nominated by the Collector. This system 
was for a few years carried out without the aid of legislation ; 
but as it was subsequently found necessary to legalize the levy 
of the local cess, Bombay Act VIII of 1865 and Act III of 
1869 were passed for this purpose, the former being applicable 
to Sind, the latter to the remainder of the Presidency. In 
1884 a new Act (I of 1884), styled the District Local Boards 
Act, placed these committees on a more popular basis. The 



LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 


ii3 

taluka board, which is the unit of rural self-government, thence- 
forth consisted of an equal number of elected and nominated 
members, excluding the president. The right of voting at 
elections was conferred on honorary magistrates, revenue or 
police patels , landholders paying at least Rs. 48 assessment, 
owners of immovable property worth Rs. 5,000, persons with a 
yearly income of Rs. 500, and pensioners on Rs. 50 and over 
a month. Holders of alienated villages, and municipalities of 
5,000 inhabitants and over, could also return members to these 
boards. The District board was to consist of certain nominated 
members and of members elected by taluka boards, by munici- 
palities with a population of not less than 18,000 inhabitants, 
and by the holders of alienated villages. Usually the Collector 
is president of the District board thus constituted, while his 
Assistants preside over taluka boards in their charges. The 
vice-president may be either an official or an unofficial member, 
and is elected by the board. The number of local boards as 
thus constituted was 231 in 1903-4 : namely, 46 in the Northern 
Division, 72 in the Central, 56 in the Southern, and 57 in 
Sind. They contained 32 ex-officio members, 1,941 nominated 
and 1,600 elected members. The taxation raised by these 
boards on a population of more than 17 millions averages 
4*4 annas per head, and they had in 1903-4 an aggregate 
income of 48 lakhs. The chief items of expenditure are 
education and public works, to which over two-thirds of their 
income is devoted. The boards are called on to contribute, 
to the extent of their capacity, to the cost of famine relief 
measures, or to the suppression of dangerous epidemics in the 
area under their control. 

The origin of municipal government in the Presidency out- Munici- 
side Bombay City is Act XXVI of 1850, which permitted 
the establishment of municipalities in towns where the people 
applied for them, and restricted the expenditure of money 
raised by such bodies to the making and repair of public 
streets, drains, tanks, &c., and the prevention of nuisances. 

In 1862 further legislation empowered municipalities to spend 
money, on dispensaries, hospitals, schools, and road-watering, 
and by the same Act the Government received the power to 
coerce recalcitrant municipalities into carrying out measures 
urgently needed. In the course of twenty years the Act of 
1850 was taken advantage of by only 96 towns, the population 
of urban areas being generally unwilling to submit to municipal 
taxation and control. An Act (VI of 1873) was therefore 
passed dividing municipalities into city and town municipalities; 

1 


BO. I. 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


General 
results of 
local self- 
govern- 
ment. 


114 

the executive power in the former being entrusted to the 
municipal commissioners as a body, and in the latter to the 
president, vice-president, and chairman. The elective franchise 
could be granted to city municipalities, and a town municipality 
could receive this privilege where the residents showed suffi- 
cient public spirit to justify the measure. In 1882 the control 
of local elementary education was given to municipalities. In 
1884 a new Act (II of 1884) was passed, abolishing the former 
distinction between city and town municipalities and extending 
the elective element. The municipal law in the province of 
Sind was at the same time placed on the same footing as that 
of the Presidency proper. In 1901 a further enactment (III of 
1901) enlarged the powers of municipalities, and re-established 
their division into city and town corporations. The former are 
allowed to appoint executive officers with extensive functions, 
and to possess wider powers for dealing with the recovery of 
taxes, the construction of new buildings, and outbreaks of 
epidemic disease. By this Act rates may be levied in certain 
areas which do not possess municipalities, the proceeds being 
devoted to the same objects as those for which municipal 
taxation is raised, Excluding Bombay City, there were 165 
municipal towns in the Presidency in 1903-4. Of these, only 
4 have a population of over 100,000, and 69 have a population 
exceeding 10,000, Of the total of 2,252 members, 473 are 
ex officio, 881 are elected, and 898 nominated by Government. 
The population of municipal areas is 2,380,748, from which 
taxation amounting to 39 lakhs is levied, at an average of 
Rs. 1-10-7 per head. The total municipal income is over 
71 lakhs, and the chief items of expenditure are conservancy 
and education. Administration and the cost of collecting 
taxes involve a charge of 8 per cent, on the total income. 
Tables IX and X on p. 142 show further financial details for 
District boards and municipalities for the average of the ten 
years ending 1900, and for 1 900-1 and 1903-4. 

It would be difficult to assert that the result of the establish- 
ment of these numerous local bodies has been to develop in 
any maiked degree civic ardour for local affairs, or a sense 
of lesponsibility regarding the expenditure of the proceeds of 
local taxation. In many cases the ear-marking of one-third 
of the total income for expenditure on education, and the very 
large share of the balance that must necessarily be devoted to 
establishment charges and the upkeep of roads, leaves little scope 
for the exercise of the power of control that members possess ; 
and this necessarily diminishes the interest that the control of 



PUBLIC WORKS 


”5 

local affairs might otherwise inspire. The system is, however, 

'of educative value, inasmuch as it accustoms the people to the 
working of popular institutions. 

The Presidency contains three Port Trusts —at Bombay, Port 
Karachi, and Aden. Of these, the Bombay Port Trust, con- Trusts * 
stituted in 1873, consists of 13 members, partly nominated by 
Government and partly elected by the Chamber of Commerce. 

The port of Karachi was entrusted to a Harbour Board in 
1880, which was subsequently created a Port Trust on the 
lines of the similar body in Bombay. The Aden Trust dates 
from 1889. The Trusts are in charge of the wharves, docks, 
harbour, lights, &c., and are charged with the duty of providing 
conveniences for the trade and shipping of the ports. 

During recent years the income and expenditure of these 
Trusts has been, in thousands of rupees : — 



Receipts. 

Expenditure. 

188 1-2 

1891-2. 

1903-4. 

1881-2. 

1891-2. 

1903-4. 

Bombay . 
Karachi . 

Aden 

37.46 

4,48 

48,1° 

9.57 

1,92 

64,41 

19.58 

4,66 

28,73 

3.77 

46,24 

5 r *4 

2,56 

56.98 

13,87 

3,78 


Among works of importance carried out by these bodies are 
the Prince’s Dock, the Merewether Dry Dock, and the Victoria 
Dock at Bombay, and the new docks at Bombay still in course 
of construction. 

The Public Works department is controlled by two Chief Public 
Engineers, who are also secretaries to Government, by Superin- ^ orks * 
tending Engineers in charge of divisions, Executive Engineers 
in charge of Districts, and such Assistant Engineers as may 
be required by the circumstances of the case. The officers 
deal with all classes of public works, but additional Executive 
Engineers are in some instances posted to take charge of 
important irrigation works. The staff in 1905 consisted of 2 
Chief Engineers, 5 Superintending [Engineers, excluding the 
Sanitary Engineer and Consulting Architect to Government, 
who is a temporary officer, 33 Executive Engineers, and 44 
Assistants. There were also one apprentice and one Executive 
Engineer lent by the Government of India. Six temporary 
Engineers are under three to five years’ covenant, and twelve 
under yearly sanction. The department is concerned with the 
construction and maintenance of all works, such as roads, 
bridges, hospitals, offices, irrigation reservoirs, canals, and the 
like, that are too costly and important to entrust to the pro- 
fessional staff of local bodies ; it also checks the plans and 




1 1 6 BOMBA Y PRESIDENC Y 

estimates of all but the most insignificant works undertaken by 
those bodies. The Executive Engineer is, moreover, a member 
of each District board, 

Irrigation In 1881 the total expenditure of the Bombay Public Works 

works. department, exclusive of irrigation, was about 64 lakhs. 
During the ten years ending 1900, the average was 123 lakhs, 
and in 1903-4 the expenditure was 71 lakhs. Apart from the 
maintenance of the roads, irrigation works, and buildings 
already in existence at the commencement of this period, the 
expenditure of the department has been devoted to original 
works, of which the most costly, and the most important in 
developing the resources of the country, are water storage and 
irrigation works. Chief of these is the Jamrao Canal in Thar 
and Parkar District, constructed at a cost of 66 lakhs, which 
has opened a hitherto uncultivated tract to settlers from other 
parts of the province of Sind and from the Punjab. A like 
expenditure incurred on the Mutha Canal in Poona District 
has rendered the water of the Mutha river available for cultiva- 
tion, while the Nira Canal in the south-east of the same District 
cost 54 lakhs in construction. At Gokak, in Belgaum District, 
the waters of the Ghatprabha river have been impounded by 
a masonry dam, and made available for the working of the 
Gokak cotton-mills, as well as for the irrigation of the land in 
the vicinity. This work, which is capable of extension when 
required, has so far cost 13 lakhs. At Mhasvad in Satara and 
at Ekruk in Sholapur irrigation tanks have been constructed at 
a cost of 20 and 12 lakhs respectively. Numerous smaller 
irrigation works, among which may be mentioned the Jamda 
canal in Khandesh, the Kistna canal in Satara, and the 
reservoirs at Kapurvadi in Ahmadnagar, at Ashti in Sholapur, 
and at Vaghad in Nasik stand to the credit of the Public 
Works department. It has also carried out many large 
schemes for improving the water-supply of the cities. Chief of 
these are the Surat and Kirkee water-supply schemes, costing 
9! and 7-| lakhs respectively. The expenditure of the depart- 
ment on irrigation in 1 880-1 was 21 lakhs, the average for the 
ten years ending 1900 was 36 lakhs, and 52 lakhs was spent in 
1903-4. 

Roads and As funds are available, the construction of fresh trunk and 

buildings, feeder-roads is undertaken either by the department or by local 
boards ; but progress in this- direction is retarded by the 
necessity of providing for the subsequent upkeep of such works, 
on which the wear and tear of monsoon rainfall is very heavy. 
Hospitals, lunatic asylums, school-houses, offices for Govern- 



ARMY 


117 

ment business, and lighthouses help, with an occasional 
drainage scheme, to fill the rest of the public works programme. 

The more costly works of these descriptions undertaken in the 
Presidency during recent years are the following : — 

Roads. — From Belgaum to the port of Vengurla, 78 miles ; 
from Godhra to Dohad, 43 miles; from Mahad to Maha- 
baleshwar via the FitzGerald ghat, 36 miles ; from Kolhapur to 
Ratnagiri via the Amba ghat, 82 miles; from Nadiad to 
Kapadvanj, 27 miles; from Gokak to Nargund, 50 miles. 

Hospitals , &c. — The Bai Motlibai and the Sir Dmshaw 
Manekjl Hospitals in Bombay, a military hospital at Ahmad- 
abad, and a civil hospital at Aden. 

Lunatic Asylums.— At Navapada near Thana and at 
Ratnagiri. 

Schools— -The Elphinstone College and High School in 
Bombay, the training college at Dharwar, and the Gujarat 
College at Ahmadabad. 

Among other buildings may be noted the High Court (cost 
17 lakhs) and Small Cause Court in Bombay; the Bombay 
police courts ; the treasury and courthouse at Aden ; and the 
new Rock lighthouse at Vengurla. 

Since 1884 the chief water-supply and drainage works Large 
undertaken by the municipalities of the Presidency have 
been : — 

The Tansa water-works in Bombay (cost 150 lakhs); the 
drainage of Bombay City (8 lakhs); the Hubli water-works 
(5 lakhs) ; the Ahmadabad water-works (4 lakhs) ; and the 
Surat supply scheme. 

The total number of troops stationed within the Presidency Army, 
on June 1, 1904, was 22,008, of whom 9,215 were British, and 
12,793 belonged to the Native army. 

Bombay Presidency, except Aden, is garrisoned by the 
Quetta, Mhow r , and Poona divisions of the Western (now 
Southern Command, of which the troops at Aden form an 
independent brigade. The military stations in 1904 were : — 

Quetta Division . 

Hyderabad. Karachi. Sukkur. 

Jacobabad. Manora. 

Mhow Division. 

Ahmadabad. Deesa. Rajkot. 

Bhuj. Palanpur. 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


118 


Poona Division . 

Ahmadnagar. Deolali. Khandala. Purandhar. 

Belgaum. Hubli. Kirkee. Satara. 

Bombay. Igatpuri. Poona. Sirur. 

Aden Brigade . 

Aden ; Perim \ Shaikh Othman. 

Bombay and Karachi possess arsenals, and Kirkee an 
ammunition factory. A gun-carriage factory hitherto located 
at Poona has recently been closed. 

The Volunteers of the Presidency, with head-quarters at 
Bombay, Poona, Karachi, Belgaum, Hubli, and several other 
smaller stations, numbered 3,594 in 1904, of whom 352 were 
artillery and 65 were light horse or mounted rifles. 

Many of the Native States maintain small bodies of troops ; 
the principal are 




Infantry. 

Cavalry. 

Total 

Kolhapur . 

. 

• 734 

156 

912* 

Cutch 

. 

• iP 

284 

856 

Navanagar . 

. 

■ 1,058 

2(5 

IP 93 * 

Junagarh . 

. 

• 1,788 

62 

1,884* 

Bhaunagar . 

. 

. . 288 

51 

339 

Savantvadi . 

. 

, . 286 

... 

306* 


* Includes a small force of artillery. 

Police and The Bombay police consists of several distinct forces : the 
jails. regular District police, the Bombay City police, the railway 

police, and the village watch. The last-mentioned body is 
maintained only in certain parts of the country, and at the 
expense of the villagers. The Bombay City police is described 
Ordinary in the article on Bombay City. The District police is a sti- 
police. pendiary force divided into grades, beginning with constables 
on Rs. 7 a month. Tdlukas and Districts are in charge of 
chief constables and a District Superintendent respectively, 
between whom are placed inspectors, and, occasionally, Assis- 
tant Superintendents. Chief constables thus correspond to 
sub-inspectors in other parts of India. The District Magistrate 
controls the police administration of the District, subject to 
the orders of the Commissioner, and uniformity in matters of 
routine is ensured by the appointment of an Inspector-General 
for the Presidency (excluding Sind). A part of the District 
police force are armed, and employed in guarding jails and 
treasuries, or escorting prisoners and treasure. In 1904 the 
District force consisted of 17,173 men, of whom 12,107 were 
armed. The proportion of the police to area and population is 
determined by local conditions. The Northern Division has 



POLICE AND JAILS 119 

One policeman to every 4 square miles and 1,064 persons ; the 
Central Division, one to 9 square miles and 1,477 inhabitants; 
the Southern Division, one to 9 square miles and 1,934 inhabi- 
tants ; and Sind, one to 16 square miles and 1,076 inhabitants. 

About 1,000 of the police are mounted, mainly for service as 
orderlies. 

Under native rule, District police were unknown ; and the Police 
responsibility for detecting crime rested entirely on the village “ e d a ^ res 
until the days of Nana Farnavls, when inspectors (tapdsnavis) native rule, 
were appointed to discover offences. The patel was respon- 
sible for the police of his village. His responsible assistant 
was the village watchman ( mahar) ) whose duties were to keep 
watch at night, to find out all arrivals and departures, watch all 
strangers, and report all suspicious persons to the headman. 

The watchman was also bound to know the character of each 
man in the village; and when a theft was committed within 
village bounds, it was his business to find the thief. He was 
enabled to do this by his early habits of inquisitiveness and 
observation, as well as by the nature of his allowance, which, 
being partly a small share of the grain and similar property 
belonging to each house, required him always to be on the 
watch to ascertain his fees, and always in motion to gather 
them. When a theft or robbery occurred, the watchman began 
his inquiries and researches. It was very common for him to 
track a thief by his footsteps ; and if he did this to another 
village so as to satisfy the watchman there, or if he otherwise 
traced the property to an adjoining village, his responsibility 
ended. It then became the duty of a watchman of the new 
village to take up the pursuit. The last village to which the 
thief had been clearly traced became answerable for the 
property stolen, which would otherwise have had to be ac- 
counted for by the village where the robbery was committed. 

The watchman was obliged to make up this amount as far as 
his means went, and the remainder was levied on the whole 
village. Only in particular cases was the restoration of the 
value of the property insisted on to its full extent. Some fine 
was generally levied ; and neglect or connivance was punished 
by transferring the grant or indm of the patel or the watchman 
to his nearest relation, by fine, by imprisonment in irons, or 
by severe corporal punishment. This responsibility was neces- 
sary, as, besides the usual temptation to neglect, the watchman 
was himself a thief, and the patel was disposed to harbour 
thieves with a view to share their profits. 

The village watch do not receive regular monthly pay. They 



120 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Village 

police. 


Special 

branches. 


are controlled by the village headman or patel \ on whom lies 
the duty of calling in the District police when crimes are com- 
mitted. His subordinates guard the village and assist in the 
apprehension of offenders. The paid and his assistants are 
important features in the machinery for detecting crime, and 
the success of the District police in that direction largely 
depends on the amount of assistance received from them. In 
the Deccan these village watchmen are recruited from the 
Ramosis, who were formerly a criminal and marauding tribe. 
Each village possesses five or more of these men, who are paid 
in kind and occasionally have a portion of the village lands 
assigned to them. Ramosis are also employed in towns as 
night-watchmen for offices and dwelling-houses, and in this 
capacity they form a recognized division of the town police. 
Patels are still permitted in certain instances to investigate and 
punish petty offences without the intervention of the District 
police. In Sind there are no village police, their place being 
taken by the zamindars , whose assistance is of great value in 
the detection of crime. The employment of pagis or pro- 
fessional trackers is common. They are skilful in their work, 
and are rewarded by gifts from the owners of stolen animals, 
or payments by the community. 

The office of Inspector-General of Police has two special 
branches, dealing with criminal investigation and criminal 
identification. The former was organized in 1901 for the 
detection of serious crime the ramifications of which extend 
beyond the limits of one District. The latter records and 
traces the identity of criminals by means of thumb-marks and 
finger-tip impressions. A special police organization exists in 
connexion with the railways of the Presidency. Each of the 
principal lines is organized like a District, under a Superinten- 
dent, who is directly subordinate to the Inspector-General, and 
is employed in travelling along the line, inspecting platform 
constables, and investigating crimes. 

In cantonments the military authorities provide a small 
number of military policemen to assist the local police force in 
the maintenance of order in cases where military offenders are 
concerned. The control of this staff rests with the military 
authorities. The strength of the various grades of the police 
in the last twenty years, and the result of the work of the 
force, are shown in Tables XI and XII on p. 143. 

In 1904 the total force in the Presidency, including railways 
and Sind, but excluding the City of Bombay, was 22,380 
officers and men, and cost 45 lakhs. 



POLICE AND JAILS 


121 


While this article was passing through the press the force Reorgani- 
was reorganized, the principal changes being the appointment zatlon * 
of Deputy-Inspectors-General for Sind, for the rest of the 
Presidency, which has been divided into two ranges, for rail- 
ways, and for crime ; the appointment of Deputy-Superinten- 
dents of police ; and an increase in the numbers and salaries 
in the lower grades. The control and direction of the police 
still rest primarily with the District Magistrates, while the 
control formerly exercised by Commissioners of Divisions has 
practically been transferred to the Inspector-General. 

Statistics relating to the jails of the Presidency will be found Jails, 
in Table XIII on p. 143. The Jail department is under the 
administration of an Inspector-General, who ordinarily belongs 
to the Indian Medical Service. A full-time Superintendent is 
employed at each of the three Central jails — at Hyderabad, 
Ahmadabad, and Yeraoda; the District jails are in charge 
either of full-time civil officers who are not medical men or of 
civil surgeons as additional charges, and lock-ups are under 
local magistrates. Of the District jails, those at Thana and 
Aden, as also the House of Correction and the common prison 
at Bombay, are known as special jails, as they accommodate 
long-term prisoners. Excepting Aden, each of these has a full- 
time Superintendent. The most prevalent diseases of the 
prison population are intermittent fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, 
and pneumonia. Numerous industries are carried on in the 
jails, the chief of which are the weaving of cotton goods, such 
as jail clothing, coarse cloth, towels, and dans ; carpet-making; 
basket-work ; and printing. The out-turn is sold to the general 
public at rates which usually exceed the ordinary market prices ; 
but the excellence of the articles ensures a regular demand for 
them. Numerous articles are also supplied direct to Govern- 
ment departments, while a printing press at the Poona Central 
jail, started in 1900, relieves the Government Press in Bombay 
of much routine printing. 

The Presidency contains two reformatories, one at Bombay Reforma- 
and one at Poona. Both are under the control of the Educa- tories ‘ 
tional department. The latter is classed as an Industrial school. 

In 1904 there were 380 inmates in these institutions, receiving 
instruction in agriculture or industries. 

Under native rule craftsmen were taught their arts at home Education, 
by their fathers, while traders and secular Brahmans learnt to 
read, write, and cast accounts in private schools. Higher 
education was represented by Sanskrit paths alas and Muham- 
madan madrasas , which often shared in religious endowments. 



122 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


The later Peshwas held a yearly distribution of gifts ( dakshina ) 
to learned Brahmans, which at last took the form of indis- 
criminate alms-giving, and cost five lakhs a year. The British 
conquest of the Deccan was followed by the opening of many 
missionary schools and by the organization, under the guidance 
of Mountstuart Elphinstone, of a system of Government schools 
in the Districts. In 1821 a part of the dakshina grant w T as 
devoted to the creation of a Sanskrit College at Poona, which 
afterwards grew into the existing Deccan College, and in 1827 
a large sum was raised by subscription to found the Elphinstone 
College at Bombay. In 1840 a Board of Education was 
created, which, under the influence of Sir Erskine Perry 
(1843-52), devoted itself chiefly to improving the teaching of 
English, in the hope that the love of knowledge would filter 
down from the higher classes to the lower. The Grant Medical 
College was opened in 1845, and the Poona College of Science 
grew out of an engineering school founded in 1854. The 
Board of Education was abolished in 1855 on the constitution 
of the existing Educational department, to carry out the policy 
of Sir Charles Wood’s famous dispatch of 1854. The Bombay 
University was established in 1857. The establishment of 
public primary schools by the local boards under the guidance 
of the Educational department dates from the levy in 1863 of 
the Local fund cess, one-third of which is set aside for educa- 
tion. In 1884 the burden of supporting primary schools in 
municipal towns was transferred from the local boards to the 
municipalities. Soon afterwards the system of grants in aid of 
private effort was greatly expanded in accordance with the 
views of the Education Commission. 

The Educational department is administered by a Director, 
who has under him an Inspector in each Division and a Deputy- 
Inspector, with assistants, in each District. These officers 
inspect all schools that receive state aid, and also administer 
the public primary schools supported by local boards. The 
Director and three of the Inspectors are recruited from England, 
while the other Inspector belongs to the Provincial service, and 
the deputies and their assistants to the Subordinate service. 
Two Inspectresses of Girls’ Schools, recruited from England, 
have lately been added. The Government maintains two Arts 
colleges, one Medical college, and a College of Science, the 
teaching staff of which includes twenty-one professors recruited 
from England and fourteen belonging to the Provincial service. 
The Government also maintains in Bombay and at the 
head-quarters of each District (except Ahmadnagar, Kolaba, 



EDUCATION 


123 


Larkana, Thar and Parkar, and Upper Sind Frontier) a 
high school as a model secondary institution. Three head 
masters of high schools are recruited from England, and 
the rest belong to either the Provincial or the Subordinate 
service. 

The Bombay University up to 1905 was a body corporate University 
consisting of the Chancellor, who was the Governor of the educaticm * 
Presidency for the time being, the Vice-Chancellor, appointed 
by Government for a term of two years, and a Senate of about 
280 Fellows, nominated by Government of its own motion, or, 
in the case of two appointments every year, on the recom- 
mendation of the University. Under the new constitution 
introduced by Act VIII of 1904 the total number of Fellows 
is no, of whom not more than 10 are ex-officio Fellows and 
the remainder are styled Ordinary Fellows. Of the Ordinary 
Fellows ten are elected by the Graduates, ten by the Faculties, 
and the rest are nominated by the Chancellor. At least two- 
thirds of the total number of Fellows elected by the Faculties 
or nominated by the Chancellor must be persons following the 
profession of education. The executive government of the 
University vests in the Syndicate, which is composed of 
the Vice-Chancellor, the Director of Public Instruction, and 
not less than seven or more than fifteen ex-officio or Ordinary 
Fellows elected by the Senate or Faculties. The Senate, or 
general body of Fellows, is the legislative authority of the Uni- 
versity. The function of the University has hitherto been to 
ascertain, by means of examination, the persons coming from 
affiliated colleges who have acquired proficiency in different 
branches of literature, science, or art, and to reward them by 
academical degrees as evidence of their respective attainments. 

Under the new Universities Act, it will be able to provide for 
direct higher instruction and to exercise a closer supervision 
over its colleges. The degrees given are those of Bachelor 
and Master of Arts (B.A., M.A.) and Bachelor of Science 
(B.Sc.); in Law, that of Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.); in Medicine, 

Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) and Licentiate in Medicine and 
Surgery (L.M. & S.); in Agriculture, that of Licentiate in 
Agriculture (L.Ag.) ; and in Civil Engineering, those of Licen- 
tiate of Civil Engineering (L.C.E.) and Master of Civil En- 
gineering (M.C.E.). Of the ten Arts colleges, excluding 
Baroda, affiliated to the University, all but one (the Rajaram 
College at Kolhapur) teach the full degree course for B.A . ; 
and the B.Sc. classes (full degree) are taught at the Elphinstone, 

Wilson, St. Xavier s, and Fergusson Colleges. There are also 



124 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


B.Sc. classes at the Grant Medical College at Bombay and the 
College of Science at Poona. The Government Law School, 
Bombay, educates up to the full LL.B. standard, while six law 
classes attached to Arts colleges teach up to the first LL.B. 
examination only. The Grant Medical College, Bombay, 
teaches the full course ; and the College of Science at Poona 
teaches the agricultural and engineering courses. Of the Arts 
colleges, two are maintained by Government and four by Native 
States, including one in the State of Baroda ; and all the rest, 
two of which belong to missionary bodies while the other three 
are managed by committees, receive aid from the Government. 
There are no purely private proprietary colleges. The most 
important Arts colleges are the Elphinstone, Wilson, and St. 
Xavier’s Colleges in Bombay, and the Deccan and Fergusson 
Colleges at Poona. The total expenditure of the University 
in 1903-4 amounted to about lakhs, which was more than 
covered by fees, &c. 

Candidates for the B. A. degree are required to have attended 
an affiliated college for eight terms (four years). A similar 
course is required for the B.Sc. degree, while for the L C.E. 
and L Ag. degrees one year in an Arts college followed by 
three years in a Science college, and one year in an Arts college 
followed by two years in a Science college, are respectively re- 
quired. Four years in a Medical college are necessary for a can- 
didate for the L.M. & S. degree, and the M.D. degree can be 
conferred only on those who have graduated in both Medicine 
and Arts (eight years). A two years’ course is required from 
the candidate for the LL.B. degree. The M.A. degree can be 
obtained at any time, usually one year, after graduating in Arts. 
Hostels for resident students are attached to every college, 
except St. Xavier’s in Bombay and the Junagarh and Bhaunagar 
colleges in Kathiawar. 

The other examinations conducted by the Bombay Uni- 
versity are the matriculation (the entrance examination for Arts 
and Medical courses), previous (the first examination in Arts 
and the qualifying examination for Agriculture and Engineering 
courses), intermediate Arts and intermediate Science examina- 
tions; in law, first LL.B. In Medicine, Agriculture, and 
Engineering, there are first and second examinations before 
appearing for the degree examination of the course. 

Secondary The normal type of secondary education is a course of seven 
education, s ^ an( j ar j S} j n a q 0 f which, except the first three, English is the 
medium of instruction and the leading subject studied. This 
course leads up to the University matriculation or the school 



EDUCATION 


125 


final examination 1 , the two courses bifurcating after the fifth 
standard. They differ in that for the school final course a 
number of optional subjects are prescribed, out of which two 
have to be taken, with compulsory English, a second language, 
and arithmetic. Of the secondary schools for boys in the 
Presidency (1903-4), 106 are high schools and 318 middle or 
Anglo-vernacular schools teaching the first three standards 
only, 26 are maintained by Government and 113 by Native 
States, while 209 (of which 68 are maintained by municipalities 
or local boards and 141 are under private management) receive 
Government grants-in-aid and 76 are unaided. The Govern- 
ment grant-in-aid for any year is fixed at one-third of the total 
expenditure of the school in the previous year, and may in no 
case exceed one-half the local assets of the school. The grant 
is reducible to one-fourth or one-fifth of the expenditure, 
according to the efficiency of the school. Of the male popu- 
lation of school-going age, 2-2 per cent, attended public secon- 
dary schools in 1903-4. The progress made in secondary 
education during the last twenty years is shown in the follow- 
ing table 



Number of 
public 
institutions. 

Scholars. 

Males. 

Females. 

I 880-1 

292 

20,028 

1,334 

1890-1 

403 

37.941 

3.773 

I 900-1 . 

484 

4 3 >554 

5.074 

1903-4 • • 

49 2 

40,987 

5.035 


Primary schools are of two types, one of which teaches a Primary 
course of seven standards that aims at giving a complete education * 
vernacular education, while the other has a course of five 
simpler standards devised to meet the needs of the cultivating 
classes. The transition to secondary education occurs after 
the fourth standard of the full vernacular course. The majority 
of the schools of both types are maintained by District or 
municipal boards. In 1903-4 Government maintained n 
primary schools for boys, District and municipal boards 4,729, 
and Native States 2,060, while 1,534 schools under private 
management received Government aid and 118 were unaided. 

The District board schools are administered by the Educa- 
tional department, and, like the municipal and the more effi- 
cient aided schools, receive grants equal to one-half of their 
expenditure, and teach the Government standards. A certain 
1 Since 1904 this examination has been conducted by the Educational 
department, and the course was altered in 1906. 




126 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

number of indigenous schools receive small lump grants, in the 
hope that they may grow into primary schools of the Govern- 
ment type. Of the male population of school-going age, 19-8 
per cent, attended public primary schools in 1903-4. Of 
15,775 masters employed in public primary schools, 4,101 are 
head masters who have passed through a training college, 2,764 
are untrained head masters, 1,564 are trained assistants, 3,887 
assistants have passed the public service certificate examina- 
tion, and the remainder (3,459) ar e untrained and unpassed 
assistants. The minimum pay of a trained teacher is Rs. 8 and 
that of an untrained assistant Rs. 7 a month. The maximum 
pay for masters of primary schools is Rs. 60. 

Female The college lectures and the university examinations are 
education. 0 p en to g i r i s as well as boys, but there are no separate girls’ 
colleges. In 1881 1*2 per cent, in 1891 3-75 per cent., and 
in 1903-4 4*74 per cent, of the female population of school- 
going age actually attended schools. In 1903-4 about 79 per 
cent, of the total attendance was in special girls’ schools, and 
21 per cent, in boys’ schools. Of the 68 secondary schools 
for girls, 57 belong to the i aided ’ class, and are attended chiefly 
by Europeans and Eurasians. Government maintains two 
secondary girls’ schools, and one is supported by the munici- 
pality of Karwar. Of 867 primary girls’ schools, 3 are main- 
tained by Government, 400 by District or municipal boards, 
and 226 by Native States, while 223 are aided and 15 unaided. 
In primary schools girls are taught the ordinary vernacular 
standards, with the addition of needlework. Early marriage 
and consequent withdrawal from school is the chief obstacle to 
female education, which now excites little active opposition. 
Some 200 women receive regular zanana teaching, which is of 
use chiefly as leading them to wish to send their own children 
to school. Missionary effort has been successful chiefly in pro- 
viding for the education of famine orphans. 

Special For the training of masters, Government maintains a train- 
schools. j n g college, with a three years’ course, in each Division, and 
a normal school with a two years’ course at Dhulia, and aids 
a private training school at Ahmadnagar. Another training 
college is maintained by the States of Kathiawar at Rajkot. 
These 7 institutions trained 728 pupils in 1903-4. Of the 12 
training schools for mistresses, which had 239 pupils in the 
same year, 3 are maintained by Government, 2 by District or 
municipal boards, and one by Native States, while 4 receive 
grants-in-aid from Government and 2 are unaided. Medical 
schools maintained by Government at Hyderabad (for both 



EDUCATION 


127 


males and females), Ahmadabad, and Poona trained 242 
pupils in 1903-4, most of whom seek employment as Hospital 
Assistants. The Government Veterinary College in Bombay 
in 1903-4 produced 8 graduates who had been through a 
course of three years’ study, and has lately opened a vernacular 
class, with a two years’ course, for farriers. 

Subordinates for the Public Works department are trained 
at the Poona College of Science and in the engineering class 
attached to the Nava Vidyalaya high school at Hyderabad. 

The former institution and the aided Victoria Jubilee Tech- 
nical Institution in Bombay have also classes for mechanical 
and electrical engineers. The Victoria Institution likewise 
trains foremen for the Bombay cotton-mills. The Government 
School of Art in Bombay, which teaches both pictorial and 
industrial arts, was attended by 437 students in 1903-4. 
Twenty-three technical and industrial schools, chiefly teaching 
drawing and carpentry, instructed 1,809 pupils in 1903-4, 
while 5 agricultural and commercial schools and classes had 
201 pupils. The London Chamber of Commerce examination 
is held in Bombay under the auspices of Government. 

Besides the public institutions mentioned above, there are Private 
92 private schools for advanced teaching— 64 which teach schools * 
Arabic and Persian, 26 for Sanskrit, and 2 for other Oriental 
languages. The private elementary schools number 2,481, of 
which 1,315 teach the Koran, and the remainder teach the 
ordinary vernaculars. 

All schools for Europeans and Eurasians are classed as European 
secondary, but the standards in use in them cover both the ^sian 
primary and the secondary stage. None are maintained by, education, 
but most receive aid from, Government. In 1903-4 they 
numbered 41 with 3,585 pupils. Besides these, there are 
4 normal schools with 34 pupils and one industrial school with 
19 pupils. Europeans seldom appear either for the school 
final or for the University examination, except the medical 
course, but commonly seek employment on the railways, in 
the Telegraph department, or in business. 

Certain Government scholarships are reserved for Muham- Muham- 
madans and other backward races, and other scholarships are ^ d c ^ ion 
given to Muhammadans only from the KazI Shahab-ud-din 
Fund. Whereas in 1881 1-5 per cent, of the Hindu popula- 
tion and 1 per cent, of the Muhammadan population were in 
primary schools, in 1903-4 the ratios were 1*76 and 1*91 
respectively. In 1881, 0-08 of the Hindu population and 
0*02 of the Muhammadan population were in secondary 



128 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


schools, while in 1903-4 the proportions were 0*14 and 0*07 per 
cent. In 1881 one out of every 379,467 Hindus and no 
Muhammadan took a University degree, but in 1903-4 the ratios 
were one to 46,534 for Hindus and one to 240,384 for Mu- 
hammadans. The Muhammadans have a prejudice against 
secular education which has not yet been overcome, though 
the leaders of the community both in Sind and Bombay City 
are alive to the needs of the time and are doing their best to 
rouse their fellows to self-help. 

Fees. The approximate monthly fees are: college, Rs. 25 to 
Rs. 75 ; high school, 10 annas to Rs. 5 ; middle school, 8 annas 
to Rs. 3 ; primary, 6 pies to 8 annas. 

General Whereas in 1881 only 10*2 per cent, of the population of 

tionaT school-going age were under instruction, the ratio rose to 15*45 

results. in 1891 and 15*13 in 1903-4. In 1901, according to the 
Census results, 11*5 per cent, of the males and 0*9 per cent, of 
the females, or 6*4 per cent, of the whole population, were able 
to read and write, while 0*7 per cent, were literate in English. 
In both male and female education the Parsis lead the way 
and the Muhammadans hold the last place. Among Hindus 
the Yanis stand first, the Prabhus second, and the Brahmans 
third in general education ; but in female education the Pra- 
bhus lead the way. Education is most general in Kathiawar 
and the adjoining Districts of Gujarat, and at the lowest level 
in Eastern Sind. 

News- The oldest native newspaper is the Bombay Samachar , a 

IToks 5 ^ u j arati da % Bombay, which was founded in 1819. The 

oldest Marathi paper is the Dnyan Prakdsh of Poona, started 
in 1849. In 1872-3 there were 4 English and 52 vernacular 
newspapers, all but one of which were published either in 
Gujarati or Marathi. In 1904 there were 45 English and 
257 vernacular newspapers published in British territory, with 
an estimated circulation of about 280,000. Many of these 
papers are very short-lived, but new ones are constantly being 
started. The largest circulation is claimed by the Marathi 
Kesari of Poona, which is the organ of the extreme section of 
the Congress party. The most widely-read Gujarati papers 
are the Bombay Samachar and the Gujarati , which hold rather 
more moderate views. The East Goftdr is the chief anti-Con- 
gress organ. The non-political organs number 136 and the 
political 166. The number of Muhammadan newspapers is 22. 
The annual publications of the local press average over 1,200, 
of which 1,100 are original works. They deal largely with 
religious and social topics, a few being devoted to poetry ; the 



MEDICAL 


T2Q 

exact sciences are represented by a very small number of 
publications. 

The Medical department is controlled by a Surgeon-General, Medical, 
and sanitation is in charge of a Sanitary Co mmissioner, both 
officers being members of the Indian Medical Service. A 
Civil Surgeon stationed at each District head-quarters is re- 
sponsible for the medical work of the District, while sanitation 
is entrusted to one of the Deputy-Sanitary Commissioners. 

The principal medical institutions of the Presidency are to 
be found in Bombay City. In 1784 there existed three large Hospitals, 
hospitals in that city: a European hospital in the Fort, 
a hospital for native troops on the Esplanade, and a con- 
valescent home on Old Woman’s Island. The first of these 
is now represented by the St. George’s Hospital ; the Jamsetjl 
Jijlbhoy Hospital at Byculla is the successor of the second; 
and the Convalescent Home has been transferred to the cool 
heights of Khandala on the Borghat. St. George’s, or the 
European General Hospital, dates from the seventeenth cen- 
tury, when 70 beds were established in temporary premises 
at the Old Court House. It was subsequently transferred 
to a building near the dockyard, accommodating 140 beds, 
and in April, 1892, the present building was completed and 
occupied. It contains 208 beds ; and its present nursing staff 
consists of a lady superintendent, an assistant lady superin- 
tendent, 7 charge sisters including a night superintendent, 26 
nurses, 7 probationers, a housekeeper and assistant house- 
keeper. The cost of erection was nearly 6 lakhs; and the 
annual cost amounts to about Rs. 39,000, of which Govern- 
ment provides one-half and the balance is made up by a 
contribution of Rs. 2,800 from the Port Trust and public 
subscriptions. The Jamsetjl Jijlbhoy Hospital on Parel Road, 
to which is attached the Grant Medical College, was con- 
structed in 1843 by the munificence of the first baronet of 
that name. The Cama Hospital for Females near the Vic- 
toria Terminus was opened in 1886, and the Allbless Obstetric 
Hospital in 1891. The Bai Motlibai Obstetric Hospital and 
the Sir Dinshaw Manekjl Petit Hospital for women and chil- 
dren were founded in 1892 by the widow of Naoroji Wadia 
and the late Sir Dinshaw Petit respectively, and are worked in 
connexion with the Jamsetjl Jijlbhoy Hospital. 

Well-equipped hospitals exist in all important up-country 
stations, of which the best known is the Sassoon Hospital 
at Poona, furnished with a special nursing staff, Of the 665 
hospitals and dispensaries in 1904 in the Presidency (including 

BO. I, K 



130 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


13 in the outlying settlements of Aden and the Persian Gulf), 
61 are institutions maintained and managed by Government, 
247 are vested in District or municipal boards or guaranteed 
or maintained by Local or municipal funds with or without the 
aid of Government or private subscriptions, 305 are entirely 
maintained at the cost of private individuals or associations, 
8 are supported by private subscriptions but receive aid from 
Government or Local funds, and 44 are railway dispensaries. 
Over four million persons, including about 67,000 in-patients, 
are treated at these institutions annually. 

Lunatic The Presidency contains 7 lunatic asylums, and a central 

and leper aS yi um a t Yeraoda near Poona is now under consideration, 
asylums. _V . . , . .... 

The inmates in 1904 numbered 1,295, the cause of insanity 

being physical in 496 cases and moral in 133. Excessive in- 
dulgence in narcotics and spirits accounted for 176 of these 
cases. There are 16 institutions in the Presidency for the 
detention and treatment of lepers, the chief of which is the 
Matunga Asylum, Bombay City. 

Vaccina- Vaccination is carried out by a large staff under the direction 
tlor1, of the Sanitary Commissioner in all parts of the Presidency. It 
is not unlikely that intercourse with Europe led to the intro- 
duction of small-pox into India. In 1788 a Mr. Farmer in- 
oculated about 1,300 old and young persons, of whom only 
2 died of small-pox. Until 1827 no systematic attempt was 
made to enforce vaccination. Although primary vaccination 
is compulsory only in Bombay City, Kurla, Bandra, Karachi, 
Larkana, Sukkur, and Rohri towns, the process is voluntarily 
resorted to by numerous parents anxious to protect their chil- 
dren, with the result that, out of a population of 21,539,199, 
529,421 were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, or 24-58 per 
1,000. The expenditure on vaccination averages 2\ lakhs per 
annum, equal to 8 annas 2 pies per head of those vaccinated. 
The average annual mortality from small-pox was 11,530 dur- 
ing the years 1875-80, and 4,312 during the five years ending 
1903-4. 

Sale of Medical aid of a simple description is available at all post 
quinine. offices j n the form of packets of quinine sold at one pice each 
as a preventative of malarial fever. The use of this febrifuge 
is steadily gaining in popularity. Over 17,000 packets were 
thus distributed in 1903. 

Sanitation. Outside Bombay and the few big cities where sanitation is 
provided by the employment of a duly qualified staff and 
the construction of expensive water and drainage works, the 
rural tracts know little of sanitation in its modern sense. 



SURVEY 


131 

An Act passed in 1889, known as the Village Sanitation Act, 
empowered local committees supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions to take measures for improving the sanitary condition 
of the villages. This Act has been applied to 265 villages ; 
small towns may adopt similar measures on their own initiative 
when they are under municipal control. It would be difficult 
to assert that any marked improvement in conservancy has 
hitherto resulted from the initiative of municipalities or village 
committees; but improvements in the water-supply can cer- 
tainly be claimed as a sign of advance in the case of many 
municipalities. More than this cannot be expected until the 
mass of the population have learned to connect the prevention 
of epidemic diseases with cleanly habits and a due regard 
for the sources of the drinking-water supply, instead of attri- 
buting them to the actions of malevolent deities who are to 
be propitiated by offerings and penances. In 1892 a Sanitary 
Board, which is now under the presidency of the Surgeon- 
General, was constituted to advise local bodies on measures 
for improving local sanitation. For ordinary administrative 
purposes the Sanitary Commissioner is assisted by five Deputy- 
Sanitary Commissioners and one Vaccination Superintendent, 
who are placed in charge of an equal number of circles, and 
are entrusted with the supervision of vaccination as well as 
of all sanitary measures. The Superintendent of Vaccination 
for the Presidency circle works only in Bombay City. 

The topographical survey of the Presidency, conducted by Survey, 
parties under the orders of the Government of India, com- T °P^ ra ' 
menced in the cold season of 1866. By 1904, nearly the P 
whole of the Presidency had been mapped, and maps are 
obtainable on 1, 2, 4, and 8 inch scales. 

Revenue or cadastral surveys, undertaken as a basis for land Revenue or 
assessment, date from the reign of Akbar, in whose time over cada5tral * 
7,000,000 acres in Gujarat were measured in connexion with 
the revenue system of Todar Mai (1575). In the time of Shah 
Jahan this survey was extended to the Deccan. The first 
survey for which records are available is that undertaken by 
the Bijapur Sultans at the end of the sixteenth century. This 
survey formed the basis of revenue assessments till 1817, 
though the original measurements were partly revised by SivajI 
as the country passed under the sway of the Marathas. In 
1835 the systematic survey of the land for revenue purposes 
was commenced by the Bombay Government and continued 
till 1901. Every field separately shown in the revenue accounts 
was entered in the maps prepared by the Survey department, 



132 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


each map recording the lands of one village. These maps 
form a permanent record of the land of the Presidency, sub- 
ject to such periodic revision as is required by the construction 
of roads and railways, the extension of village sites, the erection 
of new dwelling-places, and the like. For this work of revision 
the village officers are being gradually instructed in the art of 
cadastral measurement under the trained supervision of the 
inspectors of the Agricultural department, the special survey 
department having been abolished on the completion of the 
settlement work entrusted to it. Eventually it is intended that 
the village officers, on whom the duty falls of entering duly 
authorized corrections in the village records of tenure and 
rights, should follow the corrected entry by a corresponding 
correction of the village map, thus relieving the Agricultural 
inspectors of the work of keeping these maps up to date. 

Forest. Lands under the control of the Forest department are spe- 
cially demarcated and mapped at the time of forest settlement 
operations, when the decision is arrived at regarding their 
retention in or exclusion from forest. Maps of certain valu- 
able Government forest lands are prepared on a scale of 
8 inches to the mile. About 3,084 square miles in the Cen- 
tral circle had been mapped in this manner up to 1903-4. 

Biblio- Sir J, M. Campbell : Bombay District Gazetteers (Bombay, 
1877-1901). — Grant Duff: History of the Makrattas , 3 vols. 
(1826).— James Forbes : Oriental Memoirs , 4 vols. (1813). — 
M. G. Ranade : Rise of the Maratha Power (Bombay, 1900). 
—A. K. Forbes: Ras Mala, 2 vols. (1856).—}. S. Cotton: 
Mountstuart Elphinstone (Oxford, 1892).— Reports on the 
Census of Bombay, 1872, 1881, 1891, and 1901.— Reports on 
Famine in Bombay, 1896-7 and 1900-2.— -Statistical Atlas , 
Bombay Presidency (second edition, 1906). Official Mono- 
graphs on Brass-working, Pottery and Glass-making, Dyes 
and Dyeing, Cotton Fabrics, Silk Fabrics, Woollen Fabrics, 
Leather-working, Wood-carving, Ivory-carving, Stone-carving, 
Gold - and Silver-working . 



Total Population. I Urban 


iijsiis 

gS 

C 4 (? S rt 


irtO'NMfoo o osstmo 


IN ^rOvONOJ^- 0 * S' * N * tv I 


tv g nvo m n co 
m -0 0 « H>j; 0 ^ 

h H * « in in 6 * 10 
oo tv^^io 0\ co 


) NN no m m CQlO f 


oOH^-Hiom irtto h’tn 

in fv tv tv Ol wj M VO tvoo O' 

h oVoVt h rn in in tv h" vo 
O' O' O' N Own w M N« 1OV0 N 


0 (imidOM' 
m mo tv h h oc 
O' o h h tv m t> 


0 oo m m ro 0 h 
ci 0 coco n tn v 
« qj « vo oj « « 
vo n tn Oaf & gv 

O' co * n h co 


tv -ihCO mvo 0 o 
0 OVH * tv o 'O 

qv^H'O'jS co 
cf m cn of tv of vo 

h o o O' sm m 
•<• tv V m m oi 


H tv N CO h 0 w 

gvvo mn o et m 

<tcnm« n\o m 


O no oco SCO 
rn O' h co O'Ovo 

N vo vO O' H H 


>0 O»C0 N N N N Q 

CO tint tJ -00 O' vo 

n o mvo o_ tv h « 

oi co of m cTn n f 
N 0’sJ-^rn*-M o 

* v h rt h co * eo 


vo NrowONrn « m « n- o O' n 
0 'O'OroNHtn co Ora o W m n 
<> n rn o 0 _ v; m ocnmcnmov 
vo iamViTsh co n no" m® o“ 
n avovniocnH m coa w O'*N 
N NNNCtVOCO m CO ^flO O' H tv 


'o SM Si m o co m v m I 


•T n m" ro n NO" mo o J co in co "£ in n o' j o' O'® nn« 


h co « « O' * n * O'cnHinno 
m CO ■'£00 O' H N O' I OtiH V® H 


cimooo'O® 0 w o>oo m N 
vo o O' oo n« m v w co n co h 
oo ■«■ mvo two O' co® « h tot 


O' o CO® HVO M 
N N H 00 00 NO 
CO 0 H « N V cn 


co moovovo o 
« o o o vo O' 
vo "*■ ts« vo n 


s in h 'i-co n n co h o w co tv m vo mvo co oo s o m n m m ro h 


vo n m® co co o oHOO'flH « ovovwmww ONMnon 
HVOO'QmN h co • 4 - m v n v- o v® g s- co O' ov novoO oo 

m vw'O'O w n wooc coco m h ®®® 0 'wC' O' Ono' 1 *"®®, 

cn h m h h rn to 'ofWt't n -* m ■<? co cf ro v w of m m co cT 


* I : •» • • £ 

1 mH 

0 X £,<$ 1(4 0 JJ 

a <cqWcmwH 


C V 5 H 

III III 

Sjj^fclSww 


I n* ^ d J’S & £ id S u H 

all Iff Hill | 


'otal Sind .... 47,066 26 4 , 4°3 3 , 210,910 1,761,790 1 , 449,120 397.353 219,744 177,611 J 

otal British District's . 122,934. 199 s* 5>699 * 8 , 515,587 9 . 55 2 . e 79 8 , 962,708 3 , 492,325 T . 883,915 a , 608,410 | 

According to a special census in 1906 the total population of Bombay Citv was 977 , 822 , composed of 6 r 3 ,oxx males and 364 , 8 zx females. 
In 1906 Khandesh was divided into the two Districts of East and West Khandesh. 



134 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 



* Includes the Dangs States, with a population of 18,663, n 
+ Includes Jath and Dafiapur, with a population of 68 , 665 , 


TABLES, 


*35 


TABLE II 

Statistics of Agriculture in the Bombay Presidency, 
excluding Native States 


(In square miles) 



Presidency Proper. 

Sind, 

1881. 

1891. 

1901 

1904. 

1881 

1891 

1901. 

1904 

Total area .... 



68,517 

68,130 

68,475 

\ / 

38,158 

46,983 

41,908 

Total uncultivated area 

*2 


21,995 

21,289 

21,320 


28,209 

34,482 

33,856 

Cultivable but not cultivated 

. o a 

1 IZa 


3 , 4 i 9 

2,232 

2,220 

f £ si 

8,127 

10,420 

10,265 

Uncultivable .... 

> 


8,126 

7,834 

7,825 

1 H 

19,138 

22,860 

22,593 

Forest 



10,450 

11,221 

n ,275 


944 

1,202 

1,048 

Total cultivated area . 

33 j 97 x 

46,522 

46,843 

47,155 

4,539 

9,949 

12,501 

13,052 

{ a ) Actually cropped . 

28,393 

39 ,ii 4 

32,813 

36,728 

2,821 

4,507 

5,827 

5,932 

Irrigated from canals . 

1 <! 


173 

191 

167 

\ W 

3,148 

4,574 

4,738 

„ from wells and tanks 

I 



882 

794 

| I 


22 

29 

„ from other sources . 

r &-I 




139 

111 

f 7°5 

204 

333 

Total irrigated . 

) s 


1,222 

1,204 

1,100 

1 H 

3,913 

4,800 

5,100 

Unirrigated .... 



37,892 

31,609 

35,628 


594 

1,027 

832 

( b ) Current fallows . 

6,578 

7,408 

14,030 

10,427 

1,718 

5,442 

6,674 

7,120 

Total cropped area . 

28,970 

39,966 

33,512 

37,782 

2,946 

4,879 

6,282 

6,444 

Cereals — 










Jowdr 

8,88£ 


13,003 

9,051 

9 , 5 i 2 

562 

722 

1,259 

1,051 

Bajra 

5,249 

6,952 

8,951 

7,549 

697 

1,171 

1,401 

1,478 

Rice 

1,900 

2,486 

2,289 

2,444 

846 

1,103 

1,448 

1,381 

Wheat .... 

2,113 

2,989 

1,485 

2,429 

356 

634 

706 

858 

Kodra or hank . 

933 

395 

274 

346 

. . 

... 

... 


Nachtii naglt or ragi 

i ,323 

1,066 

797 

759 

4 

2 

2 

1 

Others .... 

i, 3 S 3 

1,289 

i,U 4 

1,158 

89 

42 

30 

38 

Pulses — 










THr 

489 


819 

939 

95 i 




... 

Gram 

848 

1,100 

501 

886 

31 

43 

’138 

130 

Others .... 

1,056 

1,664 

2,065 

2,613 

126 

244 

327 

400 

Tobacco .... 

76 

151 

104 

113 

10 

13 

13 

13 

Sugar-cane .... 

76 

99 

60 

89 

4 

4 

4 

4 

Oilseeds (not forest) — 










Sesamum { til ) . 

449 

346 

496 

795 

115 

135 

156 

182 

Linseed .... 

238 

326 

215 

566 

... 

... 

... 

• . 

Other oilseeds . 

895 

1,806 

848 

1,287 


431 

497 

457 

Fibres — 










Cottori .... 

2,702 

4,769 

3 , 57 i 

5,581 

75 

164 

130 

324 

Other fibres 

76 

136 

153 

237 

... 

1 

1 

. 1 

Orchard and garden produce 

no 

264 

257 

207 

25 

81 

72 

64 

Condiments and spices . 

171 

294 

272 

253 

... 

72 

18 

8 

Dyes (not forest) . 

14 

8 

5 

3 

6 

15 

16 

9 

Drugs and narcotics other 




; 






than tobacco 

10 

2 

2 

1 



... 

... 

Miscellaneous 



2 

3 

3 


2 

64 

45 

Area cropped more than once 

577 

852 

699 

i ,054 

125 

372 

455 

513 




136 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


Table III. Prices of Chief Grains in the Bombay 
Presidency at six selected Centres 
(In seers per rupee) 


Selected staples. 




Average for ten years ending 

Names of selected centres 


1890 





1880. 

1900 


r 

Hyderabad 



Not available. 

17 

16 



- Ahmadabad 



17 

17 

1 5 

Dajra H 


Bombay City 
Poona 



14 

15 

*5 

1 6 

13 

H 



Dharwar . 



19 

23 

19 


\ 

Karwar . 



14 

15 

13 



Hyderabad 



Not available. 

20 

i7 



Ahmadabad 



19 

*9 

17 

Jowdr „ . - 


Bombay City 
Poona 



17 

*9 

18 

20 

14 

*7 



Dhanvar . 



22 

26 

20 



Karwar . 



14 

18 

14 



Hyderabad 



Not available. 

14 

9 



Ahmadabad 



10 

11 

10 

Rice, common - 


Bombay City 
Poona 



11 

10 

11 

10 

10 

10 



Phaiwar . 



13 

13 

11 


1 

Karwar . 



12 

13 

10 


r 

Hyderabad 



Not available. 

16 

*4 



Ahmadabad 



16 

18 

1 6 

Gram . . -« 


Bombay City 
Poona 



H 

14 

16 

16 

12 

13 



1 'harwar . 



12 

16 

12 


1 

Kaiwar . 



11 

14 

11 


Note.— Figures for Hyderabad are not available for the years previous to 1885. 
Acute famine years, such as 1877 and 1900, have been omitted from these averages. 


Table IV. Foreign Maritime Trade of Bombay Pre- 
sidency for the Years 1890-1, 1900-1, 'and 1903-4 
(exclusive of Government Stores and Treasure) 

(In thousands of rupees) 


Articles 

1890-1. 

1900-1. 

1903-4 

Imports, 




Animals, living 

*4,5° 

18,33 

28,21 

Apparel , * . . . • i 

53,i° 

61, 11 

88,16 

Books and printed matter . 

Carriages and carts (excluding railway 

9,3* 

11,87 

*4,32 

carriages and parts thereof) . 


11,23 

19,84 

Chemical products and pieparations . 

* 

*8,53 

24,42 

Coal and coke ! 

1,31,68 

22,5* 

3°, 57 

Cotton, raw 

19,46 

6(5,88 

4,78 

„ twist and yarn 

1,28,52 

5°, 29 

54,00 

„ manufactures . 

10,31,10 

8,45,33 

*°,°9,59 

Dnigs and medicines .... 

22,73 

26,14 

42,39 

Dyeing and colouring materials . 

42,81 

49»4 2 

77, °5 

Glass and glassware .... 
Grain and pulse 

35,1s 

* 

3<5,37 

84,21 

52,43 

5 32 


Not registered. 




TABLES 


*3 7 


TABLE IV ( continued ) 


Articles 


1890-1. 

1900-1. 

1903-4. 

Matches 


12,72 

16,77 

20,00 

Metals and manufactures thereof, 
eluding hardware and cutlery . 

in- 

3, 1 0,19 

2 , 72,47 

4,27,35 

Ivory, including manufactures thereof 

34^5 

16,77 

20,54 

Instruments and apparatus of all kinds 

12,00 

18,40 

27,19 

Jewellery, including precious stones 
unset and parts .... 

18,65 

5 °, 7 2 

62,47 

Liquors ..... 

. 

53 ,ii 

63,50 

73,13 

Machinery and mill- work . 

. 

96,24 

77,08 

1,36,89 

Oils 


86,32 


37,85 

Paints and colours and painters mate- 
rials 

14,47 

l6,6l 

18,06 

Paper and pasteboard 


23,21 

76,18 

24,49 

*7,65 

Provisions 


1,04,25 

1,00,29 

Railway plant and rolling stock . 


1,14,04 

48,14 

46,62 

Silk, raw 


87,02 

85,99 

49,65 

, , manufactures . 


67,29 

82,77 

1,17,46 

Spices 


27,91 

19,57 

26,73 

Stationery 


* 

14,65 

20,26 

Sugar 


2,52,81 

3 , 7 ', 4 i 

3,59,28 

Tea 


31,01 

22,78 

18,18 

Umbrellas ..... 


io ,35 

10,90 

11 , 3 * 

Wood and manufactures thereof. 


6,89 

18,92 

32,34 

Woollen manufactures 


77,47 

s 5,97 

1,06,56 

All other articles of merchandise 


2,23,66 

2,20,73 

2,49,16 

Total 

31 , 24,55 

30,9 ^59 

35*40,05 

Treasure ..... 

. 

17,66,65 

9,79,44 

18,14,01 

Exports. 





Animal bones . . . . 


* 

49,20 

24,37 

Apparel 


4,79 

22,22 

24,38 

Cotton, raw .... 

• 

13,22,33 

7 , 93,19 

20,81,49 

„ twist and yam * 

ft 

6,21,79 

4 , 07,32 

8,35,70 

„ manufactures . 

* 

2,36,94 

12,78 

1,72,64 

2,04,52 

Dyeing and tanning materials . 


49,58 

48,84 

Gram and pulse .... 


6,35,21 

6,05 

85,52 

11,22,41 

Gums and resins 


13,19 

15,00 

Hemp 


2,27 

20,71 

27.77 

Hides and skins, raw . 


4,39 

1,07,85 

48,00 

„ ,, dressed or tanned 


51,67 

1,00,65 

65,58 

Homs ..... 


* 

10,45 

6,95 

Metals and manufactures thereof 


8,00 

42,09 

52,39 

Oils 


3,50 

15,29 

15-51 

Oilseeds ..... 


5,01,03 

4 , 55,64 

8,59,46 

Opium 


3 ) 2 ’, 19 

3 , 33,30 

3,42,94 

Provisions ..... 


38,5° 

33,70 

37,62 

Spices 


9 > 4 o 

16,49 

25,76 

Sugar 


22,77 

11,17 

6,2 6 

Tea 


9,75 

28,21 

22,26 

Wool, raw 


92,91 

1, 15, 12 

1 , 54.97 

Woollen manufactures 


4,54 

18,10 

13,82 

All other articles of merchandise 


3 39 ,n 

1,46,72 

1,67,65 

Total 

4 2 , 55,92 

30,48,35 

62,03,55 

Treasuie ..... 

• 

i, 7 o ,77 

6,53,57 

5,38,99 


* Not registered. 





138 BOMBA y PRESIDENCY 

TABLE V 

Trade of the Bombay Presidency with other Provinces and 


States of India for 1890-1, 1900-1, and 1903-4 
(In thousands of rupees) 



By sea (exclusive of Govern- 
ment stores and treasure). 

By road and rail. 


1890-1. 

1 900-1 

1903-4. 

1890-1 

1900-1. 

1903-4- 

Imports. 





35,68 


Animals, living .... 

z 

8 

3 

2,36 

7,39 

Apparel .... 

So 

52 

38 

* 

23,92 

26,50 

Coal and coke 

52 

1,05,28 

88,85 

* 3,73 

44,72 

3 i ,95 

Coco-nuts, coco-nut copra 

49 , 5 ° 

56,62 

58,71 


7 , 36,93 

Cotton, raw 

2,95 

7,47 

2,97 

6,74,12 

14,16,10 

„ piece-goods 

1,63 

2,93 

2,03 

37,29 

27,90 

37,64 

„ twist and yarn . 

1,26 

28 

5 

2,86 

i ,73 

i ,95 

Drugs and medicines 

14 

1,64 

1,76 

6,97 

15,21 

12,33 

Dyes and tans 

6,67 

4,29 

V 5 

30,10 

37 ,oo 

29,18 

Gram and pulse 

1 , 15,98 

6,82,40 

1,53,62 

4,29,27 

5 , 97, 6 4 

8,82,40 

Hay, straw, and grass . 

* 

2,21 

1,76 


12,77 

5,25 

Hemp ... . 

4 

“’65 

15 

* 

12,95 

14,21 

Hides and skins (raw and dressed) . 

68 

1,22 

15,98 

55,45 

43,98 

Jute and manufactures thereof 

67,30 

60,69 

71,40 

3,43 

4,39 

13,39 

Leather, including wrought . 

10 

X 

... 

6,49 

$ 39 

26,73 

Metals and manufactures thereof . 

1,81 

16,32 

54 

1,04 

6,93 

2,66,29 

8,96 

31,64 

Oils 

27,55 

32,44 

2,22 

11,07 

Oilseeds ... 

4,93 

6,57 

1,03 

3,04,21 

3 , 94,66 

5,84,23 

Opium .... 

... 

... 


1,64,97 

2,24,18 

2,32,00 

Provisions 

3,20 

4,90 

4,25 

92,13 

1,85,98 

82,34 

Railway plant and rolling stock 


4 

48,29 

9 ,o 6 

n ,57 

xi, 60 

Spices ... . . 

29,23 

39,23 

29,64 

40,62 

39,52 

Sugar 

11,80 

?,47 

2,37 

68,69 

77 , 7 i 

45,24 

Tea 

4,32 

16,66 

iS,i 5 

3 , 7 i 

5,57 

9,36 

Tobacco 

2,80 

1,02 

62 

5,37 

11,58 

4,06 

Wood and manufactures thereof . 

34,94 

36,01 

30,23 


8,68 

15,67 

Wool and manufactures thereof 

S 3 

o 58 

26 

43,25 

68,74 

7*, 37 

All other articles of merchandise . 

43,82 

28,96 

27,44 

67,96 

82,30 

77,77 

Total 

4,00,98 

10,89,60 

5 , 47 , 3 ° 

20,20,74 

30,10,52 

37,64,87 

Treasure 

27 

33 


# 

3 , 36,32 

5,16,91 

Exports. 

Apparel 

4 ,oi 

4,00 

3,05 

* 

26,79 

43,16 

Cotton, raw 

39 ,ii 

1 5»°4 

8,18 

12,43 

18,84 

17,06 

„ piece-goods 

68,00 

98,98 

1,01,63 

4,68,71 

5 , 46,73 

7 , 25,44 

„ twist and yarn . 

89,13 

1,01,89 

76,80 

1,07,41 

1 , 63,54 

2,56,87 

Dyes and tans 

3,49 

4,63 

4,57 

35,24 

35,46 

47 , 8 i 

Grain and pulse . . 

16,00 

39,44 

45,09 

12,53 

1 , 39,82 

46,31 

Hides and skins . . . 

1,15 

1,26 

x,6o 

17,07 

45,28 

26,42 

Jute and manufactures thereof 

82 

x ,43 

1,03 

25,13 

23,64 

29,14 

Leather 

1 

24 


13,76 

30,40 

59 , 3 i 

Liquor 

2,05 

2,07 

1,85 

53,67 

54,45 

61,92 

Metals and manufactures thereof . 

21,06 

31,25 

20,65 

*, 50,45 

2,46,18 

4,00,31 

Oils 

57 

16,66 

14,89 

40,52 

61,51 

62,61 

Provisions . . 

7,52 

12,99 

14,90 

91,06 

1,11,30 

1,28,26 

Railway plant and rolling stock . 

* 

8 

79,40 

94,47 

1,12,32 

Salt 

62,38 

56,04 

37,30 

1,04,31 

i, 4 i ,79 

1,26,43 

Silk, raw 

5 

45 

14 

x 6,94 

33,69 

33,13 

„ piece-goods .... 

*, 5 S 

4,25 

2,13 

5,63 

17,11 

17,61 

Spices * 

3,99 

6,26 

4,58 

6,91 

40,14 

48,13 

56,86 

Sugar 

2,69 

5,36 

71,90 

2, xi, 15 

25,89 

27,27 

2,53,18 

Tobacco .... 

Wool and manufactures thereof . 

1,11 

5,23 

67 

1,71 

1,62 

5*, 70 
13,56 

25,52 

29,16 

Other articles of merchandise . 

S 3 , 80 

54,68 

55 ,i 2 

8 i ,75 

1,09,15 

1,82,42 

Total 

3 , 83,72 

4,58,6o 

4,03,30 

14 , 93,31 

22,02,59 

27 , 41,25 

Treasure . .... 

4,74 

2,70 

5,73 

* 

8 , 92,59 

7 , 57 , 6x 


Not registered 


TABLES 


i39 


TABLE VI 

Principal Sources of Provincial Revenue in the Bombay 
Presidency 

(In thousands of rupees) 



Average for ten 
years ending 
March 31, 1890. 

Average for ten 
years ending 
March 31, 1900. 

Year ending 
March 31, 1901. 

Year ending 
March 31, 1904 

Sources of revenue 

Total amount 
raised (Imperial, 
Provincial, and 
Local) 

Amount credited 
to Provincial 
revenues. 

Total amount 
raised (Imperial, 
Provincial, and 
Local). 

Amount credited 
to Provincial 
revenues. 

Total amount 
raised (Imperial, 
Provincial, and 
Local). 

Amount credited 
to Provincial 
revenues. 

Total amount 
raised (Imperial, 
Provincial, and 
Local) 

Amount credited 
to Provincial 
revenues. 

Partly Imperial 
atid partly 
Provincial. 
Land revenue . 

4,06,13 

3,57.93 

4 , 50,99 

2 , 74,57 

3 , 92,34 

3,14,76 

4,75,54 

3 , 12,33 

Stamps . 

45.65 

30,79 

57,44 

43,08 

58,87 

44,15 

61,48 

46,11 

Excise . 

82,56 

40^3 

1,07,89 

26,97 

1,01,31 

25,33 

1 , 19,99 

30,00 

Provincial rates 




34,04 

- 

Assessed taxes . 

20,97 

8 .75 

37,21 

17,80 

37,28 

18,10 

36,32 

17,89 

Forest 

22,79 

IL 39 

31,28 

15,64 

29,62 

' I 4 , 8 l 

27,52 

13,76 

Registration . 

3 , 7 * 

2,13 

5,97 

2,99 

6,10 

3,05 

5,54 

2,77 

Other sources . 

49.°7 

25,8s 

58,31 

29,16 

49,18 

26,41 

58,34 

30,81 

Total 

6,30,88 

3,76,90 

7 , 49,09 

4,10,21 

6,74,70 

4,46,61 

8,18,77 

4,53,6; 

Mainly Imperial . 
Salt . 

1,63,03 

49 

2,28,34 

57 

2,33,89 

74 

1,86,59 

1,03 

Customs . 

33,24 

57 

L 23,94 

74 

r ? 93»59 

1,09 

2,35,56 

94 

Interest on cesses 
to local bodies 

20,36 

86 

18,92 

3 ,i 3 

17,57 

3,44 

28,84 

5,74 

Irrigation . 

*L 45 

1 

16,95 

24 

23,57 

3 2 

1-31,04 

48 

State railway 
gross receipts. 


+ 5 1 , 11 

L 37 

... 

... 


... 


* From 1889-90 only. t Does not include portion of Land Revenue due to Irrigation. 
| Shared with Provincial Government from 1892-3 to 1899-1900 only. 




140 


BOMBA V PRESIDENCY 


TABLE VII 

Principal Heads of Provincial Expenditure 
in the Bombay Presidency 
(I n thousands of rupees) 



Average 

Average 

Year 

Year 


for ten 

for ten 


years 

years 

ending 

ending 


ending 

ending 

March 31, 

March 31, 


March 31, 

March 31, 

1901 

1904 


1890 

1900 



Opening balance . • 

j 11 , 01 * 
( 43 , 99 + 

58,41 

48,73 

... 

34 ,oo 

Charges in respect of collec- 





tion (principally Land Re- 
venue and Forests) . 

86,76 

7 S , 31 

82,66 

76,82 

Salaries and expenses of Civil 




Department : — 





(a) General administra- 





tion .... 

12,48 

14,27 

15,27 

15,82 

( b ) Law and justice 

5°?59 

52,07 

57,38 

55,03 

(c) Police 

46,93 

56,86 

65,09 

63,43 

( d) Education 

13,01 

I 7>°5 

17,31 

19,81 

(<?) Medical . . . 

12,46 

21,82 

31,94 

19,53 

(/) Other heads 

Pensions and miscellaneous 

3,74 

5 > 7 2 

6,67 

6,36 

civil charges 

20,58 

2 7 > 5 2 

34,04 

44,33 

Famine relief 

6 

50 

, , 

2 

Irrigation .... 

26 

60 

14 

13 

Public works 

36,30 

32,90 

27,29 

14 

Other charges and adjustments 

90,81 

1,14,60 

I » I 4 » 4 I 

1,61,67 

Total expenditure 

3,74,18 

4,22,12 

4,52,20 

4,63,09 

Closing balance . 

i 58,41+ 
i 48,735 

27,34 

... 

32,77 


* Actual at commencement of each period. t Average. 

t Actual at close of each period. § Average. 





Annual Gross Yield of Import Duties on the Chief Articles imported into the Bombay Presidency 

(excluding Sind) from 1894-5 to 1902-3 


TABLES 


141 





142 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


TABLE IX. Income and Expenditure of Bombay 
District Municipalities 



Average 
for ten years 
1891-1900 

I900-I. 

1903-4. 

Income from — 

Octroi (gross) .... 
Tax on houses and land . 

Other taxes .... 

Rents 

Loans 

Other sources + . 

Rs. 

21,64,370 
5.48, 9 1 ? 
8,76»9Si 

7 7,963 
5,20,259 
17,27,022 

Rs. 

22,89,129 

6,56,386 

10,39,088 

81,971 

2,13,607 

16,51,565 

Rs. 

26,96,049 

7,05»2I3 

13732,431 

94> 6 77 

99 j i 73 

21,76,572 

Total income 

59,15,482 

59,31,746 

72,04,115 

Expenditure on — 

Administration .... 
Public safety .... 
Water-supply and drainage — 

( a ) Capital. 

( b ) Maintenance . 

Conservancy 

Hospitals and dispensaries 

Public works » 

Education .... 

Refunds (octroi) , 

Miscellaneous .... 

4,55,343 

2,46,634 

4,98,329 

2,78,564 

8,85,152 

2,73,854 

5,21,983 

6,76,026 

7,22,683 

14,83,770 

5,30,920 

2,44,655 

1,33,621 

3,or,747 

9,92,140 

3,22,747 

4,44,283 

7,01,998 

7,00,196 

16,94,527 

5,52,938 

2,50,372 

4,15,822 

3,36,865 

10,02,791 

3,10,099 

7,27,353 

7,99,723 

8,63,013 

15,46,015 

Total expenditure 

60,42,338 

60,66,834 

68,04,991 


Note —The Bombay City municipality had an income in 1903-4, including extra* 
ordmaiy, of about 4 crores of rupees. 


TABLE X 


Income and Expenditure of Bombay District Boards 



Average for 
ten years 
1891-1900. 

I 900-1 

I 903 ~ 4 * 

Income from — 
Provincial rates 
Education 
Medical . 

Public works , 
Contributions 
Pounds . 

Ferries and roads 
Other sources . 


Rs. 

25 , 81,731 

2,10,896 

24,661 

L 09,757 

9 , 79,651 

1,60,884 

4,00,617 

82,343 

Rs 

22 , 55,505 

1,30,262 

12,622 

63,278 

10,53,069 

84,187 

3,87,158 

98,792 

Rs. 

29 , 27,456 

16,017 

68,296 

10,92,841 

1,01,885 

4 , 03,581 

58,823 


Total income 

45,50,540 

40,84,873 

48,00,157 

Expenditure on — 
Administration 
Education 
Medical . 

Public works , 

Contributions 

Miscellaneous 


39,735 

14 , 99,736 

3,02,042 

23,85,032 

95,534 

2 , 77,944 

I , 45 , 49 ° 

15,12,908 

3 , 33,825 

17,09,964 

84,381 

2 , 76,370 

1,52,234 

16,03,777 

2 , 94,947 

22,39,613 

1,16,724 

L 73 , 8 i 8 

Total expenditure 

47,00,023 

40,62,938 

45 , 8 i,H 3 







TABLES 


143 


TABLE XI. Police Statistics in the Bombay 
Presidency (British Districts) 



1881. 

1891 

1901. 

1904 

Supervising Staff, 
District and Assistant 





Superintendents 

39 

45 

52 

5 2 

Inspectors 

78 

92 

102 

109 

Subordinate Staff, 





Sub-Inspectors . 

| 3,no 

3.675 

1 397 

408 

Head constables 

I 4.347 

4,396 

Constables 

17,082 

18,820 

19.367 

1 9,540 

Municipal police* : — 




Officers . 

184+ 

20 

51 

49 

Men 

1,2561* 

148 

286 

282 

Expenditure . Rs. 

37,3 m 21 j 

41,71,188 

51.52.714 

53,04,097 


* Figures under this head include cantonment and water police, who are paid wholly 
from other than Imperial and Provincial revenues, 
t Including 137 railway officers and 879 men. 


TABLE XII. Statistics of Cognizable Crime in the 
Bombay Presidency (British Districts) 


Particulars 

Average for 
five years 
ending 1901. 

1904. 

Number of cases reported 

,, ,, decided in the criminal courts 

„ ,, ending in acquittal or discharge . 

„ ,, „ conviction . 

78,920 

55,244 

8,560 

47>5° 8 

90,5H 

68,620 

7,736 

60,884 


TABLE XIII. Jail Statistics in the Bombay 
Presidency (British Districts) 



1881. 

1891 

1901. 

1904. 

Number of Central jails 

1 

1 

3 

3 

Number of District jails . 

26 

20 

*4 

14 

Number of subsidiary jails (lock- 




ups) 

78* 

27* 

238 

238 

Average daily jail population : — 
(a) Male: 


In Central jails . 

1,280 

i,o 85 t 

4.057+ 

3.007 

In other jails 
(5) Female : 

In Central jails . 

8,117 

6,467+ 

7.531+ 

5.764 


24+ 

109+ 

98 

In other jails 

449 

223f 

290+ 

189 

Total 

9,846 

7.799 

11,987 

9,058 

Rate of jail mortality per 1,000 . 

42 

32 

35 

20 

Expenditure on jail mainte- 

6,12,000 


8,48,000 


nance X .... Rs. 

5,24,000 

6,13,000 

Cost per prisoner . . Rs. 

62 

67 

7 L 

68 

Profits on jail manufactures Rs. 

2,04,000 

1,46,000 

1,08,000 

2,09,000 

Earnings per prisoner . Rs. 

2 r 

19 

9 

23 


* This excludes numerous lock-ups, details of which are not available, 
f The figures for 1891 and 1901 include the average number of prisoners confined 
in lock-ups. \ Excluding inspection charges. 










TABLE XIV. Colleges, Schools, and Scholars in the Bombay Presidency 


144 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 






























TABLE XVI Educational Finance, Bombay Presidency 


146 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 



* State revenues ' in the case of Native States. 




TABLES 


147 


TABLE XVII 

Medical Statistics in the Bombay Presidency (including 
Native States but excluding Aden) 



1881. 

1891. 

1901. 

1904. 

Hospitals , ifc. 

A. State or State-aided Insti- 
tutions. 

Number of civil hospitals and 
dispensaries .... 

181 

249 

232 

302 

Average daily number of— 

(a) In-patients 

1,741.° 

2,069.3 

2,37i 

2,68l 

(£) Out-patients . 

12,802-4 

17,500.2 

14,024 

18,842 

Income from - 

(a) Government payments Rs. 

6,86,712 

7,90,940 

6,73,644 

7,30,677 

(£) Local and municipal pay- 
ments . . . Rs. 

1,52,468 

2,45,029 

2,74,933 

4,94,214 

(<:) Fees, endowments, and 
other sources . . Rs. 

44,145 

86,965 

r,u,732 

1,57, 180 

Expenditure on — 

(a) Establishment. . Rs. 

5,70,297 

7,17,802 

5,08,855 

6,74,328 

(3) Medicines, diet, build- 
ings, &c. . . . Rs. 

2.75.422 

3,15.875 

4,58,922 

6,75,460 

B. Private , Railway. Municipal \ 
trV.j Institutions. 

Number of institutions 

3 

9 

381 

363 

Average daily number of— 

(a) In-patients 

14 

3o 

(b) Out-patients . 

28 

59 



Lunatic Asylums. 

Number of asylums . 

5 

6 

6 

7 

no 

Average daily number of— 

(a) Criminal lunatics * 

88 

104 

IOO-I 

(b) Other lunatics . 

544 

609 

669.5 

701 

Income from. — 

(a) Government payments Rs. 

96,291 

1,00,859 

1,38,160 

1,13,071 

(b) Fees and other sources Rs. 

11,405 

16,182 

23,998 

23,547 

Expenditure on — 

( a ) Establishment . Rs. 

4 2 >9 X 7 

42,234 

49,53 s 

54*495 

{b) Diet, buildings, & c. Rs. 

5 2 ,2 X 7 

61,699 

76,799 

82,123 

Vaccination * 

Population among whom vaccina- 
tion was carried on 

23,° I 3/> I 9 

2 3,4 t 7 j 20 5 

26 902,263 

21 ,539> x 99 

Number of successful operations 

580,610 

79 i , 5 °i 

658,486 

529,421 

Ratio per 1,000 of population . 

25 

34 

25 

24,58 

Total expenditure on vaccina- 
tion . . . . Rs. 

2,25,161 

2,80,724 

3,45,924 

2,69,068 

Cost per successful case . Rs. 

0-6-2 

0-5-8 

O-8-4 

0-8-2 


* The vaccination statistics are for the financial year, while the remaining figures in this table 
are for the calendar year. 





TRIBES, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, LAKES 
AND CANALS, AND HISTORIC AREAS 


Origin and Bhll Tribes, The.— The name Bhilla seems to occur for 
thenanfe.° f ^ rst ^ me a ' DOut A - D - ^° 0, ^ * s supposed to be derived 
from the Dravidian word for a bow, which is the characteristic 
weapon of the tribe known as Bhll. The Bhils seem to be 
the ‘Pygmies’ of Ctesias (400 b.c.), and the Poulindai and 
Pkyllitae of Ptolemy (a. d. i 50) ; but the name by which they 
are at present known cannot be traced far back in Sanskrit 
literature. The Pulinda tribe is mentioned in the Aitareya 
Brahmana and in the edicts of Asoka, but its identification 
with the Bhils rests on much later authorities. The Bhils are 
often mentioned as foes or allies in the history of Anhilvada, 
and they preceded the Musalmans at both Ahmadabld and 
Champaner. To this day it is necessary to the recognition of 
certain Rajput chiefs that they should be marked on the brow 
with a Bhil’s blood. In unsettled times the Bhils were bold 
and crafty robbers, and the Marathas treated them with great 
harshness. The first step to their reclamation was the forma- 
tion of the Bhll Agencies in the Khandesh District of the 
Bombay Presidency in 1825. 

Geogra- The home of the Bhils is the hilly country between Abu and 
Sion!" AsIr § arh > ft° m which they have spread westward and southward 
into the plains of Gujarat and the Northern Deccan, and lately, 
under pressure of famine, even to Sind. The Bhils have been 
settled in this part of India from time immemorial. They are 
found in considerable numbers only in the Bombay Presidency, 
Rajputana, and Central India. At the Census of 1901 the 
Bhils numbered 1,198,843, distributed as follows 

Bombay 569,842 

R ajP ut “ a _ 339,786 

Central India 206,934 

Elsewhere 82,281 

General Some of the Bhll clans have advanced a claim to be con- 
character- sidered as Rajputs, but it is only within the last eighty years 
that the settlement and opening up of the country has tended 



TRIBES 


149 


strongly to merge them in the general Hindu population. It is 
not easy to describe a tribe that includes every stage of civili- 
zation, from the wild hunter of the hills to the orderly and 
hard-working peasant of the lowlands. A further difficulty 
arises from the fact that the name Bhll is often given to half- 
wild tribes, such as Chodhras, Dhankas, Dhodias, Kathodis, 
Konknas, and Varlis, who do not seem to be true Bhils. The 
typical Bhll is small, dark, broad-nosed, and ugly, but well built 
and active. The men wear a cloth round their long hair, 
another round their waist, and a third as a wrap, and carry a bow 
and arrows or an axe. The women dress like low-class Hindus, 
but plait their hair in three tails, and wear large numbers of 
brass or tin rings on their arms and legs. They live in huts of 
wattle-and-daub surrounded by a bamboo fence, each standing 
by itself on high ground. Each settlement has a hereditary 
headman ( gamti ), who is under the chief (naik) of the district, 
to whom all owe military service. When necessity arises, they 
are gathered by a peculiar shrill cry known as kulku Scattered 
over all these local divisions are more than 40 kuts or exoga- 
mous clans, each of which has a totem tree or animal. The 
true Bhils do not appear to have any endogamous sub-tribes, 
though such seem to have arisen in Khandesh owing to 
differences of dialect, the adoption of Hindu customs in the 
matter of food, or conversion to Islam. Whether the Bhils ever 
possessed any language of their own is unknown. At present 
they all speak a mixed dialect of Gujarati and Rajasthani, with 
some borrowing from Marathi, and a slight admixture of 
Munda words. 

The Bhils are hunters and woodmen ; but most now grow Bombay, 
a little rice or maize to eke out their diet of game, roots, and 
fruits, and keep goats and fowls for feasts and sacrifices. In 
times of difficulty, they will eat beef, but not the horse, rat, 
snake, or monkey. They are truthful and honest, but thriftless, 
excitable, and given to drink. They pay no respect to 
Brahmans or to the Hindu gods, except Devi, nor do they build 
temples. They reverence and swear by the moon (Barbij), but 
chiefly worship Vaghdeo the ‘ tiger-god 5 and ghosts, for which 
every settlement has its devasthan or ‘god-yard’ with wooden 
benches for the ghosts to perch on. Here they offer goats and 
cocks with much feasting and drinking, and dedicate earthen 
horses and tigers in fulfilment of a vow. They have mediums 
called halva, of their own tribe, whose business it is to find the 
spirit or the witch that has caused any calamity. Witches are 
detected by swinging the suspected woman from a tree or by 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


I S° 

throwing her into a stream. Each group of villages has a dholi 
or bard, who supplies music at weddings and funerals, and 
keeps the genealogies of the leading Bhils. Each village also 
has a rdval , whose chief duty is to officiate at a funeral feast 
( kaita ). They celebrate the Holi at the spring equinox with 
feasting and drinking, at which every man of the village must be 
present. At this festival fire-walking is practised in fulfilment 
of vows, and a sort of mock fight takes place between men and 
women. The Dasahra or autumn equinox and the Divali are 
kept with dance, song, and feasting. In the month of Shravan 
a stone representing the small-pox goddess is worshipped, and 
the first of the young grass is cut, with feasting in the ‘ god-yard.' 
The harvest (October-November) is marked by a feast in 
honour of Babadeo, the * father-god,' who has a special seat at 
Deogarh Bariya in the Rewa Kantha Agency, where the badvas 
resort for a month in every twelfth year. Occasional sacrifices 
known as in or jatar are offered to stay an epidemic. Another 
method is to pass on a scapegoat and a toy cart, into which the 
disease has been charmed, from village to village. The women 
steal and kill a buffalo from the next village as a charm for rain. 
The chief domestic rites take place at marriage and death. 
Marriage is commonly between adults, and may be arranged 
either by themselves or by the parents. There is a sort of 
Gretna Green at Posina in Mahl Kantha. Betrothal is sealed 
with draughts of liquor. A bride price is usual, but may be 
paid off by personal service for a term of years, during which 
husband and wife are allowed to live together. Sexual licence 
before marriage is connived at, and the marriage tie is loose \ 
not only is divorce or second marriage easy for the husband, 
but a wife may live with any other man who is willing to keep 
her and to repay to her husband his marriage expenses. 
Widow marriage is common, especially with the husband’s 
younger brother. The dead are disposed of either by burning 
or by burial. The former method is the commoner, but the 
latter seems the more primitive, and is always employed in the 
case of young children or those who have died of small-pox. 
Cooked food is placed on the bier and left half-way to the 
burning or burial-ground. In case of burial the head is laid to 
the south and food put in the mouth. The grave of a chief is 
opened after two months and the face of the dead man painted 
with red lead, after Which the grave is again closed. A stone 
carved with a human figure on horseback is set up in the e god- 
yard' to the memory of any leading Bhll. A death-dinner 
( kaita ) takes place as soon after the death as the family can 



TRIBES 


r 5* 

afford it, the guests sometimes numbering two or three thousand. 
Throughout the feast the rdval sings songs, and offerings are 
made to a small brazen horse which is held on a salver by the 
chief mourner, and is the vehicle for the ghost of the dead man. 

The Bhlls believe firmly in omens, witchcraft, and the evil eye, 
to which last they trace most cases of sickness. 

In Central India there are more than 100 exogamous divisions Central 
of the Bhlls. They may in theory marry freely outside the India * 
exogamous section, but in practice the Manpur and Satpura 
Bhlls rarely intermarry. Tattooing is common, but the sept 
totem may not be represented. The hereditary headman is 
known as tarvu When performing the death ceremony, he 
wears a janeo, made of coarse thread. This is the only occasion 
on which the sacred thread is worn. The Bhlls here seldom 
eat beef. 

In Rajputana the Bhlls differ little from the main body of the Rajputana. 
tribe found within the limits of the Bombay Presidency. They 
are most numerous in the south and south-west, but are found 
everywhere except in the eastern States. In 1901 two-thirds of 
them were in the two States of Mewar and Banswara. The 
practice of marking the brow of a new Rajput chief, alluded to 
above, was formerly followed in Mewar, Dungarpur, and Bans- 
wara, but fell into desuetude in the fifteenth century. The 
reclamation of the Rajputana Bhlls was contemporaneous 
with the formation of the Khandesh Bhil Agencies, and was 
followed sixteen years later by the establishment of the 
Mewar Bhil Corps, which was one of the few native regi- 
ments in Rajputana that stood by their British officers during 
the Mutiny. Service in the Mewar Bhil Corps is now so 
popular that the supply of recruits largely exceeds the demand. 

The Mewar Bhlls consider themselves superior to the Central 
Indian Bhlls, and will neither eat nor intermarry with them. 

With the Gujarat Bhlls, on the other hand, intermarriage is 
permitted. 

The Bhilalas, or mixed Bhil and Rajput tribes, numbered The 
144,423 in 1901, being found for the most part within the limits Bhilalas * 
of Central India, in the States of the Bhopawar Agency. The 
higher classes of Bhilalas differ in no essential points from 
Hindus of the lower orders, on whom, however, they profess to 
look down. They have neither the simplicity nor the truth- 
fulness of the pure Bhil. They are the local aristocracy of the 
Vindhyas, and the so-called Bhumia landowners m Bhopawar 
are all of this class, the Raja of Onkar Mandhata in the Central 
Provinces being regarded as their leading representative. In 



152 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

Central India the Bhilalas consist of two main groups, the Bad! 
and Chhoti, which do not intermarry, but are divided into 
numerous exogamous septs. They eat flesh, except beef, 
but their usual food is millet bread and jungle produce, 
with rabri or maize boiled in buttermilk. Like the Bhlls, 
they are firm believers in omens and witchcraft. Their most 
sacred oath is by Rewa mdta , the tutelary goddess of the 
Narbada river. 

Kolis. — The various tribes that bear this name differ very 
greatly in character and origin. They are chiefly found in the 
Bombay Presidency, throughout Gujarat, and in the northern 
parts of the Deccan and Konkan, and also in the States of 
Hyderabad, Rajputana, and Central India. In the Punjab 
and United Provinces large numbers of Korls or Kolis are 
found, who are chiefly weavers or labourers. It is doubtful 
whether these are connected in any way with the Kolis of 
Western and Central India, At the Bombay Census of 1901, 
1,714,921 persons returned themselves as Kolis, and many of 
the castes that bear other names have a strain of K0I1 blood, 
whereas in Western Gujarat the Kolis have so strong an in- 
fusion of northern blood as to be scarcely distinguishable from 
Rajputs. In the east of Gujarat no very clear line can be 
drawn between them and the BhIls ; and in the Konkan the 
Koli passes into the Kunbl by insensible gradations. No 
satisfactory history or derivation of the name Koli has yet 
been given. The Kolas or Kohsarpas of Sanskrit epic poetry 
are probably the Kols of the Eastern Vindhyas, and the Kauhka 
of the Panchatantra is a weaver like the Korls of Northern 
India. The name Koli does not seem to occur before the 
Musalman period, and is disliked by the tribe in Rajputana 
and Northern Gujarat. These facts lend colour to the sugges- 
tion that it is derived from the TurkI word kukh> a ‘slave. 7 
But, whatever be the origin of the name, it seems probable 
that the oldest element in the caste represents the aborigines 
of the open country and the coast, as distinguished from the 
primitive tribes of the hills and forests. 

In Gujarat there are four leading divisions of Kolis, which 
do not as a rule eat together or intermarry. Of these, the 
highest and most widely spread are the Talabdas, also called 
Dharalas, who not infrequently intermarry with Rajputs, and 
are reputed peaceable and skilful husbandmen. Next to them 
come the Chunvaliyas of Viramgam, whose leaders are some- 
times recognized as Rajputs, while the rank and file differ but 
little from Bhlls. Though now mostly settled, they were known 



TRIBES 


*53 

down to 1825 as daring plunderers. The Khants also differ 
little from Bhils, and had their first home in Rewa Kantha, 
whence a large body was transported to Girnar in the four- 
teenth century. The Patanvadiyas of the district round Old 
Anhilvada are looked down upon by the other sections because 
they eat buffalo meat, and closely resemble Bhils and Vaghris. 
The strain of northern blood is strongest in Kathiawar, where 
the Kolis differ hardly at all from the Babrias, Mers, Ravalias, 
and Mahiyas, and join in the worship of the Baloch goddess 
Hinglaj. There is a functional sub-caste of Koli fishers and 
boatmen, settled all along the coasts of Kathiawar and Gujarat, 
which is sometimes classed as separate from, and sometimes 
as a subdivision of, the Machhis or the Kharvas. All these 
sections of Kolis are subdivided into exogamous clans, many 
of which bear Rajput names. Gujarat Kolis eat fish, flesh, 
and opium, drink liquor, and smoke tobacco. They worship 
chiefly the gods Indra and Hatmal, the goddesses Hinglaj 
and Khodiar, and the river Mahl, and have a strong belief in 
ghosts and omens. Children are not married before twelve 
years of age. Marriages are arranged by the parents, who pay 
great respect to certain omens. Widows may remarry, and so 
may unwidowed wives with the first husband's consent. In 
some parts marriage of a widow with her husband's younger 
brother is not uncommon. Divorce is allowed. The dead, 
except infants, are burnt, and on the eleventh day after death 
worship is paid to a stone into which the ghost is supposed 
to have entered. 

The Marathi-speaking Kolis of the Konkan and Deccan also 
have four endogamous divisions. Of these the Son-Kolls are 
confined to the coast tract, and are fishermen and sailors. 
They are closely connected with the Agris, and have a sar 
patel or chief headman who lives at Allbag. The men affect 
a cap of red cloth scalloped over the forehead, and the married 
women wear glass bangles on the left arm only, those of the 
right arm being thrown into the sea at marriage to save the 
husband from the dangers of the deep. The Malhari Kunam 
or Panbhari Kolis are found in large numbers in Thana Dis- 
trict, where they are husbandmen, and more sparsely in the 
Deccan, where they are boatmen, water-carriers, and ministers 
in the temples of Mahadeo. They eat with Kunbls, from 
whom in the Konkan they can hardly be distinguished. The 
Raj, Dongari, or Mahadeo Kolis claim to have come about 
1300 from the Nizam’s country, where they are strong. The 
chief of Jawhar in Thana belongs to this section, which is 



154 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


more warlike than the others, and has often made itself notori- 
ous for turbulence and gang-robberies. Above the Ghats their 
chief centre was formerly at Junnar. They are now as a rule 
husbandmen. The Dhor Kolls are looked down upon by the 
other sections because they eat beef, and are altogether of 
a lower type. Each of the three higher sections is divided 
into a number of exogamous family stocks ( kill ). They claim 
descent from the sage Valmlki, author of the Ramayana. 
Infant marriage is practised chiefly by the Raj Kolis. All 
sections allow the remarriage of widows, but only at night, and 
with maimed rites. A widow must marry out of her first hus- 
band’s Mil Divorce is allowed only by Raj Kolis. All sections 
worship various forms of Siva, and in the Konkan also the 
local gods and ghosts known as Hirva, Chita, Vaghdeo, &c., 
with offerings of fowls, goats, and liquor. They believe firmly 
in witchcraft and omens. The marriage rites are conducted 
by Brahmans. The dead, except in cases of cholera, are 
burnt, but the Raj Kolis sometimes bury, and employ ravals 
in the funeral rites. Offerings are made to the dead from 
eleven to thirteen days after death, and yearly in the month 
of Bhadrapada. 

In Central India the Kolis are almost entirely confined to 
the Malwa side. They live as a rule by agriculture and differ 
little from the ordinary Kunbl. The Census of 1901 shows 
the following distribution of the tribe throughout India : — 


Bombay 

. 1,714,921 

Baroda 

. . . . 281,32(5 

Hydeiabad . 

230,598 

Central India 

. . . . 32,268 

Rajputana . 

. . . . 103,060 

Other Provinces . 

57,301 

Total 2,419,474 


Kirthar Range.— A mountain range forming the boundary 
between Sind and the Jhalawan country in Baluchistan, be- 
tween 26° 13' and 28° 36' N. and 67° ii' and 67° 40' E. 
Jrorn the point where the Mula river debouches into the 
Kachhi plain, the range runs almost due south for a distance 
of 190 miles in a series of parallel ridges of bare rocky hills. 
At intervals similar ranges run athwart them. The offshoots 
tail off south-eastwards into Karachi District, but a single line 
of low hills extends as far as Cape Monze. The greatest breadth 
is about 60 miles. The highest point is the Zardak peak 
(7,43° feet), and another fine peak is the Kuta-ka-kabar, or 



MOUNTAINS 


155 

Kuta-jo-kabar, i.e. * the dog’s tomb ’ (6,878 feet). The principal 
offshoot is the Lakhi range. The Kirthar hills are pierced by 
the Kolachi or Gaj river in a fine gorge, and the chief passes are 
known as the Harbab, Phusi, Rohel, and Garre. These hills 
give their name to the Kirthar geological group of Nummuhtic 
limestone, which is found on their crests, overlaid by Tertiary 
rocks of Nari and Gaj beds, the former being soft sandstone 
and the latter a hard dark-brown limestone exposed on the 
Gaj river. The tribes residing in the Kirthar are the Marri 
and Jamali Baloch, Jamot and Chuta Jats, and some Khi- 
drani and Sassoli Brahuis. They subsist chiefly by tend- 
ing flocks, and by exporting the dwarf-palm (Nannorhops 
Ritchieana). Sind ibex and mountain sheep are fairly plen- 
tiful, and both black bears and leopards are occasionally 
met with. 

Lakhi Hills (Lakt ).— An offshoot of the Kirthar Range 
in the Kotri ialuka of Karachi District, Sind, Bombay. The 
Lakhi is the most easterly of a number of hill ranges in the 
western part of Sind, extending between Baluchistan and the 
alluvial tract of the Indus, and also between the desert of 
Shikarpur and Karachi. Length of range, about 50 miles; 
greatest elevation, 1,500 to 2,000 feet; situation (centre), 

26° N. and 67° 50' E., the latitude of the northern limit being 
26° 20' and of the southern 25 0 12'. The hills are for the 
most part of recent formation, containing marine remains in 
great quantities. Huge fissures, apparently produced by earth- 
quakes, traverse the range; and the frequent occurrence of 
hot springs and sulphurous exhalations is a sign of volcanic 
action. Some parts, again, appear to be of more ancient 
formation, as they yield lead, antimony, and copper. The 
whole tract is wild and dreary. Near the town of Sehwan the 
'I)akhi range terminates abruptly on the Indus, in a nearly 
perpendicular face of rock 600 feet high, which presents an 
imposing appearance from the river. 

Satpuras (or Satpuras).— A range of hills in the centre of Geogra- 
India. The name, which is modern, originally belonged only 
to the hills which divide the Narbada and Tapti valleys in 
Nimar (Central Provinces), and which were styled the sdtpuira 
or 4 seven sons ’ of the Vindhyan mountains. Another deriva- 
tion is from sdtpura ( c sevenfolds J ) referring to the numerous 
parallel ridges of the range. The term Satpuras is now, how- 
ever, customarily applied to the whole range which, com- 
mencing at Amarkantak in Rewah, Central India (22 0 41' N. 
and 8i° 48' E.), runs south of the Narbada river nearly down. 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


156 

to the western coast. The Satpuras are sometimes, but in- 
correctly, included under the Vindhya range. Taking Amar- 
kantak as the eastern boundary, the Satpuras extend from east 
to west for about 600 miles, and in their greatest width, where 
they stretch down to Berar, exceed 100 miles from north to 
south. The shape of the range is almost triangular. From 
Amarkantak an outer ridge (Maikala) runs south-west for 
about 100 miles to the Saletekri hills in Balaghat District 
(Central Provinces), thus forming as it were the head of the 
range which, shrinking as it proceeds westward from a broad 
table-land to two parallel ridges, ends, so far as the Central 
Provinces are concerned, at the famous hill fortress of Aslr- 
garh. Beyond this point the Rajplpla hills, which separate 
the valley of the Narbada from that of the Tapti, complete the 
chain as far as the Western Ghats. On the table-land com- 
prised between the northern and southern faces of the range 
are situated the District of Mandla, and part of Balaghat, 
Seoni, Chhindwara, and Betul. 

Geological The superficial stratum covering the main Satpura range is 

formation. tra pp earl . but in parts of the Central Provinces crystalline 
rocks are uppermost, and over the Pachmarhl hills sandstone 
is also uncovered. In Mandla the higher peaks are capped 
with laterite. On the north and south the approaches to the 
Satpuras are marked as far west as Turanmal by low lines of 
foot-hills. These are succeeded by the steep slopes leading 
up to the summit of the plateau, traversed in all directions 
by narrow deep ravines, hollowed out by the action of the 
streams and rivers, and covered throughout their extent with 
forest. 

Features of Portions of the Satpura plateau consist, as in Mandla and 

the plateau, the north of Chhindwara, of a rugged mass of hills hurled 
together by volcanic action. But the greater part is an undu- 
lating table-land, a succession of bare stony ridges and narrow 
fertile valleys, into which the soil has been deposited by 
drainage. In a few level tracts, as in the valleys of the Machna 
and Sampna near Betul, and the open plain between Seoni 
and Chhindwara, there are extensive areas of productive land. 
Scattered over the plateau, isolated flat-topped hills rise 
abruptly from the plain. The scenery of the northern and 
southern hills, as observed from the roads which traverse them, 
is of remarkable beauty. The drainage of the Satpuras is 
carried off on the north by the Narbada, and on the south by 
the Wainganga, Wardha, and Tapti, all of which have their 
source in these hills. 



MOUNTAINS 


*57 


The highest peaks are contained in the northern range, Height, 
rising abruptly from the valley of the Narbada, and generally 
sloping down to the plateau ; but towards the west the southern 
range has the greater elevation. Another noticeable feature 
is a number of small table-lands lying among the hills at a 
greater height than the bulk of the plateau. Of these, Pach- 
marhi (3,530 feet) and Chikalda in Berar (3,664 feet) have 
been formed into hill stations; while Raigarh (2,200 feet) in 
Balaghat District and Khamla in Betul (3,800 feet) are famous 
grazing and breeding grounds for cattle. Dhupgarh (4,454 feet) 
is the highest point on the range, and there are a few others of 
over 4,000 feet. Among the peaks that rise from 3,000 to 
3,800 feet above sea-level, the grandest is Turanmal (Bombay 
Presidency), a long, rather narrow table-land 3,300 feet above 
the sea and about 16 square miles in area. West of this the 
mountainous land presents a wall-like appearance towards both 
the Narbada on the north and the Tapti on the south. On 
the eastern side, the Tasdin Vali (Central India) commands 
a magnificent view of the surrounding country. The general 
height of the plateau is about 2,000 feet. 

The hills and slopes are clothed with forest extending over Forests, 
some thousands of square miles ; but much of this is of little 
value, owing to unrestricted fellings prior to the adoption of 
a system of conservancy, and to the shifting cultivation prac- 
tised by the aboriginal tribes, which led to patches being 
annually cleared and burnt down. The most valuable forests 
are those of sal (Shorea robust a) on the eastern hills, and teak 
on the west. 

The Satpura Hills have formed in the past a refuge for Hill tribes, 
aboriginal or Dravidian tribes driven out of the plains by the 
advance of Hindu civilization. Here they retired, and occu- 
pied the stony and barren slopes which the new settlers, with 
the rich lowlands at their disposal, disdained to cultivate ; and 
here they still rear their light rains crops of millets which are 
scarcely more than grass, barely tickling the soil with the 
plough, and eking out a scanty subsistence with the roots and 
fruits of the forests and the pursuit of game. The Baigas, 
the wildest of these tribes, have even now scarcely attained to 
the rudiments of cultivation; but the Gonds, the Korkus, 
and the BhIls have made some progress by contact with their 
Hindu neighbours. 

The open plateau has for two or three centuries been peopled Communi- 
by Hindu immigrants ; but it is only in the last fifty years that cations ’ 
travelling has been rendered safe and easy, by the construction 



i5* 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


of metalled roads winding up the steep passes and enabling 
wheeled traffic to pass over the heavy land of the valleys. Till 
then such trade as existed was conducted by nomad Banjaras 
on pack-bullocks. The first railway across the Satpura plateau, 
a 1 narrow-gauge extension of the Bengal-Nagpur line from 
Gondia to Jubbulpore, has recently been opened. The Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway, from Bombay to Jubbulpore, runs 
through a breach in the range just east of Asirgarh, while the 
Bombay-Agra road crosses farther to the west. 

Ghats, The (etymologically, ‘a pass through a mountain,’ 
or ‘landing-stairs from a river’; in this case the ‘passes’ or 
‘landing-stairs’ from the coast to the inner plateau). — Two 
ranges of mountains, forming the eastern and the western 
walls which support the triangular table-land of Southern India. 
The Eastern Ghats run in fragmentary spurs and ranges down 
the east side of the Peninsula, receding inland and leaving 
broad tracts between their base and the coast. The Western 
Ghats form the great sea-wall for the west side of the Peninsula, 
with only a narrow strip between them and the shore. At one 
point they rise in precipices and headlands out of the ocean, 
and truly look like colossal ‘landing-stairs’ from the sea. 
The Eastern and the Western Ghats meet at an angle in the 
Nilgiris, and so complete the three sides of the interior table- 
land. The inner plateau has an elevation seldom exceeding 
2,000 to 3,000 feet. Its best-known hills are the Nilgiris 
(‘blue mountains’), which contain the summer capital of 
Madras, Ootacamund (7,000 feet). The highest point is 
Anaimudi peak in Travancore State (8,837 feet), while Doda- 
betta in the Nilgiri District reaches 8,760 feet. This wide 
region of highlands sends its waters chiefly to the east coast. 
The drainage from the northern edge of the three-sided table- 
land enclosed by the Ghats falls into the Ganges. The Nar- 
bada runs along the southern base of the Vindhyas which form 
that edge, and carries their drainage due west into the Gulf 
of Cambay. The Tapti flows almost parallel to the Narbada, 
a little to the southward, and bears to the same gulf the waters 
from the Satpura Hills. Biut from this point, proceeding 
southwards, the Western Ghats rise into a high unbroken 
barrier between the Bombay coast and the rainfall of the inner 
table-land. The drainage has therefore to make its way right 
across India to the eastwards, now twisting round hill ranges, 
now rushing down the valleys between them, until the rain 
which the Bombay sea-breeze has dropped upon the Western 
Ghats finally falls into the Bay of Bengal. In this way the 



MOUNTAINS 


*59 


three great rivers of the Madras Presidency— the Godavari, 
Kistna, and Cauvery— rise in the mountains overhanging 
the Bombay coast, and traverse the whole breadth of the 
central table-land before they reach the ocean on the eastern 
shores of India. 

The entire geography of the two coasts of the Peninsula 
is determined by the characteristics of these two mountain 
ranges. On the east, the country is comparatively open, and 
everywhere accessible to the spread of civilization. It is here 
that all the great kingdoms of Southern India fixed their 
capitals. Along the west, only a narrow strip of lowland 
intervenes between the barrier range and the sea-board. The 
inhabitants are cut off from communication with the interior, 
and have been left to develop a civilization of their own. 

Again, the east coast is a comparatively dry region. Except 
in the deltas of the great rivers, the crops are dependent upon 
a local rainfall which rarely exceeds 40 inches in the year. 

The soil is poor, the general elevation high, and the mountains 
are not profusely covered with forest. In this region the chief 
aim of the Forest department is to preserve a sufficient supply 
of trees for fuel. On the west all these physical conditions 
are reversed. The rivers are mere hill-torrents, but the south- 
west monsoon brings an unfailing rainfall in such abundance 
as to clothe even the hill slopes of the southern portion with 
a most luxuriant vegetation. The annual fall all along the 
coast from Surat to Malabar averages 100 inches, which in- 
creases to 300 inches high up among the mountains. What 
the western coast loses in regular cultivation it gains in the 
natural wealth of its primaeval forests, which display the most 
magnificent scenery in all India and supply most valuable 
timber. 

(For further information see Ghats, Eastern, and Ghats, 
Western.) 

Ghats, 'Western. — A range of mountains about 1,000 In the 
miles in length, forming the western boundary of the Deccan p° e ^ bay 
and the watershed between the rivers of Peninsular India, dency. 
The Sanskrit name is Sahyadri. The range, which will be 
treated here with reference to its course through Bombay, 

Mysore and Coorg, and Madras, may be said to begin at the 
Kundaibari pass in the south-western comer of the Khandesh 
District of the Bombay Presidency, though the hills that run 
eastward from the pass to Chimtana, and overlook the lower 
Tapti valley, belong to the same system. From Kundaibari 
(21 0 6' N. and 74 0 11' E.) the chain runs southward with an 



160 BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 

average elevation which seldom exceeds 4,000 feet, in a line 
roughly parallel with the coast, from which its distance varies 
from 20 to 65 miles. For about 100 miles, up to a point near 
Trimbak, its direction is somewhat west of south ; and it is 
flanked on the west by the thickly wooded and unhealthy 
table-land of Peint, Mokhada, and Jawhar (1,500 feet), which 
forms a step and a barrier between the Konkan lowlands 
and the plateau of the Deccan (about 2,000 feet). South of 
Trimbak the scarp of the western face is more abrupt; and 
for 40 miles, as far as the Malsej pass, the trend is south-by- 
east, changing to south-by-west from Malsej to Khandala and 
Vagjai (60 miles), and again to south-by-east from here until 
the chain passes out of the Bombay Presidency into Mysore 
near Gersoppa (14 0 10' N. and 74 0 50' E.). On the eastern 
side the Ghats throw out many spurs or lateral ranges that 
run from west to east, and divide from one another the valleys 
of the Godavari, Bhlma, and Kistna river systems. The 
chief of these cross-ranges are— the Satmalas, between the 
Tapti and Godavari valleys; the two ranges that break off 
from the main chain near Harischandragarh and run south- 
eastwards into the Nizam’s Dominions, enclosing the triangular 
plateau on which Ahmadnagar stands, and which is the 
watershed between the Godavari and the Bhlma; and the 
Mahadeo range, that runs eastward and southward from 
Kamalgarh and passes into the barren uplands of Atpadi and 
Jath, forming the watershed between the Bhlma and the 
Kistna systems. North of the latitude of Goa, the Bombay 
part of the range consists of eocene trap and basalt, often 
capped with laterite, while farther south are found such older 
rocks as gneiss and transitional sandstones. The flat-topped 
hills, often crowned with bare wall-like masses of basalt or 
laterite, are clothed on their lower slopes with jungles of leak 
and bamboo in the north ; with jambul (Eugenia Jambolana :), 
ain ( Terminalia tomentosa ), and ndna ( Lagerstroemia parvi- 
flora ) in the centre ; and with teak, black-wood, and bamboo 
in the south. 

On the main range and its spurs stand a hundred forts, 
many of which are famous in Maratha history. From north 
to south the most notable points in the range are the Kundai- 
bari pass, a very ancient trade route between Broach and the 
Deccan; the twin forts of Salher and Mulher guarding the 
Babhulna pass; Trimbak at the source of the holy river 
Godavari ; the Thai pass by which the Bombay-Agra road and 
the northern branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 



MOUNTAINS 


i6r 


ascend the Ghats; the Pimpri pass, a very old trade route 
south between Nasik and Kalyan or Sopara, guarded by the 
twin forts of Alang and Kulang; Kalsubai (5,427 feet), the 
highest peak in the range; Harischandragarh (4,691 feet); 
the Nana pass, a very old route between Junnar and the 
Konkan; Shivner, the fort of Junnar; Bhlmashankar, at the 
source of the Bhlma ; Chakan, an old Musalman stronghold ; 
the Bor or Khandala pass, by which the Bombay-Poona road 
and the southern branch of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway enter the Deccan, and on or near which are the caves 
of Kondane, Karli, Bhaja, and Bedsa ; the caves of Nadsur 
and Karsambla below the Vagji pass; the forts of Sinhgarh 
and Purandhar in the spurs south of Poona; the forts of 
Raigarh in the Konkan and of Pratapgarh between the new 
Fitzgerald ghat road and the old Par pass ; the hill station of 
Mahabaleshwar (4,717 feet) at the source of the Kistna; 
the fort and town of Satara ; the Kumbharli pass leading to 
the old towns of Patan and Karad ; the Arabs, pass, through 
which runs the road from Ratnagiri to Kolhapur; the forts 
of Vishalgarh and Panhala ; the Phonda pass, through which 
runs the road from Deogarh to Nipani ; the Amboli and the 
Ram passes, through which run two made roads from Ven- 
gurla to Belgaum ; Castle rock, below which passes the rail- 
way from Marmagao to Dharwar ; the Arbail pass on the 
road from Karwar to Dharwar; the Devimane pass on the 
road from Kumta to Hubli; and the Gersoppa Falls on 
the Sharavatl river. 

On leaving the Bombay Presidency, the Western Ghats In Mysore 
bound the State of Mysore on the west, separating it from Coor £* 
the Madras District of South Kanara, and run from Chandra- 
gutti (2,794 feet) in the north-west to Pushpagiri or the 
Subrahmanya hill (5,626 feet) in the north of Coorg, and con- 
tinue through Coorg into Madras. In the west of the Sagar 
taluk, from Govardhangiri to Devakonda, they approach within 
10 miles of the coast From there they trend south-eastwards, 
culminating in Kudremukh (6,215 feet) in the south-west of 
Kadur District, which marks the watershed between the Kistna 
and Cauvery systems. They then bend east and south to 
Coorg, receding to 45 miles from the sea. Here, too, nume- 
rous chains and groups of lofty hills branch off from the Ghats 
eastwards, forming the complex series of mountain heights 
south of Nagar in the west of Kadur District. Gneiss and 
hornblende schists are the prevailing rocks in this section, 
capped in many places by laterite, with some bosses of granite. 


BO. I, 


M 



1 6 2 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

The summits of the hills are mostly bare, but the sides are 
clothed with magnificent evergreen forests. Ghat roads to 
the coast have been made through the following passes : Ger- 
soppa, Kollur, Hosangadi, and Agumbi in Shimoga District ; 
Bundh in Kadur District ; Manjarabad and Bisale in Hassan 
District. 

In the In the Madras Presidency the Western Ghats continue in 

Presi- aS same g^eral direction, running southwards at a distance 

dency. of from 50 to 100 miles from the sea until they terminate at 
Cape Comorin, the southernmost extremity of India. Soon 
after emerging from Coorg they are joined by the range of the 
Eastern Ghats, which sweeps down from the other side of 
the peninsula ; and at the point of junction they rise up into 
the high plateau of the Nilgiris, on which stand the hill 
stations of Ootacamund (7,000 feet), the summer capital of 
the Madras Government, Coonoor, Wellington, and Kota- 
giri, and whose loftiest peaks are Dodabetta (8,760 feet) and 
Makurti (over 8,000). 

Immediately south of this plateau the range, which now runs 
between the Districts of Malabar and Coimbatore, is inter- 
rupted by the remarkable Palghat Gap, the only break in the 
whole of its length. This is about 16 miles wide, and is 
scarcely more than 1,000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
Madras Railway runs through it, and it thus forms the chief 
line of communication between the two sides of this part of 
the peninsula. South of this gap the Ghats rise abruptly again 
to even more than their former height. At this point they are 
known by the local name of the Anaimalais, or ‘elephant 
hills/ and the minor ranges they here throw off to the west 
and east are called respectively the Nelliampathis and the 
Palni Hills, On the latter is situated the sanitarium of 
Kodaikanal. Thereafter, as they run down to Cape Comorin 
between the Madras Presidency and the State of Travancore, 
they resume their former name. 

North of the Nilgiri plateau the eastern flank of the range 
merges somewhat gradually into the high plateau of Mysore, 
but its western slopes rise suddenly and boldly from the low 
coast. South of the Palghat Gap both the eastern and western 
slopes are steep and rugged. The range here consists through- 
out of gneisses of various kinds, flanked in Malabar by pic- 
turesque terraces of laterite which shelve gradually down 
towards the coast. In elevation it varies from 3,000 to 
8,000 feet above the sea, and the Anaimudi Peak (8,837 
feet) in Travancore is the highest point in the range and in 



HILLS 


163 


Southern India. The scenery here is always picturesque and 
frequently magnificent, the heavy evergreen forest with which 
the slopes are often covered adding greatly to their beauty. 
Large game of all sorts abounds, from elephants, bison, and 
tigers to the Nllgiri ibex, which is found nowhere else in 
India. 

Considerable areas on the Madras section of the range have 
been opened up by European capital in the last half-century 
for the cultivation of tea, coffee, cinchona, and cardamoms. 
Its forests are also of great commercial value, bamboos, black- 
wood (Dalbergia latifolia ), and teak growing with special 
luxuriance. The heavy forest with which the range is clothed 
is the source of the most valuable of the rivers which traverse 
the drier country to the east, namely the Cauvery, Vaigai, and 
Tambraparni ; and the waters of the Periyar, which until re- 
cently flowed uselessly down to the sea on the west, have now 
been turned back by a tunnel through the range and utilized 
for irrigation on its eastern side. 

Before the days of roads and railways the Ghats rendered 
communication between the west and east coasts of the Madras 
Presidency a matter of great difficulty ; and the result has been 
that the people of the strip of land which lies between them 
and the sea differ widely in appearance, language, customs, 
and laws of inheritance from those in th'e eastern part of the 
Presidency. On the range itself, moreover, are found several 
primitive tribes, among whom may be mentioned the well- 
known Todas of the Nilgiris, the Kurumbas of the same plateau, 
and the Kadars of the Anaimalais. Communications across 
this part of the range have, however, been greatly improved 
of late years. Besides the Madras Railway already referred 
to, the line from Tinnevelly to Quilon now links up the two 
opposite shores of the peninsula, and the range is also traversed 
by numerous ghat roads. The most important of these latter 
are the Charmadi ghat from Mangalore in South Kanara to 
Mudgiri in Mysore ; the SampajI ghat between Mangalore and 
Mercara, the capital of Coorg ; the roads from Cannanore and 
Tellicherry, which lead to the Mysore plateau through the 
Perumbadi and Peria passes ; and the two routes from Calicut 
to the Nllgiri plateau up the Karkur and Vayittiri-Gudalur 
ghats. 

Satmala. — Range of hills in Bombay, Berar, and Hyderabad 
State, which also bears the names of the Ajanta, Chandor, 
and Indhyadri Hills, and Sahyadriparbat. 

Hab. — River on the western frontier of Sind, Bombay, which 

M 2 



164 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Course 
amid the 
Hima- 
layas. 


forms in the latter part of its course the boundary between 
British territory and Baluchistan. It rises opposite the Porali 
river at the northern end of the Pab range, flows south-east for 
25 miles, then due south for 50 miles, and finally south-west, 
till it falls into the Arabian Sea near Cape Monze, in 24 0 54' N. 
and 66° 42' E., after a total length of about 240 miles. Except 
the Indus and the Gaj, it is the only permanent river in Sind. 
Its principal tributaries are the Saruna, the Samotri, and the 
Wira Hab. As far as the Phusi pass the course is confined 
and narrow. Thereafter it gradually widens, and for some 
50 miles from its mouth is bordered by fine pasture land. 
Water is always to be found in pools, but the river is not 
utilized for irrigation. 

Indus (Sanskrit, Sindku ; Greek, Sinthos ; Latin, Sindus ). — 
The great river of North-Western India, which rises in Tibet, 
and then flows through Kashmir, the North-West Frontier 
Province, and the Punjab, and after a final course through 
Sind falls into the Arabian Sea in 23 0 58' N. and 67° 30' E. 
The drainage basin of the Indus is estimated at 372,700 
square miles, and its total length at a little over 1,800 miles. 
The towns of importance on or near its banks in British 
territory are, beginning from the south: Karachi, Kotri, 
Hyderabad, Sehwan, Sukkur, Rohri, Mithankot, Dera Ghazi 
Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Mianwali, Kalabagh, Khushalgarh, 
and Attock. 

The first section of the course of the Indus lies outside 
British territory, and must be dealt with briefly here. The 
river rises, as above stated, in Tibet (32 0 N. and 8r° E.) 
behind the great mountain wall of the Himalayas which forms 
the northern boundary of India, and is said to spring from the 
north side of the sacred Kailas mountain (22,000 feet), the 
Elysium of ancient Sanskrit literature. Issuing from the ling 
of lofty mountains about Lake Manasarowar, whence also the 
Sutlej, the Brahmaputra, and the Kauriala spring, it flows 
north-west for about 160 miles under the name of Singh-ka- 
bab, until it receives the Ghar river on its south-western bank. 
A short distance below the junction of the Ghar, the Indus, 
which is supposed to have an elevation of 17,000 feet at its 
source, enters the south-eastern corner of Kashmir at an 
elevation of r3,8oo feet, flowing slowly over a long flat of 
alluvium. Following a steady north-by-west course it skirts 
Leh at a height of 10,500 feet and drops to 8,000 feet in 
Baltistan, just before it receives the waters of the Shyok river. 
At Leh it is joined by the Zaskar river, and is crossed by the 



RIVERS 


l6 S 

great trade route into Central Asia via the Karakoram Pass. 

Early travellers like Dr. Thomson and Mr. Blane have de- 
scribed this portion of the Indus. The former found numerous 
hot springs, some of them with a temperature of 174 0 and 
exhaling a sulphurous gas. Still flowing north, but more 
westerly, through Kashmir territory, it passes near Skardu in 
Baltistan, and reaches the Haramosh mountain (24,300 feet) 
in about 34 0 50' N. and 74 0 30' E. Here it takes a turn south- 
wards at an acute angle, and passing beneath the Hattu Pir, at 
an elevation of 4,000 feet, enters Kohistan in the Dir, Swat, 
and Chitral Agency near Gur. The steepness of its fall varies, 
now becoming greater, now less. This inequality of slope has 
been connected with the changes that occurred in the glacial 
period from the damming of the river by huge glaciers and the 
formation of great thicknesses of lacustrine deposit. The 
Indus has been the cause of serious and disastrous floods ; the 
rapid stream dashes down gorges and wild mountain valleys, 
and in its lower and more level course it is swept by terrific 
blasts. Even in summer, when it is said to dwindle down to 
a fordable depth during the night, it may in the course of the 
day swell into an impassable torrent from the melting of the 
snows on the adjoining heights. Opposite Skardu in Baltistan 
it is, even in the depth of winter, a grand stream, often more 
than 500 feet wide and 9 or 10 feet in depth. After leaving 
Gur, it flows for about 120 miles south-west through the wilds 
of Kohistan, until it enters the North-West Frontier Province 
(35° 25' N. and 73 0 51' E.) near Darband, at the western base 
of the Mahaban mountain. The only point to which special 
allusion can be made in the long section of its course beyond 
British territory is the wonderful gorge by which the river 
bursts through the western ranges of the Himalayas, This 
gorge is near Skardu, and is said to be 14,000 feet in sheer 
descent. 

The Indus, on entering the Hazara District of the North- At Attack. 
West Frontier Province, 812 miles from its source, is about 
100 yards wide in August, navigable by rafts, but of no great 
depth, and studded with sandbanks and islands. It is fordable 
in many places during the cold season ; but floods or freshes 
are sudden, and Ranjlt Singh is said to have lost a force, 
variously stated at from 1,200 to 7,000 horsemen, in crossing 
the river. Even the large and solid ferry-boats which ply 
upon it are sometimes swept away. Almost opposite Attock 
it receives the Kabul River, which brings down the waters of 
Afghanistan. The two rivers have about an equal volume; 



i66 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


both are very swift, and broken up with rocks. Their junction 
during floods is the scene of a wild confusion of waters. The 
Kabul river is navigable for about 40 miles above the con- 
fluence, but a rapid just above it renders the Indus imprac- 
ticable. Attock, the limit of the upward navigation of the 
Indus, forms the first important point on the river within 
British territory. By this time it has flowed upwards of 
860 miles, or nearly one-half of its total length, its further 
course to the sea being about 940 miles. It has fallen from 
an elevation of 17,000 feet at its source in Tibet to about 
2,000 feet, the height of Attock being 2,079 feet. I n tbe hot 
season, opposite the fort, its velocity is 13 miles an hour ; and 
in the cold season, 5 to 7 miles. The rise of ordinary floods 
is from 5 to 7 feet in twenty-four hours, and the maximum is 
50 feet above cold-season level. Its width varies greatly with 
the season, at one time being more than 250 yards, at another 
less than 100. The Indus is crossed at Attock by the railway 
bridge opened in 1883, by a bridge of boats, and by a ferry. 
The main trunk road to Peshawar also crosses the river by a 
subway on the railway bridge. 

In the After leaving Attock, the Indus flows almost due south, 

Punjab, forming the western boundary of the Punjab, parallel to the 

Sulaiman Hills. The great north road from Bannu to Sind 
runs for several hundred miles along its western bank; and 
from Attock to Mahmud Kot the Mari-Attock, Mari, and Sind- 
Sagar sections of the North-Western Railway run along its 
eastern bank. Twelve miles below Attock the Indus receives 
the waters of the Haroh, a rapid stream which, rising in the 
Murree hills as the Dhand, meets the Karral coming down 
from the Mochpuri peak, and rushes through steep banks for 
a total length of 90 miles. At Makhad, the Sohan brings in 
all the drainage of Rawalpindi and Jhelum Districts that is not 
taken by the Jhelum river. The Indus forms the eastern 
border of the two frontier Districts of Dera Ismail Khan in the 
North-West Frontier Province and Dera Ghazi Khan in the 
Punjab with the Sind-Sagar Doab on its eastern bank, and 
only a narrow strip of British territory between it and the hill 
tribes of the Sulaiman ranges on the west. Just above Mithan- 
kot, in the south of Dera Ghazi Khan District, it receives the 
accumulated waters of the Punjab. Between the Indus 
and the Jumna flow the five great streams from which the 
Punjab (Panj-ab, literally ‘The five waters’) takes its name. 
These are the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, and 
the Sutlej. After various junctions these unite to form the 



RIVERS 


167 


Panjnad river, literally ‘The five streams/ which marks for 
a short space the boundary between British territory and the 
Bahawalpur State, and unites with the Indus near Mithankot, 
about 490 miles from the sea. In the cold season the breadth 
of the Indus above the confluence is about 600 yards, its 
velocity 5 miles an hour, its depth from 12 to 15 feet, and 
its estimated discharge 10,000 to 25,000 cubic feet per second. 

During flood-times the breadth sometimes increases to 5 miles, 
and the discharge to 1,000,000 cubic feet per second. The 
dimensions of the Panjnad above the point of junction are 
somewhat less than those of the Indus during the cold season, 
but during the monsoon floods they are almost as large. The 
whole course of the Indus through the Punjab is broken by 
islands and sandbanks ; but beautiful scenery is afforded along 
its banks, which abound with the date, acacia, pomegranate, 
and other trees. 

Mithankot has an elevation of only 25 8 feet above the level In Sind, 
of the sea. From Mithankot the Indus forms the boundary 
between the Punjab and the Bahawalpur State, until, near 
Kashmor, it enters Sind in 28° 26' N. and 69° 47' E. From 
Bukkur (in Sind) to the sea the river is known familiarly 
among the people of the province as the Darya (‘ the river ’). 

Pliny writes of Indus incolis Sindus appellatus . It first touches 
Sind in the Upper Sind Frontier District, separating it from the 
Bahawalpur State and Sukkur District. Formerly in years of 
high inundation its floods reached Jacobabad, finding their 
way thence into the Manchhar Lake. To prevent this, the 
Kashmor embankment, which is the largest in Sind, was 
erected. Leaving Kashmor the river crosses Sukkur, divides 
Larkana and Karachi from the Khairpur State and Hyderabad 
District, finally emptying itself by many mouths into the 
Arabian Sea near Karachi after a south-western course of 
450 miles through Sind. It ranges in width from 480 to 
1,600 yards, the average during the low season being 680 
yards. During the floods it is in places more than a mile wide. 

Its depth varies from 4 to 24 feet. The water, derived from 
the snows of the Himalayas, is of a dirty brown colour, and. 
slightly charged with saline ingredients, carbonate of soda, and 
nitrate of potash. Its velocity in the freshes averages 8 miles 
per hour; at ordinary times, 4 miles. The discharge per 
second varies between a minimum of 19,000 and a maximum 
of 820,000 cubic feet. On an average the temperature of the 
water is io° lower than that of the air. Near the station of 
Sukkur and again at Kotri the river is spanned by a fine rail- 



1 68 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


way bridge. The Sukkur bridge was opened in 1889, and 
resembles the Forth Bridge in having a central girder with 
a span of 200 feet, supported at the ends of two cantilever 
arms, each 310 feet long. The Indus begins to rise in March, 
attains its maximum depth and width in August, and subsides 
in September. The maximum rise registered at Kotri, near 
Hyderabad, was 22 feet 7 inches in 1894. There are many 
other gauges on the river. 

The delta. The delta of the Indus covers an area of about 3,000 square 
miles, and extends along the coast-line for 125 miles. It is 
almost a perfect level, and nearly destitute of timber, the 
tamarisk and mangrove alone supplying fuel. In these 
respects the delta is similar to that of the Nile, but dissimilar 
to that of the Ganges. The marshy portions contain good 
pasturage, and rice grows luxuriantly wherever cultivation is 
possible ; but the soil generally is not fertile, being a mixture 
of sand and clay. In the Shahbandar taluka are immense 
deposits of salt. The climate of the delta is cool and bracing 
in the winter months, hot in the summer, and during the 
floods most unhealthy. 

Shifting The Indus formerly flowed down the middle of the Thai. 

channels. g as j raj a village in the centre of the Muzaffargarh Thai, was 
called Bet Basira ; and at Shahgarh, near the southern end of 
the Thai, a long lake still exists which once formed the Indus 
bed. In 1800 the river at the apex of the delta divided into 
two main streams, known as the Baghlar and Slta ; but by 1837 
it had entirely deserted the former channel. The Khedewari 
passage also, which before 1819 was the highway of water 
traffic to Shahbandar, was in that year closed by an earth- 
quake. In 1837 the Kakaiwari, which had then increased 
from a shallow creek to a river with an average width at low 
water of 770 yards, was recognized as the highway; but before 
1867 this also was completely blocked. In 1897 the river 
suddenly cut 3 miles inland, north of Rohri, destroying the 
cultivated fields and the Mando-Dahiro road. Tando Nijabat 
on the right bank and Mithani on the left have been swept 
away four times and rebuilt farther off. For the present the 
Hajamro, which before 1845 was navigable only by the smallest 
boats, is the main estuary of the Indus. The shape of the 
Hajamro is that of a funnel, with the mouth to the sea ; on 
the east side of the entrance is a beacon 95 feet high, visible 
for 2 miles; and two well-manned pilot boats lie inside the 
bar to point out the difficulties of navigation. 

The following facts illustrate further the shifting nature of the 



RIVERS 


169 


Indus. In 1845 Ghorabari, then the chief commercial town of 
the delta, was on the river bank ; but in 1848 the river deserted 
its bed. The town of Keti was built on the new bank. The 
new bank was overflowed a few years later, and a second Keti 
had to be built farther off. At present one of the chief obstruc- 
tions to navigation is a series of rocks between Tatta and 
Bhiman-jo-pura, which in 1846 were 8 miles inland. In 1863 
a thousand acres of the Dhareja forest were swept away. 

The rapidity and extent of the destructive action in constant 
progress in the delta may be estimated from the fact that 
travellers have counted by the reports as many as thirteen 
bank slips in a minute. In some places the elephant-grass 
( Typha elephantine i) does good service by driving its roots 
very deeply (often 9 feet) into the soil, and thereby holding 
it together. 

The entire course of the Indus in British territory, from Floods. 
Attock to the sea, lies within the zone of deficient rainfall, the 
annual average being nowhere higher than 10 inches. Cultiva- 
tion, therefore, is absolutely dependent upon artificial irrigation, 
almost to as great an extent as in the typical example of Egypt. 

But the Indus is a less manageable river than the Nile. Its 
main channel is constantly shifting ; at only three places — Suk- 
kur, Jerruck, and Kotri — are the river banks permanent; and 
during the season of flood the melted snows of the Himalayas 
come down in an impetuous torrent which no embankment can 
restrain. From time immemorial this annual inundation, which 
is to Sind what the monsoons are to other parts of India, has 
been utilized as far as possible by an industrious peasantry, who 
lead the water over their fields by countless artificial channels. 

Many such channels, constructed in the days of native rule, 
extend 30 and even 40 miles from the river bank. Recently 
the systematic schemes of British engineers have added nume- 
rous perennial canals, such as the JamraO, constructed on 
scientific principles. The first recorded inundation of the Indus 
took place in 1833 ; another occurred in 1841 on a much larger 
scale. This flood was said to have been caused by the bursting 
of a glacier which formed over an accumulation of water in the 
Nubra Tso, into which there was a regular and steady flow from 
the surrounding hills. Eventually, the glacier was burst asunder 
by the pressure, and the released floods poured down the Shyok 
valley, carrying everything before them. There was another 
great flood in August, 1858, when the river rose 90 feet in a 
few hours, and the greater part of the private property in Nau- 
shahra cantonment was destroyed. Lower down in its course 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Irrigation. 


Naviga- 

tion. 


170 

considerable damage has been caused in Dera Ghazi Khan 
District, where protective works were undertaken. Of re- 
cent years the Indus has been embanked from above Kashmor 
to the mouth of the Begari Canal, a distance of more than 
50 miles. The embankment has proved a great protection to 
the North-Western Railway, which here runs at right angles 
to the river. 

A full account of irrigation in Sind will be found in the 
article on that province. It must suffice in this place to give 
a list of the principal works, following the Indus downwards 
from the Punjab. The country has recently been surveyed 
with a view to a canal being led from Kalabagh down the 
Smd-Sagar Doab, but the difficulties in the way are at present 
considerable. The waters of the river are first utilized on a 
large scale in the Indus Inundation Canals, which water a 
narrow strip between the Indus and the Sulaiman mountains. 
The canals in this tract have an aggregate length of 690 miles, 
of which 108 have been constructed under British rule. In 
Muzaffargarh District the Muzaffargarh Canals take off from 
the Indus and Chenab, and in the Native State of Baha- 
walpur the Chenab and Sutlej, as well as the Indus, contribute 
to render cultivation possible. In Sind the following are the 
chief canal systems : on the right or west bank, the Desert, 
Unar Wah, Begari, Sukkur, Ghar, and Western Nara ; on the 
left or east, the Nara Supply Channel, Mahi Wah, Jamrao, 
a branch of the Eastern Nara, and the Eastern Nara with 
many distributaries, the principal being the Mithrao and 
Pinjari. Other important canals are the Fuleli with two 
mouths, the Nasrat, and the Dad, The total area irrigated by 
canals from the Indus in 1903-4 was : in the Punjab, 714 
square miles; in Sind, 4,925 square miles. 

As a channel of navigation, the Indus has disappointed the ex- 
pectations that were at one time formed. Before British arms 
had conquered Sind and the Punjab, it was hoped that the fabled 
wealth of Central Asia might be brought by this course down to 
the sea. But, even so far as local traffic is concerned, experi- 
ence has proved in this case, as with most other Indian rivers, 
that the cheapness of water communication cannot compete 
with the superior speed and certainty of railways. Since the 
opening of the Indus Valley State Railway (now included in 
the North-Western system) in the autumn of 1878, navigation 
on the Indus, whether by steamer or by native boat, has greatly 
fallen off. The general character of the Indus trade may be 
inferred from the statistics of imports and exports into the 



RIVERS 


171 

Punjab by ‘rail and river,’ which refer only to traffic borne in 
part or wholly on the Indus. The original ‘Indus flotilla,’ 
which was broken up in 1862, placed its first steamer on the 
river m 1835. In 1859 a company established another Indus 
flotilla in connexion with the Sind Railway, with which it was 
formally amalgamated in 1870, the joint head-quarters being 
removed to Lahore. The railway flotilla was abolished in 
1882-3. These were not the only navigation experiments 
on the Indus. In 1856 the Oriental Inland Steam Company 
obtained a yearly subsidy of Rs. 50,000 from Government ; 
but, as the river current proved too powerful for its 
steamers, the company stopped the traffic, and eventually 
collapsed. 

For the conservancy of the lower part of the river, Act I 
of 1863 (Bombay) provides for the registration of vessels, 
and the levy of pilotage fees by an officer called the Con- 
servator and Registrar of the Indus, the sum realized being 
expended on the improvement of navigation. 1 A special 
export board, known as the Indus Commission, was con- 
stituted in 1901. 

The boats of the Indus are the dundo or zaurak , both cargo- 
boats, the kauntal \ or ferry-boat, and the dundi , or fishing- 
boat. The cargo-boats are sometimes of 60 tons burden, and 
when laden draw 4 feet of water. The state barges or jhamptis 
of the Sind Mlrs were built of teak, four-masted, and some- 
times required crews of thirty men. 

Fish abound. At the mouths, the salt-water varieties Fish, 
include the Clupea neowkii , a species of herring largely 
consumed along the coast and in the delta. The chief of 
the fresh-water varieties are the palla , placed by Dr. Day 
under the Clupeidae , and nearly allied to, if not identical 
with, the hilsa of the Ganges; and the dambhro . The 

local consumption and also the export of dried palla are 
very large. Otters, turtles, porpoises, water-snakes, and croco- 
diles, of both the blunt-nosed and the sharp-nosed species, 
are numerous. 

[JVoles on the Indus River (Karachi, 1901).] 

Banas. — River of Western India, which rises in the 
Aravalli Hills to the north-east of Mount Abu, flows south- 
westwards through the Palanpur Agency past the flourishing 
town and cantonment of Deesa, and falls into the Rann of 


1 The Indus Conservancy department and fees levied for its upkeep were 
abolished in March, 1906. 



172 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Cutch by two mouths, near Gokhatar in Varahi and Agi- 
chana in Santalpur, about 170 miles from its source. It is 
foidable almost everywhere, and its lower course is dry in 
the hot season, but at times it brings down from Abu great 
volumes of flood-water that cover the Little Rann to a depth 
of 8 feet. 

Saraswati. — A small but holy river of Western India, 
rising at the south-west end of the Aravalli range near the 
shrine of Amba Bhawanl, and flowing south-westwards for 
about no miles, through the lands of Palanpur, Radhanpur, 
Mahi Kantha, and Baroda, and past the ancient cities of 
Patan, Anhilvada, and Sidhpur, into the Lesser Rann of 
Cutch, near Anvarpur. West of Patan its course is under- 
ground for some miles, and its stream is small, except in the 
rains. The river is visited by Hindus, especially those who 
have lost their mothers. Sidhpur is considered an especially 
appropriate place at which to perform rites in honour of 
a deceased mother. 

Sabarmatl (Sanskrit, Svabhravati ). — River of Western 
India, flowing from the hills of Mewar south-westwards into 
the Gulf of Cambay, with a course of about 200 miles and 
a drainage area of about 9,500 square miles. The name is 
given to the combined streams of the Sabar, which runs 
through the Idar State, and of the Hathmati, which passes 
the town of Ahmadnagar (MahT Kantha Agency). In the 
upper part of their course both rivers have high rocky banks, 
but below their confluence the bed of the Sabarmatl becomes 
broad and sandy. The united river thence flows past Sadra 
and Ahmadabad, and receives on the left bank, at Vantha, 
about 30 miles below the latter city, the waters of the Vatrak, 
which, during its course of 150 miles, is fed by a number 
of smaller streams that bring down the drainage of the Mahi 
Kantha hills. The Sabarmatl receives no notable tributaries 
on the right bank. There are several holy places on its 
banks in and about Ahmadabad city, and the confluence at 
Vantha attracts many pilgrims to an annual fair in the month 
of Kartik (November). Luxuriant crops are grown on the 
silt deposited by the river, and many wells are sunk in its bed 
in the fair season. The lands of Parantlj are watered from 
the Hathmati by means of an embankment above Ahmad- 
nagar. 

Mahi (the Moj>his of Ptolemy and Mais of the Perifilus ). — 
River of Western India, with a course of from 300 to 350 miles 
and a drainage area estimated at from 15,000 to 17,000 square 



RIVERS 


*73 


miles. It rises in the Amjhera district of the Gwalior State, 
1,850 feet above sea-level (22 0 52' N. and 7 5 0 6' E.), and flows 
for about 100 miles through the south-western corner of the 
Central India Agency, at first north, next west, and lastly north- 
west, passing through the States of Gwalior, Dhar, Jhabua, 
Ratlam, and Sailana. It then enters Rajputana and flows in a 
northerly direction with a somewhat tortuous course, intersecting 
the eastern half of Banswara State, till it reaches the Udaipur 
frontier, w T here it is soon turned by the Mewar hills to the south- 
west, and for the rest of its course in Rajputana it forms the 
boundary between the States of Dungarpur and Banswara. It 
now passes on into Gujarat, and during the first part of its course 
there flows through the lands of the Mahi Kantha and Rewa 
Kantha States. It then enters British territory, and separates 
the Bombay District of Kaira on the right from the Panch 
Mahals and Baroda on the left. Farther to the west, and for 
the rest of its course, its right bank forms the southern boundary 
of the State of Cambay, and its left the northern boundary of 
Broach District. Near Bungra, 100 miles from its source, the 
Mahi is crossed by the old Baroda-Nimach road ; and here the 
bed is 400 yards wide, with a stream of 100 yards and a depth 
of one foot. The Kaira section of the river is about 100 miles 
in length, the last 45 miles being tidal water. The limit of the 
tidal flow is Verakhandi, where the stream is 120 yards across 
and the average depth 18 inches. About 30 miles nearer the 
sea, close to the village of Dehvan, the river enters Broach 
District from the east, and forms an estuary. The distance 
across its mouth, from Cambay to Kavi, is 5 miles. The Mahi 
is crossed by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway 
at Wasad, and by the Godhra-Ratlam Railway at Pali. During 
flood-time, at spring-tides, a bore is formed at the estuary, and 
a wall-like line of foam- topped water rushes up for 20 miles, to 
break on the Dehvan sands. 

The bed of the Mahi lies so much below the level of the land 
on either side of its banks that its waters cannot readily be 
made use of for irrigation. In fair weather the river is fordable 
at many places in the Bombay Presidency — at Dehvan, Gajna, 
Khanpur, and Umeta, for instance — and always in its upper 
course through Rajputana, except in the rainy season, when its 
waters rise to a great height. 

According to legend, the Mahi is the daughter of the earth 
and of the sweat that ran from the body of Indradyumna, king 
of Ujjain. Another legend explains the name thus. A young 
Gujar woman was churning curds one day. An importunate 



174 


BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 


lover, of whom she had tried to rid herself, but who would not 
be denied, found her thus engaged, and his attentions becoming 
unbearable, the girl threw herself into the pot. She was at once 
turned into water, and a clear stream flowed from the jar and, 
wandering down the hill-side, formed the Mahi or 4 curd ’ river. 
A more probable derivation, however, is from the name of the 
lake whence it springs. This is often called the Mau or Mahu, 
as well as the Menda. The Mahi is regarded by the Bhils and 
the Kolls as their mother, and the latter make pilgrimages to four 
places on its waters-— Mingrad, Fazilpur, Angarh, and Yaspur. 
The height of its banks and the fierceness of its floods ; the deep 
ravines through which the traveller has to pass on his way to the 
river ; and perhaps, above all, the bad name of the tribes who 
dwell about it, explain the proverb: ‘When the Mahi is crossed, 
there is comfort’ 

It is interesting to note that this river has given rise to 
the terms mekwas , a ‘ hill stronghold,’ and mehwasi , a ‘ turbu- 
lent or thieving person.’ The word was MahlvasI, £ a dweller 
on the Mahi,’ and in Mughal times was imported into 
Delhi by the army, and is used by Muhammadan writers as 
a general term to denote hill chiefs, and those living in moun- 
tain fastnesses. A celebrated temple dedicated to Mahadeo at 
Baneshar (Rajputana) stands at the spot where the Som joins 
the Mahi, and an important and largely attended fair is held 
here yearly. 

Tapti. — One of the great rivers of Western India. The 
name is derived from tap, ‘heat,’ and the Tapti is said by the 
Brahmans to have been created by the sun to protect himself 
from his own warmth. The Tapti is believed to rise in the 
sacred tank of Multai [multapi, 1 the source of the Tapti ’) on 
the Satpura plateau, but its real source is two miles distant 
(21° 48' N. and 78° 15' E.). It flows in a westerly direction 
through the Betul District of the Central Provinces, at first 
traversing an open and partially cultivated plain, and then 
plunging into a rocky gorge of the Satpura Hills between the 
Kalibhlt range in Nimar (Central Provinces) and Chikalda in 
Berar. Its bed here is rocky, overhung by steep banks, and 
bordered by forests. At a distance of 120 miles from its 
source it enters the Nimar District of the Central Provinces, 
and for 30 miles more is still confined in a comparatively 
narrow valley. A few miles above Burhanpur the valley 
opens out, the Satpura Hills receding north and south, and 
opposite that town the river valley has become a fine rich 
basin of alluvial soil about 20 miles wide. In the centre of 



RIVERS 


i7S 


this tract the Tapti flows between the towns of Burhanpur 
and Zainab d, and then passes into the Khandesh District 
of Bombay. In its upper valley are several basins of exceed- 
ingly rich soil ; but they have long been covered by forest, 
and it is only lately that the process of clearing them for 
cultivation has been undertaken. 

Shortly after entering Khandesh the Tapti receives on the 
left bank the Purna from the hills of Berar, and then flows for 
about 150 miles through a broad and fertile valley, bounded 
on the north by the Satpuras and on the south by the 
Satmalas. Farther on the hills close in, and the river 
descends through wild and wooded country for about 80 miles, 
after which it sweeps southwards to the sea through the 
alluvial plain of Surat District, becoming tidal for the last 
30 miles of its course. The banks (30 to 60 feet) are too 
high for irrigation, while the bed is crossed at several places 
by ridges of rock, so that the river is navigable for only about 
20 miles from the sea. The Tapti runs so near the foot of 
the Satpuras that its tributaries on the right bank are small ; 
but on the left bank, after its junction with the Purna, it 
receives through the Girna (150 miles long) the drainage 
of the hills of Baglan, and through the Bori, the Panjhra, and 
the Borai, that of the northern buttress of the Western Ghats. 
The waters of the Girna and the Panjhra are dammed up in 
several places and used for irrigation. On the lower course 
of the Tapti floods are not uncommon, and have at times 
done much damage to the city of Surat. The river is crossed 
at Bhusawal by the Jubbulpore branch of the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, at Savalda by the Bombay-Agra road, and 
at Surat by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. 
The Tapti has a local reputation for sanctity, the chief tlrthas 
or holy places being Changdeo, at the confluence with the 
Purna, and Bodhan above Surat. The fort of Thalner and 
the city of Surat are the places of most historic note on its 
course, the total length of which is 436 miles. The port 
of Suvali (Swally), famous in early European commerce with 
India, and the scene of a sea-fight between the English and the 
Portuguese, lay at the mouth of the river^ but is now deserted, 
its approaches having silted up. 

Narbada River [Narmada ; the Namados of Ptolemy; 
Namnadios of the Periplus ). — One of the most important 
rivers of India, which rises on the summit of the plateau of 
Amarkantak (22 0 41' N. and 8i° 48' E.), at the north-east- 
ern apex of the Satpura range, in Rewah (Central India), and 



176 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Course of 
the river. 


enters the sea below Broach in the Bombay Presidency after 
a total course of 801 miles. 

The river issues from a small tank 3,000 feet above the sea, 
surrounded by a group of temples and guarded by an isolated 
colony of priests, and falls over a basaltic cliff in a descent of 
80 feet. After a course of about 40 miles through the State 
of Rewah, it enters the Central Provinces and winds cir- 
cuitously through the rugged hills of Mandla, pursuing a 
westerly course until it flows under the walls of the ruined 
palace of Ramnagar. From Ramnagar to Mandla town it 
forms, for some 15 miles, a deep reach of blue water, un- 
broken by rocks and clothed on either bank by forest. The 
river then turns north in a narrow loop towards Jubbulpore, 
close to which city, after a fall of 30 feet called the Dhuan- 
dhara or ‘fall of mist,’ it flows for two miles in a narrow 
channel which it has carved for itself through rocks of marble 
and basalt, its width here being only about 20 yards. Emerg- 
ing from this channel, which is well-known as the ‘Marble 
Rocks,’ and flowing west, it enters the fertile basin of alluvial 
land forming the Narbada Valley, which lies between the 
Vindhyan and Satpura Hills, extending for 200 miles from 
Jubbulpore to Handia, with a width of about 20 miles to the 
south of the river. The Vindhyan Hills rise almost sheer 
from the northern bank along most of the valley, the bed of 
the river at this part of its course being the boundary between 
the Central Provinces and Central India (principally the States 
of Bhopal and Indore). Here the Narbada passes Hoshang- 
abad and the old Muhammadan towns of Handia and Nim- 
awar. The banks in this part of its valley are about 40 feet 
high, and the fall in its course between Jubbulpore and 
Hoshangabad is 340 feet. Below Handia the hills again 
approach the river on both sides and are clothed with dense 
forests, favourite haunts of the Pindaris and other robbers of 
former days. At Mandhar, 25 miles below Handia, there is a 
fall of 40 feet, and another of the same height occurs at Punasa. 
The bed of the river in its whole length within the Central 
Provinces is one sheet of basalt, seldom exceeding 150 yards 
in absolute width, and, at intervals of every few miles, up- 
heaved into ridges which cross it diagonally, and behind which 
deep pools are formed. Emerging from the hills beyond 
Mandhata on the borders of the Central Provinces, the Nar- 
bada now enters a second open alluvial basin, flowing through 
Central India (principally the State of Indore) for nearly 
100 miles. The hills are here well away from the river, the 



RIVERS 


r)7 


SatpurSs being 40 miles to the south and the Vindhyas about 
16 miles to the north. In this part of its course the river 
passes the town of Maheshwar, the old capital of the Holkar 
family, where its northern bank is studded with temples, 
palaces, and bathing ghats, many of them built by the famous 
Ahalya Bai whose mausoleum is here. The last 170 miles of 
the river’s course are in the Bombay Presidency, where it first 
separates the States of Baroda and Rajplpla and then meanders 
through the fertile District of Broach. Below Broach City it 
gradually widens into an estuary, whose shores are 17 miles 
apart as it joins the Gulf of Cambay. 

The drainage area of the Narbada, estimated at about Drainage 
36,000 square miles, is principally to the south, comprising 
the northern portion of the Satpura plateau and the valley & c . 
Districts. The chief tributaries are the Banjar in Mandla, the 
Sher and Shakkar in Narsinghpur, and the Tawa, Ganjal, and 
Chhota Tawa in Hoshangabad District. The only important 
tributary to the north is the Hiran, which flows in beneath the 
Vindhyan Hills, in Jubbulpore District. Most of these rivers 
have a short and precipitous course from the hills, and fill with 
extraordinary rapidity in the rains, producing similarly rapid 
floods in the Narbada itself. Owing to this and to its rocky 
course, the Narbada is useless for navigation except by country 
boats between August and February, save in the last part of its 
course, where it is navigable by vessels of 70 tons burden up 
to the city of Broach, 30 miles from its mouth. It is crossed 
by railway bridges below Jubbulpore, at Hoshangabad, and at 
Mortakka. The influence of the tides reaches to a point 
55 miles from the sea. The height of the banks through- 
out the greater part of its course makes the river useless for 
irrigation. 

The Narbada, which is referred to as the RewH (probably Sacred 
from the Sanskrit root rev, ‘to hop, 5 owing to the leaping °f of Denver 
the stream down its rocky bed) in the Mahabharata and Ram- ° enVer * 
ayana, is said to have sprung from the body of Siva and is one 
of the most sacred rivers of India, local devotees placing it 
above the Ganges, on the ground that, whereas it is necessary 
to bathe in the Ganges for forgiveness of sins, this object is 
attained by mere contemplation of the Narbada. ‘As wood 
is cut by a saw (says a Hindu proverb), so at the sight of the 
holy Narbada do a man’s sins fall away.’ Ganga herself, so 
local legend avers, must dip in the Narbada once a year. She 
comes in the form of a coal-black cow, but returns home quite 
white, free from all sin. The Ganges, moreover, was (accord- 

BO. I. 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Historical 

associa- 

tions. 


i 7 8 

ing to the Rewa Purana) to have lost its purifying virtues in 
the year 1895, though this fact has not yet impaired its reputa- 
tion for sanctity. At numerous places on the course of the 
Narbada, and especially at spots where it is joined by another 
river, are groups of temples, tended by Narmdeo Brahmans, 
the special priests of the river, where annual gatherings of 
pilgrims take place. The most celebrated of these are Bhera- 
ghat, Barmhan, and Onkar Mandhata in the Central Provinces, 
and BarwanI in Central India, where the Narbada is joined by 
the Kapila. All of these are connected by legends with saints 
and heroes of Hindu mythology ; and the description of the 
whole course of the Narbada, and of all these places and their 
history, is contained in a sacred poem of 14,000 verses (the 
Narmada Khanda\ which, however, has been adjudged to be 
of somewhat recent origin. Every year 300 or more pilgrims 
start to perform the pradakshina of the Narbada, that is, to 
walk from its mouth at Broach to its source at Amarkantak on 
one side, and back on the other, a performance of the highest 
religious efficacy. The most sacred spots on the lower course 
of the river are Suklatlrtha, where stands an old banyan-tree 
that bears the name of the saint Kablr, and the site of Raja 
Bali’s horse-sacrifice near Broach. 

The Narbada is commonly considered to form the boundary 
between Hindustan and the Deccan, the reckoning of the 
Hindu year differing on either side of it. The Marathas 
spoke of it as * the river,’ and considered that when they had 
crossed it they were in a foreign country. During the Mutiny 
the Narbada practically marked the southern limit of the in- 
surrection. North of it the British temporarily lost control of 
the country, while to the south, in spite of isolated disturb- 
ances, their authority was maintained. Hence, when, in 1858, 
Tantia Topi executed his daring raid across the river, the 
utmost apprehension was excited, as it was feared that, on the 
appearance of the representative of the Peshwa, the recently 
annexed Nagpur territories would rise in revolt. These fears, 
however, proved to be unfounded and the country remained 
tranquil. 

Godavari River.— A great river of Southern India, which 
runs across the Deccan from the Western to the Eastern 
Ghats ; for sanctity, picturesque scenery, and utility to man, 
surpassed only by the Ganges and the Indus ; total length, 
about 900 miles; estimated area of drainage basin, 112,000 
square miles. The source of the river is on the side of a hill 
behind the village of Trimbak, in Nasik District, Bombay, 



RIVERS 


179 


only about 50 miles from the shore of the Indian Ocean. At 
this spot is an artificial reservoir reached by a flight of 690 
steps, into which the water trickles drop by drop from the lips 
of a carven image, shrouded by a canopy of stone. From first 
to last the general direction of the river is towards the south- 
east. It passes by Nasik town, and then separates Ahmadnagar Course in 
District from the State of Hyderabad, its total course in the 
Bombay Presidency being about 100 miles. Above Nasik it 
flows along a narrow rocky bed, but farther east the banks are 
lower and more earthy. Fifteen miles below Nasik it receives, 
on the right, the Darna from the hills of Igatpuri, and 17 miles 
farther down, on the left, the Kadva from Dindori. At the 
latter confluence, at Nander, the stream is dammed for irriga- 
tion. Near Nevasa it receives on the right bank the combined 
waters of the Pravara and Mula, which rise in the hills of 
Akola, near Harischandragarh. 

After passing the old town of Paithan on its left bank, the In Hyder- 
Godavari now runs for a length of about 176 miles right across ^eC^tral 
the Hyderabad State, receiving on its left bank the Puma, Provinces, 
which flows in near Kararkher in Parbhani District, and on 
the right the Manjra near Kondalwadi in Nander, while near 
Dharmsagar in the Chinnur taluk of Adilabad District it 
receives, again on the right, the Maner. Below Sironcha it 
is joined by the Pranhita, conveying the united waters of the 
Wardha and Wainganga ; and from this point it takes a 
marked south-easterly bend, and for about 100 miles divides 
Chanda District and the Bastar Feudatory State of the Central 
Provinces from the Karlmnagar and Warangal Districts of 
Hyderabad. Thirty miles- below the confluence of the Pran- 
hita, the Godavari receives the Indravati river from Bastar 
State and lower down the Tal. The bed of the Godavari 
where it adjoins the Central Provinces is broad and sandy, 
from one to two miles in width, and broken by rocks at only 
two points, called the First and Second Barriers, each about 
15 miles long. In 1854 it was proposed to remove these 
barriers, and a third one on the Pranhita, with the object of 
making a waterway from the cotton-growing Districts of 
Nagpur and Wardha to the sea; but in 1871, after very 
considerable sums had been expended, the project was finally 
abandoned as impracticable. One of the dams erected in 
connexion with this project still stands, with its locks and 
canal, at Dummagudem in the north of the Godavari District 
of Madras. Although the Godavari only skirts the Central 
Provinces, it is one of the most important rivers in their drain- 



180 BOMBA V PRESIDENCY 

age system, as it receives through the Wardha and Wainganga 
the waters of a portion of the Satpura plateau and of the whole 
of the Nagpur plain. 

In Madras Some distance below Sironcha the Godavari leaves the 

Presidency. c en t ra | Provinces behind, and for a while forms the boundary 
between the Godavari District of the Madras Presidency and 
the Hyderabad State ; and in this part of its course it is joined 
on the left bank by a considerable tributary, the Sabarl. 
Thence it flows to the sea through the centre of the old 
Godavari District, which has recently been divided, mainly 
by the course of the river, into the two Districts of Godavari 
and Kistna. At the beginning of its course along Madras 
territory, the river flows placidly through a flat and somewhat 
monotonous country, but shortly afterwards it begins to force 
its way through the Eastern Ghats and a sudden change takes 
place. The banks become wild and mountainous, the stream 
contracts, and at length the whole body of the river pours 
through a narrow and very deep passage known as ‘ the Gorge/ 
on either side of which the picturesque wooded slopes of the 
hills rise almost sheer from the dark water. Once thiough the 
hills, the river again opens out and forms a series of broad 
reaches dotted with low alluvial islands (tankas), which are 
famous for the tobacco they produce. The current here is 
nowhere rapid. At Rajahmundry, where the river is crossed 
by the East Coast line of the Madras Railway on a bridge 
more than i| miles in length, it varies from 4 to 11 feet a 
second. In floods, however, the Godavari brings down an 
enormous volume of water, and embankments on both of its 
banks are necessary to prevent it from inundating the surround- 
ing country. 

A few miles below Rajahmundry the river divides into two 
main streams, the Gautami Godavari on the east and the Vasishta 
Godavari on the west, which run down to the sea through a 
wide alluvial delta formed in the course of ages by the masses 
of silt which the river has here deposited. It is in this delta 
that the waters of the Godavari are first utilized on any 
considerable scale for irrigation. At Dowlaishweram, above 
the bifurcation, a great f anicut’ or dam has been thrown 
across the stream, and from this the whole delta area has been 
irrigated. 

The Godavari is navigable for small boats throughout the 
Godavari District. Vessels get round the anicut by means of 
the main canals, of which nearly 500 miles are also navigable, 
and which connect with the navigable canals of the Kistna 



RIVERS 


1S1 

delta to the south. Above the anicut there are several steaitf- 
boats belonging to Government ; but, as already observed, the 
attempts to utilize the Upper Godavari as an important water- 
way have proved a failure. 

The coast of the Godavari delta was the scene of some of 
the earliest settlements of Europeans in India, the Dutch, the 
English, and the French having all established factories there. 

The channels of the river which led to these have now greatly 
silted up. The little French settlement of Yanam still remains, 
but the others— Bandamurlanka, Injaram, Madapollam, and 
Paiakollu— now retain none of their former importance. 

The peculiar sacredness of the Godavari is said to have been Sacred 
revealed by Rama himself to the rishi Gautama. The river is ^ a * acter 
sometimes called Goda, and the sacred character especially r j ven 
attaches to the Gautami mouth. According to popular legend, 
it proceeds from the same source as the Ganges, by an under- 
ground passage ; and this identity is preserved in the familiar 
name of Vriddha-Ganga. But every part of its course is holy 
ground, and to bathe in its waters will wash away the blackest 
sin. The great bathing festival, called Pushkaram, celebrated 
in different years on the most sacred rivers of India, is held 
every twelfth year on the banks of the Godavari at Rajahmun- 
dry. The spots most frequented by pilgrims are— the source at 
Trimbak ; the town of Bhadrachalam on the left bank, about 
ioo miles above Rajahmundry, where stands an ancient temple 
of Ramachandra, surrounded by twenty-four smaller pagodas ; 
Rajahmundry itself ; and the village of Kotipalli, on the left 
bank of the eastern mouth. 

Kistna River (Sanskrit, Krishna , ‘the black').— A great 
river of Southern India, which, like the Godavari and Cauvery, 
flows almost across the peninsula from west to east. In 
traditional sanctity it is surpassed by both these rivers, and 
in actual length by the Godavari ; but the area of its drainage, 
including its two great tributaries, the Bhlma and Tungabhadra, 
is the largest of the three. Its total length is about 800 miles, 
and the total area of its catchment basin about 97,000 square 
miles. 

The Kistna rises about 40 miles from the Arabian Sea Course m 
(17 0 59' N. and 73 0 38' E.) in the Western Ghats just north 
of the hill station of Mahabaleshwar, and flows southwards, 
skirting the eastern spurs of the hills, past Karad (Satara 
District), where it receives on the right bank the Koyna from 
the western side of the Mahabaleshwar hills, and Sangli, where 
it receives tfje waters of the Varna, also from the west, until it 



i8a 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


reaches Kurundvad, when the Panchganga joins it, again on the 
right bank. The river then turns eastward and flows through 
Belgaum District, the States of the Southern Maratha Agency, 
and Bijapur, into the Nizam’s Dominions, after a course of 
about 300 miles in the Bombay Presidency. In Bijapur 
District it is joined on the right bank by the Ghatprabha and 
Malprabha from the Western Ghats. Near the hills the channel 
is too rocky and the stream too swift for navigation, but its 
waters are largely used for irrigation in Satara District and in 
the more open country to the south-east. In Belgaum and 
Bijapur its banks of black soil or laterite are 20 to 50 feet high, 
especially on the south side, and the stream forms many islands 
covered with babul bushes. 

In Hyder- On entering the Nizam’s Dominions (at Echampet in Raichur 

abad State. District) the Kistna drops from the table-land of the Deccan 
proper down to the alluvial doabs of Shorapur and Raichur. 
The fall is as much as 408 feet in about 3 miles. In time of 
flood a mighty volume of water rushes with a great roar over 
a succession of broken ledges of granite, dashing up a lofty 
column of spray. The first of the doabs mentioned above is 
formed by the confluence of the Bhima, which brings down 
the drainage of Ahmadnagar, Poona, and Sholapur ; the second 
by the confluence of the Tungabhadra, which drains the north 
of Mysore and the f Ceded Districts’ of Bellary and Kurnool. 
At the point of junction with the Tungabhadra in the eastern 
corner of Raichur District, the Kistna again strikes upon 
British territory, and forms for a considerable distance the 
boundary between the eastern portion of Hyderabad and the 
Kurnool and Guntur Districts of Madras. Its bed is here for 
many miles a deep, rocky channel, with a rapid fall, winding in 
a north-easterly direction through the spurs of the Nallamalai 
range and other smaller hills. At Wazlrabad in Nalgonda 
District it receives its last important tributary, the Musi, on 
whose banks stands the city of Hyderabad. The total course 
of the river within and along the State of Hyderabad is about 
400 miles. 

In Madras On reaching the chain of the Eastern Ghats, the river turns 

Presidency, sharply south-eastwards and flows for about roo miles between 
the Kistna and Guntur Districts (formerly the Kistna District) 
of Madras direct to the sea, which it enters by two principal 
mouths. It is in this last part of its course that the Kistna is 
for the first time largely utilized for irrigation. From the point 
where it turns southwards the rate of fall of its channel drops 
rapidly from an average of 3J feet a mile to if feet, and eventu- 



RIVERS 


183 

ally, as it nears the sea, to as little as 7 or 9 inches. The 
enormous mass of silt it carries — which has been estimated to 
be sufficient in flood-time to cover daily an area of 5 square 
miles to a depth of 1 foot — has consequently in the course of 
ages been deposited in the form of a wide alluvial delta, which 
runs far out into the sea and slopes gradually away from either 
bank of the river, with an average fall of 18 inches to the mile. 
At Bezwada, at the head of this delta, the Kistna runs through 
a gap 1,300 yards in width in a low range of gneissic hills, 
and here a great masonry dam or anicut has been thrown across 
the river, turning its waters into a network of irrigation 
channels which spread throughout the entire delta. Imme- 
diately below the dam the river is also crossed by the East 
Coast line of the Madras Railway on a girder-bridge of twelve 
spans of 300 feet. The flood velocity of the Kistna at this 
point is about 6\ miles an hour, and the flood discharge has 
been estimated to reach the enormous figure of 761,000 cubic 
feet a second. 

The Kistna is too rapid for navigation above the dam, but 
between Bezwada and its mouth sea-going native craft ply upon 
it for about six months in the year. The main irrigation canals 
are also navigable, and connect Kistna District with its northern 
neighbour Godavari, and, by means of the Buckingham Canal, 
with the country to the southwards and the city of Madras. 

Bhlma (Sanskrit, ‘The Terrible,’ one of the names of 
Parvati). — A river of Southern India. It rises at the well- 
known shrine of Bhlmashankar (19 0 4' N. and 73 0 32' E.) in 
the Western Ghats, and flows south-eastwards, with many wind- 
ings, through or along the boundary of the Bombay Districts of 
Poona, Sholapur, and Bijapur, for about 340 miles, till it enters 
the Nizam’s Dominions, where after a farther course of 176 
miles it eventually falls into the Kistna, about 16 miles north 
of Raichur. The first 40 miles of its course lie in a narrow and 
rugged valley, but farther east the banks are low and alluvial, 
though broken here and there by dikes of rock. In the dry 
season the stream is narrow and sluggish. At Ranjangaon the 
Bhima receives on the right the combined waters of the Mula 
and Mutha from Poona, and about 1 5 miles farther, on the left 
bank, the Ghod river from the northern side of the Bhlma- 
shankar hills. Not far from Tembhumi it is joined on the 
right bank by the Nira from Bhor State, and, after passing 
the holy city of Pandharpur, receives on the right bank the 
Man from the Mahadeo hills, and on the left the Slna, which 
rises near Ahmadnagar. There are important irrigation works 



184 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


on the Mutha, Nlra, and Slna. Near Wadi Junction (Hyder- 
abad State) the Bhlma is joined on the left by the Kagna river. 

Gersoppa Falls. — The Gersoppa Falls are situated in 
14 0 14' N. and 74 0 49' E., on the Bombay-Mysore frontier, 
about 18 miles east of Gersoppa, and 35 miles east of Honavar 
(North Kanara District), from which they can best be visited. 
They are locally known as the Jog Falls, from the neighbouring 
village of Jog. The waterfall is on the Sharavatl river, which, 
with a breadth above the falls of about 230 feet, hurls itself 
over a cliff 830 feet high, in four separate cascades, known as 
the Raja (or Horseshoe) Fall, the Roarer, the Rocket, and La 
Dame Blanche. The best time to see the falls is early in 
December, when the river is low enough to make it possible to 
cross to the left or Mysore bank. Between June and Novem- 
ber, when the river is flooded, the banks are shrouded in clouds 
of mist. From Gersoppa village the road climbs about 
10 miles through noble stretches of forest to the crest of the 
Gersoppa or Malemani pass, and from the crest passes 8 miles 
farther to the falls. Close underwood hides all trace of the 
river, till, at the bungalow near the falls, the plateau commands 
a glorious view. The rock of the river-bed and the cliff over 
which the river falls are gneiss associated with hypogene schists. 
The Gersoppa Falls eclipse every other in India and have few 
rivals in the world for height, volume, and beauty combined. 
The varying effects of light and shade at different times of the 
day are among their greatest beauties. In the afternoon, as 
the sun sinks to the west, a lovely rainbow spans the waters ; 
at night, the moon at times throws across the spray a belt of 
faintly-tinted light. On a dark night, rockets, blazing torches, 
or bundles of burning straw cast over the cliff light the raging 
waters with a fitful and weird glare. The best sight of the 
chasm is gained by lying down and peering over a pinnacle of 
rock, which stands out from the edge of the cliff. The finest 
general view of the falls is from the Mysore bank. From the 
right bank of the river a rough bamboo bridge crosses the Raja 
channel to the rocks beyond. The path then keeps well above 
the edge of the cliff, among large rocks, over small channels, 
and across seven or eight of the broader streams by rude 
bamboo and palm-stem bridges. On the left or Mysore bank 
a well-kept path leads through shady woods to a point called 
Watkins’s Platform, which commands a view across the chasm 
to the deep cleft where the waters of the Raja and the Roarer 
join and plunge into the pool below. Hence a farther path 
through the woods leads down a series of steep steps to the 



LAKES AND CANALS 185 

open hill-side, which slopes to the bed of the river. The edge 
of the pool affords a fine general view of the falls, of the 
magnificent rugged chasm, and of the deep winding gorge 
through which, in the course of ages, the waters of the river 
have untiringly eaten their way. 

Cutch, Rann of (Sanskrit, Irina). — A salt waste lying 
between 22 0 55' and 24 0 43' N. and 68° 45' and 71 0 46' E., 
covering an area of about 9,000 square miles, and stretching 
along the north and east of the State of Cutch, which it 
separates from Sind on the north and from Radhanpur and 
Kathiawar on the east and south. It varies in width from 25 
to 35 miles on the north to 2 miles on the east It is believed 
to be the bed of an arm of the sea, raised by some natural 
convulsion above its original level, and cut off from the ocean. 
It was a navigable lake in Alexander’s time (325 b.c.) and a 
shallow lagoon at the date of the Periplus (third century a.d.), 
and there are local traditions of seaports on its borders. 
Geologically, it is of recent formation. The northern or larger 
Rann — measuring from east to west about 160 miles, and from 
north to south about 80 — has an estimated area of not less 
than 7,000 square miles. The eastern or smaller Rann (about 
70 miles from east to west), which is connected with the larger 
Rann by a narrow channel, covers an area estimated at nearly 
2,000 square miles. Between March and October, when the 
whole tract is frequently inundated, the passage across is a 
work of great labour, and sometimes of considerable danger. 
Some of this inundation is salt water, either driven by strong 
south winds up the Lakhpat river from the sea, or brought 
down by brackish streams * the rest is fresh, the drainage of 
the local rainfall. The flood-waters, as they dry, leave a hard, 
fiat surface, covered with stone, shingle, and salt. As the 
summer wears on, and the heat increases, the ground, baked 
and blistered by the sun, shines over large tracts of salt with 
dazzling whiteness, the distance dimmed and distorted by an 
increasing mirage. On some raised plots of rocky land water is 
found, and only near water is there any vegetation. Except 
a stray bird, a herd of wild asses, antelope, or an occasional 
caravan, no sign of life breaks the desolate loneliness. Un- 
seasonable rain, or a violent south-west wind at any period, 
renders the greater part of the Rann impassable. Owing to 
the effects of an earthquake in 1819 the Greater Rann is 
considerably higher in the centre than along the edges ; while 
the centre, therefore, is dry, there are frequently water and 
mud at its sides. The Little Rann is at present undergoing 



1 86 BOMBA Y PRESIDENC Y 

a marked change. Year by year the sea is spreading farther 
eastward ; and, along the coast, places which a few years ago 
were inaccessible to boats are now open to water traffic. There 
is a considerable manufacture of salt at Kharaghoda, the 
salt produced here being styled Baragara salt, a name derived 
from the character of the soil. 

Cambay, Gulf of. — The name for the strip of sea which 
separates the peninsula of Kathiawar from the Northern 
Bombay coast. The gulf was in ancient times much frequented 
by Arab mariners. Surat lies at the eastern point of its 
mouth, the Portuguese settlement of Diu at the western mouth, 
and Cambay town at its northern extremity. The gulf receives 
two great rivers, the Tapti and Narbada, on its eastern side, the 
Mahi and Sabarmati on the north, and several small rivers from 
Kathiawar on the west. Owing to the causes mentioned under 
Cambay Town the gulf is silting up, and is now resorted to 
only by small craft. The once famous harbours of Surat 
and Broach on its coast have ceased to be used by foreign 
commerce. 

Manchhar. — Lake in the Sehwan taluka of Larkana District, 
Sind, Bombay, lying between 26° 22' and 26° 28' N. and 67° 37' 
and 67° 47' E. It is formed by the expansion of the Western 
Nara and the Aral streams, and is fed by hill-torrents. The 
first flows into it from the north, and the latter from the Indus 
westward at a distance of about 12 miles ; but the supply from 
the Nara is trifling in quantity when compared with that from 
the Aral. It is, however, this latter stream which affords a 
means of discharge for the redundant waters of the lake. 
During the period of inundation the Manchhar may be esti- 
mated at from 15 to 20 miles in length, with a breadth of 
about 10 miles ; but when the water is low, this area is greatly 
contracted, and is then probably not more than 10 miles in 
length. The space left uncovered by the receding water is 
sown with grain, especially wheat, yielding magnificent crops. 

Although shallow at the sides, the lake has a considerable 
depth of water in the middle ; and so great is the quantity of 
fine fish that hundreds of men and boats are employed. The 
fish are taken chiefly by spearing, but also in nets. In the 
season when the lotus is in blossom the lake presents a very 
beautiful appearance, as its surface, farther than the eye can 
reach, is covered with an unbroken succession of flowers and 
leaves. 

The fisheries of the lake, which are let out on contract, 
yielded an average annual revenue of Rs. 5,091 during the five 



LAKES AND CANALS 


187 


years ending 1905-6. The principal fish are : th tdambhro (or 
chelri), a reddish-coloured fish often attaining an enormous size, 
and ranking, according to native taste, next to the palla in 
excellence ; the morako ; the gandan, , a long, sharp, and very 
bony fish, of a silver colour, in length from 3 to 5 feet ; the 
shakar , the ‘ murrel ’ of the Deccan; the jerkho or fresh-water 
shark, the largest fish in Sind ; goj and lor , or eels ; the khaggo, 
or catfish; the popri, the dalu, the theli ; gangat , or prawns; 
the demur, and the singdri. 

Nal.— A large lake in the Bombay Presidency, about 37 
miles south-west of Ahmadabad, lying between 22 0 43' and 
22 0 50' N. and 71 0 59' and 72 0 6' E. It was at one time part 
of an arm of the sea which separated Kathiawar from the main- 
land, and it still covers an area of 49 square miles. Its water, 
at all times brackish, grows more saline as the dry season 
advances, till by the close of the hot season it has become 
nearly salt. The borders of the lake are fringed with reeds 
and other rank vegetation, affording cover to innumerable wild- 
fowl of every description. In the bed are many small islands, 
much used as grazing grounds for cattle during the hot season. 

Nara, Eastern.— An important water-channel in Sind, 
Bombay. It is commonly spoken of as a natural branch of 
the Indus, and, judging from the enormous size of its bed and 
the fact that it has no source, may possibly have been so 
formerly. The upper part of the Nara river, as it existed before 
works were undertaken on it by the British Government, was 
merely a small channel in the sand-hills of the eastern desert of 
Sind, through which spill-water from the Indus, above Rohri, 
found its way to the alluvial plain of the Indus in Central and 
Lower Sind. As much as 90,000 cubic feet per second was 
roughly calculated to have spilled into it during the flood of 
1851. Owing to the very uncertain supply thus received in the 
Nara, a channel from the Indus at Rohri, 12 miles in length, 
known as the Nara Supply Channel, was constructed by Govern- 
ment in 1858-9, on the recommendation of Lieutenant Fife. 
This channel was designed to carry an average discharge of 
8,413 cubic feet per second during the inundation period, but 
at times twice this quantity has passed through it. The Nara 
river itself has remained untouched from the tail of the supply 
channel to the Jamrao Canal mouth, a length of 100 miles, and 
this length has been gradually canalized by the silty discharge 
passing down it. 

From 1854 to 1858 most of the depressions on the left side 
of the Nara between the Jamrao mouth and the present head 



t88 BOMBA Y PRESIDENCY 

of the Thar Canal were embanked, and in 1857 water, admitted 
as an experiment, flowed at least as far south as the embank- 
ments extended. Between i860 and 1867 the Nara bed from 
the Makhi Weir to the Thar Weir was cleared in lengths aggre- 
gating 40 miles and widths averaging 150 feet. From 1876 to 
1886 this work was continued below the Thar Weir. In 1884 
the first cut was made by Government through the Allah Band, 
a broad ridge of ground on the Rann of Cutch thrown up by 
an earthquake in 1819. The course of the Nara is generally 
southwards, crossing the territory of the Mir of Khairpur for 
a distance of 100 miles and then running through Thar and 
Parkar District, having generally on its left bank the sand-hills 
of the desert, and discharging at its 250th mile into the Puran, 
an old channel of the Indus, which flows to the sea 80 miles 
farther south through the Rann of Cutch. 

The principal canals in connexion with the Eastern Nara and 
their lengths, including branches, are — the Jamrao, 588 miles ; 
the Mithrao, 155 miles ; the Thar, 72 miles; and the Hiral, 
41 miles. The aggregate cost of these works (exclusive of the 
Jamrao) up to the end of 1903-4 amounted to 65*27 lakhs; 
the receipts in the same year were 5-63 lakhs, and the total 
charges (exclusive of interest) 1*14 lakhs. The gross income 
was thus 8*62 per cent, on the capital expended, and the net 
receipts 6*82 per cent. The area irrigated was 429 square 
miles. 

The Jamrao, constructed in the years 1894 to 1902, serves 
the Districts of Thar and Parkar and Hyderabad, and the 
others supply the former only. The Nara Supply Channel, the 
Eastern Nara, and the Mithrao are partly navigable for a total 
length of 425 miles. 

Jamrao Canal. — A large and important water-channel in 
the Hyderabad and the Thar and Parkar Districts of Sind, 
Bombay. The canal takes off from the Nara river in the north- 
west corner of the Sanghar taluka and joins the Nara again in 
the extreme south of the Jamesabad taluka , , the total length of 
the area irrigated being about 130 miles, with an average breadth 
of 10 miles. The natural features vary. The upper reaches of 
the canal pass through the sandy jungle-clad hills along the 
Nara river, which give place to an alluvial plain, covered, where 
formerly liable to be flooded from the Nara, with thick jungle 
of kandi, babul \ and wild caper bushes, and are succeeded by 
the wide open plains sparsely dotted with vegetation that are 
the characteristic feature of the country. The length of the 
Jamrao Canal is 1 1 7 miles, or, including all its branches and 



LAKES AND CANALS 


189 

distributaries, 588 miles. This canal has one long branch, 
called the West Branch, 63 miles in length, and about 408 
mites of minor channels. 

The canal was opened on November 24, 1899, and water for 
irrigation on a large scale was admitted in the following June. 
The cost of the work was about 84*6 lakhs, and the gross 
revenue of 1903-4 amounted to 6| lakhs, which gives a net 
revenue of 4*3 lakhs or 5*1 per cent, on capital outlay to the 
end of the year. The area irrigated in 1903-4 was 451 square 
miles. Large areas were available for colonization in the centre 
of the tract adjoining the canal to which water had never before 
penetrated, and over which no rights had been previously 
acquired. To these lands, colonists have recently been drawn 
from the Punjab, Cutch, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Kohistan, and the 
Desert The area so far allotted to colonists, on the model of 
the Chenab Colony in the Punjab, amounted in 1904 to 116 
square miles. 

Began Canal. — An important water-channel in the Upper 
Sind Frontier District, Sind, Bombay. It taps the Indus at its 
extreme south-eastern boundary, forming for about 50 miles 
of its course a well-defined line of demarcation between the 
Frontier District and Sukkur. In 1851 this canal was at its 
head only 50 feet wide, with a depth of 9 feet. It was enlarged 
in 1854, when the water was admitted into it from the Indus 
and reached Jacobabad, 50 miles distant, in sixteen hours. 
Subsequently, the tail of the canal was enlarged, and extended 
farther westward. Several improvements have been carried out 
during the last few years. The entire length of the main canal 
is 76 miles, and it serves the Districts of Upper Sind Frontier 
(202 square miles), Sukkur (46 square miles), Kalat (43 square 
miles), and Larkana (300 acres)- About five canals branch 
directly from it, the principal being the Nur Wah (19 miles) 
and Mirza (10 miles). The canal is also connected with the 
branches of the Ghar Canal. The aggregate cost of these works 
up to the end of 1903-4 amounted to 17 lakhs ; the receipts in 
the same year were about 4 % lakhs, and the total charges (ex- 
clusive of interest) over one lakh. The gross income was thus 
26 per cent, on the capital expended, and the net receipts 
18*3 per cent. The area irrigated was 495 square miles. The 
canal is navigable for about 60 miles. 

Desert Canal (formerly known as the Maksuda Wah). — An 
important channel in Sind, Bombay, issuing from the Indus, 
which it taps close to the village of Kashmor. It runs 75 miles 
into the desert tract west of Kashmor, irrigating the lands of thq 



190 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


Upper Sind Frontier District and Baluchistan. About twenty- 
two canals branch off from the main system, the principal being 
the Murad (6 miles), the New Falls (25 miles), and the New 
Frontier Rajwan (23 miles). The aggregate cost of these works 
up to the end of 1903-4 amounted to about 26J lakhs; the 
gross receipts in the same year were over 2 lakhs, and the total 
charges (exclusive of interest) about if lakhs. The gross 
income was thus 8*27 per cent, on the capital expended, and 
the net receipts 3*25 per cent. The area irrigated was 345 
square miles. 

Fuleli Canal. — A canal in Sind, Bombay, and one of the 
largest in India, It used to be fed by a winding channel taking 
off from the Indus about 9 miles north of Hyderabad. In 1856 
a new mouth at Jamshora, 4 miles from Hyderabad, was 
excavated by Government at a cost of Rs. 1,05,000, and has 
proved to be the most profitable work in Sind. For about 20 
miles south of Hyderabad the Fuleli was really a river channel, 
which flowed back into the Indus ; but it was cut off from the 
river, and extended southwards by Mian Nur Muhammad 
Kalhora and the Mlrs, to irrigate their lands, and has now 
become a very large canal. In March, 1900, it was made 
perennial by the excavation of an escape, which connects it 
with an old river channel, called the Puran, and so carries the 
excess water to the sea. The result is that the flooding of 
immense areas at the tail has been stopped, and about 1,000 
boats and 5 steam launches ply on it almost continuously 
throughout the year. The length of the main canal is 98 miles 
and of its branches 914 miles. The maximum discharge, which 
has been limited on account of breaches in its banks and 
consequent flooding of large tracts, is 10,000 cubic feet per 
second ; but when another escape is made, it will be possible 
to admit as much as 12,000 cubic feet. 

In 1903-4 the gross revenue was 7f lakhs, representing a 
return of 21 ’8 per cent, on the capital outlay. If the jdgir land 
on the canal, which pays only about one-fifth of the ordinary 
assessment, had paid the full amount, the return on the capital 
outlay would have been 31-7 per cent. The greatest area 
cultivated in one year on this canal was 650 square miles in 
1900-1 ; but when more scientific means of distribution are 
provided, this area will be increased. 

Mutha Canals. — Two canals on the right and left bank of 
the Mutha river, in Poona District, Bombay, with a total length 
of 88 miles, commanding 26 square miles in the Haveli tdluka 
and the Dhond petha of Poona District, The canals, which 



LAKES AND CANALS 


191 

were constructed between 1873 and 1878 — the Right Bank 
Canal in 1873-4 and the Left Bank in 1877-8— are fed by 
Lake Fife. The capital outlay on the canals was originally 
26 \ lakhs ; but the canals and the reservoir of Lake Fife have 
involved a total expenditure, up to 1904, of 71 lakhs. The 
maximum area hitherto irrigated has been 22 square miles. 
One of the main objects of the Mutha Canals is the supply of 
drinking-water to Poona and Kirkee. Water rates are charged 
according to the nature of the crops. The gross assessment on 
crops, and the revenue expenditure on the canals, have been, 


in thousands of rupees : — 

Assessment 

Expenditure. 

1880-90 (average) 

. 1,62 

69 

1890-1900 (average) . 

2,54 

82 

1903-4 .... 

2,92 

1,00 


The percentage of net profits on these works varies from 
to a little over 3 per cent. 

NIra Canal. — A canal on the left bank of the Nlra river, 
Poona District, Bombay, with a total length of 100 miles, 
commanding 177 square miles in the Purandhar, Bhlmthadi, 
and Indapur talukas . The canal, which was constructed in 
1885-6, is fed by Lake Whiting. The total capital outlay on 
the canal was 21 lakhs, and on the canal and reservoir 57 lakhs. 
The largest area irrigated so far has been 81 square miles. 
Water rates are charged according to the nature of the crops. 
The gross assessment on crops, and the revenue expenditure 
on the canal, have been, in thousands of rupees : — 




Assessment. 

Expenditure. 

1885-90 (average) 


13 

19 

1890-1900 (average) . 

. 

95 

55 

1903-4 • • 

• 

2,34 

64 


The work yields a profit on capital of about 3 per cent. 

Tansa Lake. — An artificial lake in Thana District, Bombay, 
lying between i9°32'and 19 0 36' N. and 73 0 14' and 73 0 18' E., 
53 miles north-east of Bombay City. It has been constructed 
by throwing a dam across the Tansa river at a point behind 
the Mahuli hills. It was completed in 1892, and has a catch- 
ment area of 52^ and a water area of si square miles, with 
a storage capacity of about 18,000 million gallons. The dam 
is 118 feet high and miles long. The existing aqueduct 
has a carrying capacity of 42 million gallons a day. The works 
cost nearly a crore and a half. 

Lake Fife (Kharakvasla). — Reservoir in the Haveli tdluka 
of Poona District, Bombay, situated in 1 8° 2 $' N. and 7 3 0 47' E., 
12 miles south-west of Poona city, constructed in 1868 to feed 



192 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


the Mittha Canals. The work cost 31 lakhs, and has a sur- 
face area at full supply level of 3,753 acres. 

Lake Whiting. — Reservoir in the Bhor State, Bombay, 
situated in 18 0 ii'N. and 73 0 51' E., constructed in 1881, to 
feed the NIra Canal. The work cost 21 lakhs, and has a 
surface area of 3,584 acres. Its extension is under con- 
sideration. 

Anhilvada.— Th e kingdom of Anhilvada in Gujarat, within 
the present limits of the Bombay Presidency, was founded 
about a.d. 746-65 by a Chavada Rajput, Vanaraja, son of the 
king of Panchasar, a small Chavada chiefship of the Gujar 
empire. Vanaraja, after an adventurous childhood, rose to 
fame by deeds of arms, and founded a dynasty which endured 
for two centuries. The site of Anhilvada is said by tradition 
to have been indicated by a hunted hare that turned on its 
pursuers, a myth that is told of the founding of several other 
places. It is also related that the city was named after a 
Bharwad shepherd, Anhila, who assisted Vanaraja in finding 
a site for it. The early history of the kingdom is somewhat 
obscure; but it seems certain that Vanaraja ruled till 780, and 
was succeeded by eight rulers of his line, the last of whom died 
in 961. In that year the Chavada dynasty was replaced by the 
Solankis or Chalukyas, of whom the first, Mularaja (941-96), 
is the most famous. He extended his dominions into Kathi- 
awar, Cutch, and South Gujarat. The descendants of Mula- 
raja likewise ruled at Anhilvada for two centuries. They were 
Saivas in religion, and were specially attached to the temple 
of Somnath at Somnath Patan. Mahmud of Ghazni cap- 
tured and sacked the temple in 1026, during the reign of 
Bhlma I. On the withdrawal of Mahmud, Bhima rebuilt 
the temple, and the kingdom continued in the hands of his 
direct successors until 1143. From that date a collateral 
branch of Mularaja’s descendants ruled in Anhilvada for a 
hundred years, claiming sovereignty over Kathiawar and 
Malwa, and at one time (1160) invading the Konkan. On 
the extinction of the line of Mularaja in 1242 the Vaghelas of 
Dholka ruled in these territories, till ousted by the invasion 
of Ala-ud-dln Khilji in 1298. 

Baglan. — A tract of country north of the Satmala Hills 
in Nasik District, Bombay, which is now represented by the 
Baglan and Kalvan talukas . Baglan is a region of hills 
and streams, and has long been noted for the excellence of 
its garden cultivation. 

In the earliest times of which record remains, the tract 



HISTORIC AREAS 


193 


appears to have been held by a family of Rathors, claiming 
kinship with the Rathors of Kanauj, and to have formed a pros- 
perous principality by reason of the fact that through it ran the 
main line of traffic between the Deccan and Gujarat. Up to the 
commencement of the seventeenth century the Rathors of Bag- 
lan, who adopted the honorific title of Baharji, and coined their 
own money, wielded considerable power ; but they were from 
time to time reduced to the position of tributaries by the Sultans 
of Gujarat or the overlords of the Northern Deccan. The first 
authentic notice of Baglan is in 1298, when Rai Karan, the last 
king of Anhilvada, after his defeat by Ulugh Khan, fled thither 
and maintained himself as an independent chieftain with the 
aid of Ramdeo of Deogiri. It is probable that at this date the 
Rathors of Baglan were tributaries of the Yadavas of Deogiri. 
After the overthrow of Ramdeo, the country became an 
apanage of the Musalman rulers of Deogiri; but in 1347, 
during the disturbances which resulted in the Deccan becom- 
ing independent of Delhi, it passed out of the possession of 
the Bahmani kings. Thus in 1366 the Baglan chief is 
mentioned as allying himself with the rebel Bairam Khan 
against Muhammad Shah Bahmani I; while five years later, 
when Malik Raja, the founder of the Faruki dynasty, esta- 
blished himself in Khandesh, the chief was forced to become 
a tributary of Delhi. During the fifteenth century Baglan was 
subject to the Ahmadabad Sultans, and in 1429 was laid waste 
by Ahmad Shah Bahmani I; and save for a short period 
commencing in 1499, when the Baglan chiefs wore forced to 
recognize the overlordship of the Nizam Shahi dynasty of Ah- 
madnagar, they remained vassals of Ahmadabad until Akbar’s 
conquest of Gujarat in 1573. The country is described in the 
Ain-i-Akbari (1590) as a mountainous and populous region 
between Surat and Nandurbar, in which excellent fruit of 
various kinds was grown. The chief was a Rathor in com- 
mand of 8,000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry, and possessed 
seven fortresses, two of which, Mulher and Salher, were posts 
of exceptional strength. 

After his conquest of Khandesh in 1599, Akbar attempted 
to take Baglan ; but after a seven years’ siege he was forced 
to compound with the chief, Pratap Shah, giving him several 
villages in return for an undertaking to protect all merchants 
passing through his territory, to send presents to the emperor, 
and to leave one of his sons as a hostage at Burhanpur. 

Bairam Shah, who succeeded Pratap Shah, was attacked and 
reduced to the position of a vassal by Aurangzeb in 1637. A 

o 


BO. I. 



194 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


The true 
Carnatic. 


description of the country at that date is given in Elliot’s 
History of India , vol. vii. A temperate climate, abundance of 
water, and the cultivation of excellent fruit combined to render 
it famous. It measured 200 miles in length by 160 in breadth, 
and contained 30 petty subdivisions and about 1,000 villages. 
It was bounded on the north by Sultanpur and Nandurbar ; on 
the east by Chandor ; on the south by Trimbak and Nasik ; 
and on the west by Surat and the territory of the Portuguese. 
Tavernier (1640-66) speaks of Baglan as containing a large 
variety of valuable trees, vast quantities of antelopes, hares, 
and partridges, and wild cows (probably bison) in its more 
mountainous parts. Sugar-cane was largely grown and sup- 
plied many sugar-mills and furnaces; and the country gene- 
rally derived much profit from the continuous stream of traffic 
between Surat and Golconda, which passed along its well- 
protected highways. 

Between 1670 and 1672 the Marathas appeared and 
succeeded in taking Salher fort, which, however, was 
eventually restored to the Muhammadans in 1684. Under 
the rule of the Nizam, who rose to independent power in 
the Deccan in 1724, a commandant was appointed to Mulher 
and a governor to Baglan ; and this system seems to have 
been followed till 1795, when Baglan was ceded by the Nizam 
to the Peshwa, who placed it, together with Khandesh, in 
charge of a Sarsubahddr . The fort of Salher is supposed to 
have been granted by the Peshwa to Rani Gahinabai, wife 
of Govind Kao Gaikwar, who, after the battle of Dhodap 
(1768), remained for some time at Poona as a state prisoner 
and afterwards ruled at Baroda from 1793 to 1800. On the 
overthrow of the Peshwa, Mulher fort was surrendered to the 
English on July 3, 1818, and the territory of Baglan was 
incorporated in Khandesh District. In 1869 Baglan was 
transferred to Nfisik District; and in 1875 it was, with its 
petty subdivisions of Jaikhedan and Abhona, formed into two 
talukas — Baglan and Kalvan. 

Carnatic ( Kannada , , Karnata , Karndtaka-desa). — Properly, 
as the name implies, c the Kanarese country.’ The name has, 
however, been erroneously applied by modern European 
writers to the Tamil country of Madras, including the Telugu 
District of Nellore. The boundaries of the true Carnatic, or 
Karnataka-desa, are given by Wilks as 

‘Commencing near the town of Bldar, 18 0 45' N., about 
60 miles north-west from Hyderabad (Deccan). Following the 
course of the Kanarese language to the south-east, it is found 



HISTORIC AREAS 


195 


to be limited by a waving line which nearly touches Adoni, 
winds to the west of Gooty, skirts the town of Anantapur, 
and passing through Nandidroog, touches the range of the 
Eastern Ghats; thence pursuing their southern course to 
the mountainous pass of Gazzalhati, it continues to follow the 
abrupt turn caused by the great chasm of the western hills 
between the towns of Coimbatore, Pollachi, and Palghat , 
and, sweeping to the north-west, skirts the edges of the pre- 
cipitous Western Ghats, nearly as far north as the sources of 
the Kistna; whence following first an eastern and after- 
wards a north-eastern course, it terminates in rather an acute 
angle near Bidar, already described as its northern limit. 5 

This country has been ruled wholly or in part by many 
dynasties, of whom the Andhras or Satavahanas, the Kadam- 
bas, the Pallavas, the Gangas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, 
the Cholas, the later Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, and the house of 
Vijayanagar are the most prominent. The Vijayanagar kings, 
who came into power about the year 1336, conquered the 
whole of the peninsula south of the Tungabhadra river. They 
were completely overthrown by the Muhammadans m 1565, 
and retired first to Penukonda, and then to Chandragiri, one 
branch of the family remaining at Anagundi opposite to their 
old capital. It was these conquests that probably led to the 
extension of the term ‘Carnatic 5 to the southern plain 
country; and this latter region came to be called Karnata 
Payanghat, or ‘lowlands, 5 to distinguish it from Karnata 
Balaghat, or the ‘hill country. 5 When the Muhammadan 
kings of the Deccan ousted the Vijayanagar dynasty, they 
divided the north of the Vijayanagar country between them 
into Carnatic Hyderabad (or Golconda) and Carnatic Bija- 
pur, each being further subdivided into Payanghat and Bala- 
ghat. At this time, according to Wilks, the northern boundary 
of Karnata (Carnatic) was the Tungabhadra. 

Speaking of this period and the modern misapplication of The later 
the name, Bishop Caldwell says ( Grammar of the Dravidian 
Languages, pp. 34-5) 

‘The term Karnata or Karnataka is said to have been 
a generic term, including both the Telugu and Kanarese 
peoples and their languages, though it is admitted that it 
usually denoted the latter alone, and though it is to the 
latter that the abbreviated form Kannadam has been appro- 
priated. Karnataka (that which belongs to Karnata) is re- 
garded as a Sanskrit word by native Pandits; but I agree 
with Dr. Gundert in preferring to derive it from the Dravidian 
words kar \ “black, 55 nadu (the adjective form of which in 
Telugu is ndti), “country, 55 that is, “the black country, 55 a 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


The 

Bombay 

Carnatic. 


Extent. 


196 

term very suitable to designate the “ black cotton soil,” as it 
is called, of the plateau of the Southern Deccan. The use 
of the term is of considerable antiquity, as we find it in the 
Varaha-Mihira at the beginning of the fifth 1 century a.d. 
Taranatha also mentions Karnata. The word Karnata or 
Karnataka, though at first a generic term, became in process 
of time the appellation of the Kanarese people and of their 
language alone, to the entire exclusion of the Telugu. 
Karnataka has now got into the hands of foreigners, who 
have given it a new and entirely erroneous application. When 
the Muhammadans arrived in Southern India, they found that 
part of it with which they first became acquainted— the country 
above the Ghats, including Mysore and part of Telingana— 
called the Karnataka country. In course of time, by a mis- 
application of terms, they applied the same name Karnatak, 
or Carnatic, to designate the country below the Ghats, as well 
as that which was above. The English have carried the mis- 
application a step farther, and restricted the name to the 
country below the Ghats, which never had any right to it 
whatever. Hence the Mysore country, which is probably the 
true Carnatic, is no longer called by that name; and what 
is now geographically termed “the Carnatic” is exclusively the 
country below the Ghats on the Coromandel coast.’ 

It is this latter country which formed the dominions of the 
Nawabs of the Carnatic, who played such an important part 
in the struggle for supremacy between the English and the 
French in the eighteenth century, and which now forms the 
greater portion of the present Madras Presidency. This 
connotation still survives in the designation of Madras regi- 
ments as Carnatic Infantry. Administratively, however, the 
term Carnatic (or Karnatak as it is there used) is now 
restricted to the Bombay portion of the original Karnata: 
namely, the Districts of Belgaum, Dharwar, and Bijapur, and 
part of North Kanara, with the Native States of the Southern 
Maratha Agency and Kolhapur. See Southern Maratha 
Country. 

Deccan (or Dakhin ). — This name, a corruption of the 
Sanskrit dakshina—' southern/ includes, in its widest sense, 
the whole of India south of the Narbada river, or, which is 
nearly the same thing, south of the Vindhya mountains. In 
its narrower sense it has much the same meaning as Maha- 
rashtra, or the country where the Marathi language is 
spoken, if the below-Ghat tract be omitted. In this connota- 
tion its southern boundary lies along the course of the Kistna 
river. In a still narrower sense the Deccan is regarded as 
1 Rectt f sixth.’ 



HISTORIC AREAS 


197 


bounded on the north by the Satmala hills. Adopting the 
broadest meaning, the Deccan on its western side descends 
seaward by a succession of terraces from the Western Ghats, 
which rise in parts to over 4,000 feet in height and terminate 
abruptly near Cape Comorin, the extreme southern point of 
the peninsula, at an elevation of 2,000 feet. From here, 
following the coast-line, the Eastern Ghats commence in 
a series of detached groups, which, uniting in about latitude 
1 1° 40' N., run north-eastward along the Coromandel coast, 
with an average elevation of 1,500 feet, and join the Vindhyas, 
which cross the peninsula from west to east, in nearly the 
same latitude (13 0 20' N.) as their western counterpart. The 
Vindhyan range thus joins the northern extremities of the two 
Ghats and completes the peninsular triangle of the Deccan. 

The eastern side of the enclosed table-land being much lower 
than the western, all the principal rivers of the Deccan— the 
Godavari, Kistna, and Cau very— rising in the Western Ghats, 
flow eastward, and escape by openings in the Eastern Ghats 
into the Bay of Bengal. Between the Ghats and the sea on 
either side the land differs in being, on the east, composed in 
part of alluvial deposits brought down from the mountains, 
and sloping gently ; while on the west the incline is abrupt, 
and the coast strip is broken by irregular spurs from the Ghats, 
which at places descend into the sea in steep cliffs. 

The Deccan table-land is one of the relics of the old Geology . 1 
Gondwana continent which formerly connected India with 
Africa, and which broke up at about the time that the chalk 
was forming in Europe. It is one of the few solid blocks of 
ancient land which have not suffered any of the folding move- 
ments so marked in most lands, and which, so far as we know, 
have never been depressed below the ocean. Except near the 
present coasts at low levels, not a single marine fossil has been 
found in the whole Deccan. The ‘basement complex’ of the 
Deccan table-land includes the usual assemblage of gneisses 
and schists, among them the band of schists distinguished by 
the name of the Dharwars, containing the auriferous veins of 
Mysore which have, since they were opened up in 1881, 
yielded gold to the value of 19 millions sterling. Lying on 
the denuded surfaces of these ancient schists and gneisses are 
enormous thicknesses of unfossiliferous strata which, in default 
of evidence to the contrary, are regarded as pre-Cambrian in 
age. These occur as isolated patches in the Cuddapah and 

1 Contributed by Mr. T. H. Holland, Director, Geological Survey o’f 
India. 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


198 

Kurnool Districts of Madras; in the Southern Maratha 
Country; in parts of the Godavari valley; and in Gwalior, 
Bundelkhand, and the Vindhyan region of Central India. In 
small basins, generally preserved at lower levels, we find the 
coal-bearing deposits formed by the great rivers of the old 
Gondwana continent in upper palaeozoic and mesozoic times, 
while for an area of some 200,000 square miles the older rocks 
are covered with great masses of basaltic lava, which spread 
over the country in Upper Cretaceous times and now form the 
highlands of the Deccan, remaining practically as horizontal 
as they must have been when they flowed as molten sheets 
over the land. Here and there, where the Deccan trap has 
been cut through by weather influences, we get glimpses of 
the old land-surface which was overwhelmed by lava-flows, 
while between the flows there were apparently interruptions 
sufficient to permit of the development of life in the lakes and 
rivers, of which the records are preserved in the so-called inter- 
trappean beds of fresh-water limestone, shales, and sandstones. 
The scenery of the Deccan trap highlands is the result of the 
subaerial erosion of the horizontal sheets of lava; the flat 
plateaux of the hill-tops, and the horizontal terraces which are 
traceable for miles along the scarps, are features eminently 
characteristic of the weathering of basaltic lava-flows. The 
long grass, the general absence of large trees, and the 
occurrence of almost purely deciduous species, combine with 
the outlines of the hills to distinguish the trap areas from all 
others in the Deccan. 

Two peculiar features of the Deccan are worth special 
mention : one is the occurrence, over most of the trap area, 
of the peculiar black, argillaceous, and calcareous soil known 
as regar , and, from its suitability for cotton-growing, as * cotton 
soil ’ ; the other is the peculiar decomposition product known 
as latente, which is essentially a dirty mixture of aluminic and 
ferric hydrates, formed by a special form of rock alteration 
confined to moist tropical climates, and often resembling the 
material known as bauxite which is worked as a source of 
aluminium. 

History. Little is known in detail of the history of the Deccan before 
the close of the thirteenth century. Hindu legends tell of its 
invasion by Rama, and the main authentic points known are 
the coming of the first Aryans (c. seventh century b.c.), the 
advance of the Mauryas (250 b.c.), and the Scythic invasion of 
a.d. 100. Archaeological remains and inscriptions bear witness 
to a series of dynasties, of which the Cholas, the Andhras or 



HISTORIC ARRAS 


199 


SStavahanas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, and the Yadavas 
of Deogiri are the best known. (See Bombay Presidency, 
History.) The country was known to the author of the 
Periplus in the third century a.d. as Dachina Bades (Daksh- 
inapata), and to the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hian in the fifth 
century as Ta Thsin. Continuous history commences with 
the Muhammadan invasion of 1294-1300, when Ala-ud-dln, 
the Khilji emperor of Delhi, overran Maharashtra, Telingana, 
and Karnata. In 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was com- 
pleted by Muhammad bin Tughlak; but a few years later a 
general revolt resulted in the establishment of the Muham- 
madan Bahmani dynasty, and the retrogression of Delhi supre- 
macy beyond the Narbada. The Bahmani dynasty advanced 
its eastern frontier at the expense of the Hindu kingdom of 
Telingana to Golconda in 1373, to Warangal in 1421, and to 
the Bay of Bengal in 1472. A few years later (1482) it began to 
disintegrate, and was broken up into the five rival Muhammadan 
kingdoms of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Golconda, Bidar, and 
Berar. These w T ere counterbalanced in the south, as the 
Bahmani empire had been, by the great Hindu kingdom of 
Vijayanagar, which was however destroyed in 15 65, at the 
battle of Talikota, by a coalition of the Muhammadan powers. 
Of these, Bidar and Berar became extinct before 1630 ; the 
other three kingdoms were restored to the Delhi empire by 
the victories of Akbar, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb. The 
Deccan was thus for a second time brought under the Delhi 
rule, but not for long. The Marathas in 1706 obtained the 
right of levying tribute over Southern India, and their leading 
chiefs, who had practically superseded the dynasty of SivajI, 
were the Peshwas of Poona. A great Delhi viceroy (the 
Nizam-ul-mulk), rallying all the Muhammadans of the South 
round him, established the Nizamat of Hyderabad. The 
remainder of the imperial possessions in the Deccan was 
divided among minor princes, who generally acknowledged 
the supremacy of the Peshwa or the Nizam, according as they 
were north or south of the Tungabhadra. Mysore, alternately 
tributary to both, became eventually the prize of Haidar All, 
while in the extreme south the Travancore State enjoyed, by 
its isolated position, uninterrupted independence. Such was 
the position of affairs early in the eighteenth century. Mean- 
while Portugal, Holland, France, and England had effected 
settlements on the coast; but the two former on so small 
a scale that they took no important part in the wars of 
succession between the native princes which occupied the 



200 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


middle of the century. The French and English, however, 
espoused opposite sides, and their struggles eventually resulted 
in establishing the supremacy of the latter (1761), which 
became definitely affirmed, under Lords Wellesley and Hastings, 
by the establishment of British influence at Hyderabad, the 
overthrow of Tipu Sultan, and the Maratha Wars which 
followed, and the annexation of the Peshwa’s dominions in 
1818. The dominions of the other important Maratha chief 
of the Deccan, the Bhonsla Raja of Nagpur, lapsed to the 
British on the extinction of the dynasty in 1854. The Deccan 
is to-day included in the Presidency of Madras, part of 
Bombay and the Central Provinces, together with Hyderabad, 
Mysore, and other Native States. 

Evtent. Gujarat.— This name, taken in its widest sense, signifies 
the whole country in which Gujarati is spoken, including 
Cutch and Kathiawar, as well as the northern Districts and 
States of the Bombay Presidency from Palanpur to Daman : 
that is, the country lying between 20° 9' and 24 0 43' N. and 
68° 25' and 72 0 22' E. In a narrower and more correct sense, 
the name applies to the central plain north of the Narbada 
and east of the Rann of Cutch and Kathiawar. Gujarat, in 
this sense, lies between 23 0 25' and 24 0 4' N. and 71 0 i' and 
74 0 i' E., and has an area of 29,071 square miles and 
a population (1901) of 4,798,504. Of this area less than one- 
fourth (7,168 square miles), chiefly in the centre and south, is 
British territory, belonging to the four Districts of Ahmadabad, 
Kaira, Panch Mahals, and Broach. About 4,902 square 
miles, chiefly in two blocks— one lying west of the Sabarmati 
and the other between the Mahl and the Narbada— belong 
to Baroda. The remainder belongs to the large and small 
States that have relations with the Bombay Government, and is 
distributed among the Agencies of Palanpur in the north, 
Mah! Kantha in the north-east, Rewa Kantha in the east, 
and Cambay at the mouth of the Sabarmati. 

The plain of Gujarat is bounded on the north by the desert 
of Marwar, and on the east by the hills of crystalline rock that 
run south-east from Abu to join the western outliers of the 
Vindhyas near Pavagarh. From these hills, in the neighbour- 
hood of which the country is rough, rocky, and well wooded, 
it slopes in a south-westerly direction towards the Rann of 
Cutch, the Nal Lake, and the sea, unbroken by any stony out- 
crop or rising ground. The central region is of recent alluvial 
formation and has one of the richest soils in India, though 
parts of -it are liable to flooding in the rains, and it suffered 



HISTORIC AREAS 


201 


much in the famine of 1899-1902. Towards the Rann, the 
Nal Lake, and the sea-coast, the plain passes into salt or 
sandy waste, where the subsoil water is brackish and lies deep 
below the surface. The grazing lands of Palanpur in the 
north are watered by the Banas and Saraswatl, which flow 
from the Aravalli mountains into the Little Ran n. The 
Sabarmatl, rising near the source of the Banas, flows into the 
Gulf of Cambay. Farther east, the Mahi, rising far away in 
Malwa, flows into the same gulf, which finally receives also 
the waters of the Narbada, the lower course of which passes 
between Central Baroda and Rajplpla and through the British 
District of Broach. The central and coast tracts are stoneless, 
and have fine groves of field trees, w r hile the eastern hills are 
covered with forest. The spread of cultivation has driven 
the tiger, leopard, and bear into the eastern hills, and greatly 
reduced the numbers of wild hog; but antelope and nilgai 
are still common. Game-birds, both on land and water, 
abound. 

The name Gujarat is derived from the widespread GujarName. 
tribe, which is not, however, at the present day of much 
account in the province. According to some writers, the 
Gujars were immigrants from Central Asia. There is no 
certain trace of them in India before the sixth century, by 
the end of which they w r ere powerful in Rajputana and had 
set up a kingdom at Broach, so they most likely entered India 
with the White Huns in the latter half of the fifth century. 

The Chinese traveller HiuenTsiang (a.d. 640) was acquainted 
with the kingdom of Broach, and also with a Gurjara kingdom 
farther north which he calls Kiu-chi-lo, having its capital at 
Pilo-mo-lo, which is plausibly identified with Bhilmal in the 
Jodhpur State. In its earliest form (Gurjararatra), the name 
Gujarat is applied in inscriptions of the ninth century to the 
country north of Ajmer and the Sambhar Lake, while from the 
tenth to the thirteenth century Gujarat means the Solanki 
kingdom of Anhilvada. In the Musalman period the name 
was applied to the province that was governed first from 
Anhilvada and then from Ahmadabad. 

For the history of Gujarat in the pre-Muhammadan period History, 
and its invasion by Mahmud of Ghazni, see Bombay Presi- 
dency and Anhilvada. By about 1233 the Solanki kingdom 
of Anhilvada had broken up, and the most powerful rulers in 
Gujarat were the Vaghela chiefs of Dholka. 

‘ An inaccessible position, beyond the great desert and the 
hills connecting the Vmdhyas with the Aravalli range, long 



202 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


preserved Gujarat from the Muhammadan yoke. Only by sea 
was it easily approached, and to the sea it owed its peculiar 
advantages, ... its favouring climate and fertile soil. . . . The 
greater part of the Indian trade with Persia, Arabia, and the 
Red Sea passed through its harbours, besides a busy coasting 
trade. “The benefit of this trade overflowed upon the 
country, which became a garden, and enriched the treasury of 
the prince. The noble mosques, colleges, palaces, and tombs, 
the remains of which still adorn Ahmadabad and its other 
cities to this day, while they excite the admiration of the 
traveller, prove both the wealth and the taste of the founders V* 
Not till the reign of Ala-ud-dln (of Delhi) at the close of the 
thirteenth century did it become a Muslim province, and 
a century later it became independent again under a dynasty 
of Muslim kings. . . . Firoz Shah in 1391 granted the fief of 
Gujarat to Zafar Khan, the son of a converted Rajput, and 
five years later the fief-holder assumed the royal canopy. He 
soon enlarged his dominions, at first but a strip between hills 
and sea, by the annexation of Idar to the north and Diu in 
Kathiawar, plundered Jhalor, and even took possession of 
Malwa for a short space in 1407, setting his brother on the 
throne in the place of Hoshang, the son of Dilawar. His 
successor Ahmad I (1411-43) founded Ahmadabad, which 
has ever since been the chief city of Gujarat, and recovered 
Bombay and Salsette from the Deccan kings. Mahmud I 
(1458-1511) not only carried on the traditional wars of his 
dynasty with Malwa on the east and Khandesh on the south, 
but kept a large fleet to subdue the pirates of the islands. 

‘ Nor were Asiatic pirates the only disturbers of his coast. 
The first of the three great waves of European invasion was 
already beating on the shores of Gujarat. Vasco da Gama 
had reached the Malabar ports in 1498, and the effects of the 
new influence were soon felt farther north. The Portuguese 
had no more intention, at first, of founding an eastern empire 
than the later Dutch and English companies. The hostility 
of the Muslim traders compelled them to protect their agents, 
and a commercial policy was necessarily supported by military 
power. . . . The collision was brought about by the spirited 
action of the last Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, Kansuh-el-Ghuri, 
who, realizing the imminent jeopardy of the great Indian trade 
which supplied so much of the wealth of Egypt, resolved to 
drive the Portuguese from the Arabian Sea. The Mamluks 
had long maintained a fleet in the Red Sea, and Admiral 
Husain was dispatched in 1508 to Gujarat with a well-equipped 
war squadron manned with sailors who had often fought with 
Christian fleets in the Mediterranean. He was joined by the 
fleet of Gujarat, commanded by the governor of Diu, in spite 
of the efforts of the Portuguese captain, Lourengo de Almeida, 
to prevent their union ; and the combined fleet was in every 

1 Erskine, History of India > vol. i, p. 21. 



HISTORIC AREAS 


203 


respect superior to the flotilla of Christian merchantmen which 
boldly sailed out of the port of Chaul to the attack. The 
Portuguese were defeated in a running fight which lasted two 
days, and the young captain, son of the famous viceroy, was 
killed. . . . He was avenged a few months later, when on 
February 2, 1 509, his father, the viceroy Francisco de Almeida, 
utterly defeated the combined fleet of Egypt and Gujarat off 
Diu. In the following year the king of Gujarat offered 
Albuquerque, the conqueror of Goa, the port of Diu, and 
a Portuguese factory was there established in 1513, though 
the celebrated fortress of the Christian invaders was not built 
till 1 535- 

* Though unable to withstand the Portuguese — or perhaps 
not unwilling to see his powerful deputy at Diu humiliated — 
Bahadur (1526-37) was one of the most brilliant figures 
among the warrior kings of Gujarat. The Rajputs of the hills 
and the kings of the Deccan owned his superiority, and in 
1531 he annexed Malwa. A Rajput rising and the advance of 
the Mughals under Humayun the son of Babar for a time 
destroyed his authority (1535), but he recovered it bravely 
(1536), only to fall at last, drowned in a scuffle with the 
Portuguese whom he had admitted to his coast V 

In 1572 Akbar annexed Gujarat to the Mughal empire, of 
which it became a Sub ah . At its best period the independent 
Muhammadan kingdom of Gujarat comprised Northern Gujarat 
from Abu to the Narbada ; Kathiawar, which became a Musai- 
man province through the occupation of Diu (1402) and Girnar 
(1471), and the sack of Dwarka Bet (1473); Tapti valley 
as far east as Thalner ; and the tract between the Ghats and 
the sea from Surat to Bombay. 

The Mughal viceroys of Gujarat were, up to the death of 
Aurangzeb (1707), on the whole successful in maintaining 
order and prosperity, in spite of the turbulence of the Kolis 
and Rajputs in the north, of famines in 1596, 1631, 1681, 
1684, and 1697-8, and of the Deccani attacks on Surat, which 
was sacked once by Malik Ambar (1609) and twice by Sivaji 
(1664 and 1670). Throughout the Mughal period the pro- 
vince generally yielded a revenue of nearly 2 crores, and 
a large foreign trade was carried on at the ports of Cambay, 
Broach, and Surat. The decline of Mughal rule began with 
a Maratha raid across the Narbada in 1705. From 1711 
these invasions became annual, and the Marathas established 
themselves successively at Songarh {1719), Champaner (1723), 
and Baroda (1734). The beginning of the end came during 
the governorship of Sarbuland Khan (1723-30), who farmed 
- 1 S. Lane-Poole, Mediaeval India ( c Story of the Nations’), chap. vii. 



204 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


out the revenues and admitted the Maratha claims to chauth 
and sardeshmukhi . Henceforward, although the Delhi court 
continued to appoint viceroys until 1748* absolute anarchy 
reigned in the province, which was ravaged impartially by the 
hostile leaders of the Peshwa’s and the Gaikwar’s armies, by 
the Rajas of Jodhpur, by the agents of the Nizam-ul-mulk, 
and by local Moslem chiefs, such as the Babis, who established 
themselves at Junagarh (1738) and Balasinor (1761), the 
Jhaloris, who settled at Palanpur (1715), and Momin Khan, 
who began to scheme for the independence of Cambay about 
1736. Famines in 1719, 1732, and 1747 added to the misery 
of the people. In 1737 the Gaikwar was admitted to a full 
half-share in the revenues of the province and occupied 
Ahmadabad jointly with the viceroy’s troops (1738). Broach 
from 1731 to 1752 was held by a deputy of the Nizam, but 
had to give up a share of its customs to the Gaikwar. Surat 
suffered chiefly from the violence of rival candidates for the 
governorship. 

Gujarat was now parcelled out among a number of local 
chiefs who carried on ceaseless petty wars, which the Marathas 
had no wish to suppress so long as they could secure their 
share of the plunder of the province. The Peshwa’s seizure of 
half the Gaikwar’s share in 1751 only added another claimant 
of blackmail. After the battle of Panipat the Musalmans tried 
but failed to drive out the Gaikwar (1761), and the last chance 
of a strong native government growing up was ruined by the 
disputed succession at Baroda in 1768. The local troubles 
at Surat lasted until the castle was taken by the British in 
I7S9 * 

The Maratha confederacy now began to break up, and the 
Gaikwar was detached by his acceptance of British protection 
(1782). In Gujarat there was little improvement in the govern- 
ment during this period, though, in spite of disputes in the 
Gaikwar’s family and intrigues at the Poona court, a semblance 
of order was preserved by British influence from 1782 to 1799, 
when the Gaikwar took Ahmadabad and imprisoned the 
Peshwa’s agent. Further disturbances then took place, which 
were put down by a British force (1803). In 1799 the Peshwa 
had farmed his rights to the Gaikwar, who was already in sub- 
sidiary alliance with the British. Negotiations followed betwen 
the British, the Peshwa, and the Gaikwar, which ended in the 
cession to the first named of certain districts and rights in 
Gujarat. The British Government had annexed Surat in 1800 
on the death of the Nawab, whose family were pensioned 



HISTORIC AREAS 


205 

off, and had conquered Broach from Sindhia in the war of 
1803. 

After the overthrow of the Peshwa in 1818 territorial arrange- 
ments in Gujarat settled down into their present form, the 
country being divided between the British Districts of Ahmad- 
abad, Broach, Kaira, Panch Mahals, and Surat, the State 
of Baroda, and a number of small Native States. Gujarat 
suffered very severely from famine in 1899-1902, a period 
which was marked by great mortality both of men and cattle. 

The blow fell more severely from the fact that it came after 
a long period of prosperity, so that the people and the officials 
were alike unprepared for the calamities that followed. 

[See Sir E. C. Bayley, Gujarat (1886) in the “The History 
of India as told by its own Historians”; Sir J. Campbell, 
History of Gujarat ; vol. i, part i (1896), Bombay Gazetteer 
series ; and Rev. G. P. Taylor, ‘ The Coins of Ahmadabad,’ 
Journal , Royal Asiatic Society , Bombay Branch , vol. xx.] 

Kohistan. — The local name of a barren and hilly tract of 
country in Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, composed of out- 
lying spurs from the Kirthar Range. The southern portion 
merges into extensive plains, separated by low lines of hills, 
which afford abundant grazing for herds of cattle after rain. 

The Kohistan is entirely dependent on rainfall, and cultivation 
is possible only where the rainfall has been impounded, or 
along one of the numerous watercourses. Some of these 
streams, known as nais , are of considerable size, the chief 
being the Baran, which flows into the Indus below Kotri. 

The Kohistan is a mahal or petty subdivision, with a popu- 
lation (1901) of 12,877. The revenue is Rs. 3,900. The 
population is nomadic and fluctuating, consisting chiefly of 
Sindls and Baloch, formerly given to internal feuds, but now 
content to earn a frugal living by grazing herds of camels, cattle, 
sheep, and goats. 

Konkan. — A name now applied to the tract of country Extent, 
below the Western Ghats south of the Damanganga river, 
including Bombay, the Districts of Thana, Kolaba, Ratnagiri, 
the coast strip of North Kanara, the Native States of Janjlra, 
Savantvadi, and the Portuguese territory of Goa, with an area 
of 3,907 square miles; population (1901), 5,610,432. The 
term 1 Konkan ’ seems to be of Dravidian origin, but has not 
so far been satisfactorily explained. The language of the 
Konkan was probably, at a remote period, Kanarese, but is 
now mainly Marathi. Mention is made of the people of the 
Konkan in the Mahabharata, Harivamsa, and Vishnu Purana, 



206 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


as well as in the work of Varaha Mihira, the geographer of the 
sixth century, and in the Chaiukya inscriptions of the seventh 
century. The tract is found referred to under the name of 
Aparanta in the third century b. c. and the second century a. d. 
Late Sanskrit works apply the name Konkan to the whole 
western coast of India from about Trimbak to Cape Comorin, 
and mention seven divisions, the names of which are variously 
given, but Konkan proper is always one of these and appears to 
have included the country about Chiplun. The Konkan does 
not seem at any time to have been a political unit. The Arab 
geographers of the ninth to the fourteenth century were familiar 
with it in its present signification. In history it appears either 
as a number of petty states or as part of a larger whole as in 
the early days of Maratha power, when the Konkan Ghat 
Mdtha , , or 1 spurs of the Ghats , 5 were linked with such territory 
in the Deccan as from time to time came into the possession 
of Sivaji and his successors. 

Physical The coast strip of the Konkan is a fertile and generally level 

aspects. tractj watered by hill streams and at parts intersected by tidal 
backwaters, but has nowhere any great rivers. A luxuriant 
vegetation of palms rises along the coast, the coco-nut planta- 
tions being an important source of wealth to the villagers. In 
the southern portions the Ghats forming the eastern boundary 
are covered with splendid forest. The crops are abundant , 
and owing to the monsoon rainfall being precipitated upon the 
Ghats behind, the Konkan is exempt from drought or famine. 
The common language is a dialect of Marathi known as Kon- 
kani, in which a Dravidian element is thought to be traceable. 

History. The history of the Konkan can best be gathered from a 
perusal of the historical portions of the articles on the included 
States and Districts. The earliest dynasty which can be con- 
nected with this tract is that of the Mauryas, three centuries 
before Christ; but the only evidence of the connexion rests 
on an Asoka inscription discovered at the town of Sopara in 
Thana District. The principal dynasties that succeeded were 
the following, in their order, so far as order is ascertainable : 
the Andhras or Satavahanas, with their capital at Paithan 
in the Deccan ; the Mauryas, of Purl ; the Chalukyas ; the Rash- 
trakutas ; the Silaharas, whose capital was perhaps the island 
of Elephanta m Bombay harbour; the Yadavas, with their 
capital at Deogiri, the modern Daulatabad; the Muham- 
madans (Khiljis, Bahmanis, Bijapur and Ahmadabad kings, and 
Mughals) ; Portuguese (over a limited area); Marathas ; and 
British. The Konkan coast was known to the Greeks and 



HISTORIC AREAS 


207 


Romans, and Ptolemy (a. d. 150) and the author of the Periplus 
(247) afford evidence that Greek traders from Egypt dealt with 
the Konkan ports. 

The arrival of the Bani-Israil and the Parsis from the Persian 
Gulf are important incidents in Konkan history. The Bani- 
Israil, in whom some trace the descendants of the lost tribes, 
are now scattered over the Bombay Presidency, but mostly in 
the North Konkan. The descendants of the first Parsis, who 
landed in Thana about the seventh century, now crowd the 
streets and markets of Bombay, engross a large part of the 
city's wealth and principal trading operations, and have their 
agents in all important provincial towns. 

The Portuguese reached Malabar in 1498. In 1510 Goa 
was seized, and soon afterwards Chaul and Bassein became 
the head-quarters of their naval dominion. During the six- 
teenth century the Portuguese shared the rule of the Konkan 
with the Muhammadan kings of Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. 
The rise and fall of the pirate power of the Angrias, who from 
1700 to 1756 harassed English, Dutch, and native shipping 
alike, mark a disastrous period of Konkan history. In the 
seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth century the 
Konkan had an unenviable notoriety on account of these 
pirates, who were known as the ‘ Malabar s, 7 and infested the 
numerous creeks and harbours. The strongholds of these 
marauders are still to be seen on the coast. Their chief ports 
were Revadanda, Suvarndrug, and Gheria or Vijayadrug. 

Since the British administration was established in 1818 on 
the overthrow of the Peshwa, the peace of the whole area, if 
some disturbances in Savantvadi in 1844 and 1850 be excepted, 
has remained unbroken. 

Maharashtra. — The name given to the country in which 
the Marathi language is spoken, and more especially to the 
Deccan in its most restricted sense. The origin of the word 
is still a subject of speculation. Molesworth in his Dictionary 
of the Marathi language gives currency to the derivation from 
Makar and rashtra , i.e. the country of the Mahars, an early 
and now socially degraded tribe found throughout the Deccan \ 
but a better opinion seems to be that it is derived from 
Maharatha, i.e. the great Ratha or Ratta, the Rattas having 
been once the ruling race in the Southern Maratha Country. 
A branch of this tribe, the Rashtrakutas, ruled in the Deccan 
between the sixth and tenth centuries a. x>. In support of this 
derivation, there is an inscription of the second century in 
which the terms ‘Maharatha 7 and ‘ Mahabhoja 7 are used, 



208 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 


which suggests that Maha is an honorific affix. In the third 
century before Christ, Asoka is reported to have sent Buddhist 
missionaries to the country. In the time of the early Chalukyas, 
the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang (a.d. 640) refers to their 
kingdom as Mo-ho-lo-cha, i. e. Ma-ha-ra-tha. 

The country between Gujarat and the Carnatic, in which 
Marathi is spoken, includes the line of the Western Ghats for 
many hundred miles, and the country lying below and above 
this barrier. On the west it is a country of gorge and moun- 
tain, the trap formation of the hills offering a natural line of 
fortifications, of which the Marathas in their early struggles 
for power were not slow to avail themselves. Inland from the 
crest of the Ghats the country for some distance resembles 
the spurs and valleys lying below, and both were formerly 
classed together as the Konkan Ghat Matha, or c spurs of the 
Ghats.* Farther east the rocky promontories become less 
marked until they sink into isolated hills, the country assuming 
the aspect of a vast and almost treeless plain, intersected by 
numerous rivers, but for the most part scantily watered and 
infertile. 

Maharashtra is the country of the Marathas, who form 
30 per cent, of its population. Once a large tribe, the 
Marathas have divided into numerous occupational castes, 
such as the Maratha Brahman, the Maratha Kumhar, Shimpi, 
Dhobi, &c., who do not usually describe themselves as 
Marathas m their own country. The term is now reserved 
for the descendants of the old fighting stock, a hardy and 
vigorous class once the terror of India, now merged very 
largely in the cultivating class known as Kunbls. A Maratha 
and a Maratha Kunbl differ only in social precedence. Thus 
the leading Maratha families wear the sacred thread, do not 
allow widow marriage, and claim the rites and position of 
Kshattriyas, while the Maratha Kunbls allow widow marriage, 
and neither wear the thread nor claim to be ‘twice-born.* 
As a body, the Marathas are divided into numerous clans, 
whose surnames betray Aryan, Rajput, and Dravidian elements, 
the last being the strongest. There are traces of an original 
totemistic organization still to be detected among them. Three 
million persons in the Konkan and Deccan returned themselves 
as Marathas in the Census of 1901, forming the backbone of 
the population of the Bombay Presidency. Fond of their 
traditions of deeds of valour embodied in the ballads of the 
country-side, the Maratha peasantry are now a frugal and peace- 
loving people, content to extort a bare subsistence from the 



HISTORIC AREAS 


209 


stony Deccan uplands or the rocky spurs of the Ghats. At 
holiday seasons they make pilgrimages to numerous shrines 
of saints and heroes scattered over the country, and expend 
small sums in harmless merrymaking when the business of 
the pilgrimage has been disposed of. It is possible that the 
Marathas may be connected with the Reddis of the Telugu 
country. 

For the salient facts of Maratha history see Bombay Presi- 
dency. 

Southern Maratha Country (or Bombay Carnatic). — 
This is the portion of the old Kamata, the Kanarese country, 
included in the Bombay Presidency (see Carnatic), and 
comprises the Districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, and 
North Kanara above the Western Ghats, with the Native 
States of Kolhapur and the Southern Maratha Agency, making 
up a total area of 5,074 square miles, with a population (1901) 
of 370,265 persons. For the first six centuries of the Christian 
era the country seems to have been ruled by a number of petty 
dynasties, of whom the Kadambas and Gangas are the best 
known. The early Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, and the 
Western Chalukyas next held sway, and were displaced by 
the Hoysalas who disputed the overlordship with the Yadavas 
of Deogiri. From the eleventh to the thirteenth century all 
real power was in the hands of local chiefs, among whom the 
Kadambas of Goa and Hangal and the Rattas of Saundatti 
occupied a leading place. Under the Yijayanagar empire 
fa. 1336- 1565) these petty chiefships maintained themselves 
with more or less formal acknowledgement of the central 
power. Late in the sixteenth century the Bijapur kings began 
to conquer the country ; but their progress was interrupted by 
conflict with the Portuguese and the nascent power of the 
Marathas, who soon ousted the Bijapur governors from these 
dominions and whose name has prevailed in the descriptive 
title of the country. 

Where it adjoins the Deccan plains, the Bombay Southern 
Maratha Country is, like them, a treeless, flat tract, scantily 
watered and interspersed with rocky hill ranges. Farther south 
the western portion is covered with forest, which is dense on 
the line of the Western Ghats, but opens out to permit of 
cultivation where the country becomes more level. Farther 
east again is a well-watered and fertile plain, supplied with 
numerous irrigation reservoirs, beneath which are valuable 
spice gardens and irrigated crops. 

»0. I. p 



BOMBAY CITY 


Situation, 

&c. 


Descrip- 
tion. 
Genet al 
aspect. 


Bombay City. — The capital of the Presidency of Bombay, 
and the principal seaport of Western India, situated on an 
island in i8° 55' N. and 72 0 54' E. Bombay Island is one 
of a group lying off the coast of the Konkan ; but by the 
recent construction of causeways and breakwaters it is now 
permanently united on the north end with the larger island 
of Salsette, and so continuously with the mainland. The 
remainder of the group of islands constitutes a part of Kolaba 
District. For certain administrative purposes Bombay City is 
regarded as constituting a Distnct by itself, with an area of 
22 square miles, and a population, according to the Census 
of 1901, of 776,006. A special enumeration, in 1906, gave 
a total of 977,822. 

In the beauty of its scenery, as well as in the commercial 
advantages of its position, Bombay is unsurpassed by any city 
of the East. The entrance into the harbour from the sea dis- 
closes a magnificent panorama. The background is shut in 
by the range of the Western Ghats. In front opens the wide 
harbour, studded with islands, dotted with the white sails of 
innumerable native craft, and affording a secure shelter to 
fleets of steamers. The city itself consists of well-built houses 
and broad streets ennobled by public buildings. The seashore 
is formed by docks, warehouses, and a long line of artificial 
embankments extending continuously for nearly 5 miles. On 
approaching Bombay from the west, there is little to strike the 
eye : the coast is low, the highest point, Malabar Hill, being 
only about 180 feet above the sea. But on entering the harbour 
a stranger is impressed with the picturesqueness of the scene. 
To the west the shore is crowded with buildings, some of them, 
as Colaba Church and the Rajabai Clock-tower of the Univer- 
sity, very lofty and well-proportioned. To the north and east 
are numerous islands ; and pre-eminent among the hills on the 
mainland is Bava Malang, otherwise called Malanggarh, on 
the top of which is an enormous mass of perpendicular 
rock, crowned with a ruined fort. The harbour presents an 
animated and picturesque scene. There are usually a troopship 



DESCRIPTION 


211 


and a man-of-war of H.M.’s East India Squadron, together with 
numerous large passenger or merchant steamers, among which 
may be mentioned those of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company, the British India Steam Navigation Company, the 
Messageries Maritimes, the Italian Rubattino, the Austrian 
Lloyd, the Clan, Anchor, and Hall lines. Many other steamers, 
and an occasional sailing vessel, are to be seen riding at anchor, 
swinging with the swiftly-flowing tide, and discharging or re- 
ceiving cargo. All kinds of boats, ships 5 dingies, steam-launches, 
native baghlas and padaos incessantly ply on the harbour. At 
the southernmost point of the * Prongs, 5 a dangerous reef jutting 
out from Colaba Point, stands the lighthouse, built in 1874, 
and containing a first-class dioptric light, which is visible for 
18 miles. 

The island consists of a low-lying plain about ii-J miles long Bombay 
by 3 to 4 broad, flanked by two parallel ridges of low hills. Eland. 
Colaba Point, the headland formed by the longer of these 
ridges, protects the harbour lying on its eastern side from the 
force of the open sea ; the other ridge terminates in Malabar 
Hill ; and between the two lies the shallow expanse of Back 
Bay. The island is in shape a trapezoid. It is popularly 
likened to a hand laid palm upwards, with the fingers stretch- 
ing southwards into the sea, and the thumb representing Mala- 
bar Hill, with Back Bay between the thumb and forefinger : 
others see in it a resemblance to a withered leg, with a very 
high heel and pointed toe, the heel being Malabar Hill and 
the toe Colaba. On a slightly raised strip of land between the 
head of Back Bay and the harbour is situated the Fort, the 
original nucleus round which the city grew up, but now chiefly 
occupied by public buildings and commercial offices. From 
this point the land slopes westward to the central plain, which 
before the construction of the embankment known as the 
Hornby Vellard, was liable to be submerged at high tide. To 
the north and east recent schemes of reclamation have similarly 
shut out the sea, and partly redeemed the foreshore for the use 
of commerce. In the extreme north of the island a large tract 
of salt marsh still remains unreclaimed. 

The Government offices, the business houses, and the shops The Foit. 
cluster thickly in the Fort. Many of the public and commer- Endings, 
cial buildings, constructed during the past forty years, are of &c. 
splendid dimensions, and have no rival in any other Indian 
city, except perhaps Calcutta. The houses in the native bazar 
are also handsomely built, rising three, four, and even six 
storeys in height, with elaborately carved pillars and front- 



213 


MO MB A Y CITY 


work. Some of the narrow, unpaved, and crowded streets 
give an inadequate idea of the real opulence of their inhabi- 
tants. But in many of them may be seen evidences of the 
wealth of the city and of the magnificence of its merchant 
princes. The most conspicuous line of public buildings is 
on the Esplanade facing Back Bay. Here are the Secretariat, 
an enormous erection in the Venetian Gothic style of archi- 
tecture; the University Library, Senate Hall, and Rajabai 
Clock-tower ; the High Court ; the Public Works, Post, and 
Telegraph offices. A little inland, and behind the Secretariat 
range of buildings, runs the broad thoroughfare of Rampart 
Row, off which branch many narrow streets containing native 
and European shops. Rampart Row and its continuation to- 
wards the Apollo Bandar (landing-place) form the main line 
of thoroughfare of the European quarter. Along one side of 
Rampart Row is a colonnade of arches giving entrance to the 
Bombay Club, the French Bank, and other buildings. On the 
opposite side of Rampart Row, which is here 50 or 6 o yards 
broad, rises another line of many-storeyed offices chiefly be- 
longing to merchants in grain and cotton. The Fort is illu- 
minated during the night by incandescent light. Arrangements 
have recently been completed for the installation of electric 
light, and of electric tramways to supersede the present horse 
tramways. Near the Apollo Bandar is the Sailors’ Home, 
erected at the expense of a former Gaikwar of Baroda. The 
open crescent-shaped site opposite the Sailors’ Home has been 
set apart for the erection of a Museum, of which His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales laid the foundation-stone in 
November, 1905. Behind the Sailors’ Home is the Yacht 
Club, a favourite resort of Bombay society ; adjoining it are 
the club residential quarters and the grand structure of the 
new Taj Mahal Hotel. At the other end of Rampart Row 
is a white marble statue of Queen Victoria, under a Gothic 
canopy, the gift of the same Gaikwar. The most important 
buildings in the densely built space occupying the site of the 
Fort are the circular row of offices and warehouses known as 
the Elphinstone Circle, the Custom House, the Town Hall, the 
Mint, and the Cathedral. North of the Town Hall lies the 
Ballard Pier, whence passengers by the mail steamers land 
and where also they embark. 

The Castle and Fort George are the only two spots now 
retaining any traces of the old fortifications. The existing 
defences of Bombay harbour are batteries on the rocks which 
stud the sea from about opposite the Memorial Church at 



DESCRIPTION 


21 3 


Colaba to the Elphinstone Reclamation. The one most to 
the south, called the Oyster Rock, is 1,000 yards from the 
shore and 8,400 feet south-west of the Middle Ground Battery. 

The fort on the Middle Ground shoal is in the middle of the 
anchorage, i,8oo yards from shore. The third defence is on 
Cross Island, at the north end of the anchorage, 100 yards 
from the shore and 4,000 yards from Middle Ground. There 
are also batteries at Malabar Point and Mahalakshmi on the 
western side of the island. 

On leaving the Bazar Gate police station, which represents Other parts 
the most northerly point of the Fort section, the first object 0 * the Clty ' 
of interest is the Victona Terminus of the Great Indian Penin- 
sula Railway, a very handsome building standing on the original 
site of an old temple of Mumbadevl. Opposite the station are 
the municipal offices, the foundation stone of which was laid 
by Lord Ripon in December, 1884. Immediately beyond them 
the new offices of the leading Bombay newspaper, the Times 
of India y have now been erected ; and thence a few minutes 7 
stroll will bring the visitor to the great markets, named after 
Mr. Arthur Crawford, who held the post of Municipal Com- 
missioner from 1865 to 1871. North of the markets lies the 
native city proper. Two of the best-known thoroughfares in 
this portion of the island are the KalbadevI Road and Abdur 
Rahman Street, both of which lead to the Paydhuni (‘foot- 
wash') locality, so called from the fact that in very ancient 
times a stream flowed there, in which passers-by used to wash 
the dust of travel from their feet. Close to the junction of the 
KalbadevI Road and Abdur Rahman Street stand the modem 
temple and tank of Mumbadevl, the guardian goddess of the 
island. To the north of Paydhuni there are two interesting 
buildings, namely, the city jail in Umarkhadi built in 1804 
under the administration of Jonathan Duncan, and the Jewish 
synagogue called ‘ The Gate of Mercy. 7 The latter was erected 
by a member of the Bani-Israil community named Ezeckiel, 
who served in the Bombay army during the campaign against 
Tipu Sultan. Having been captured, he was about to be 
^executed with other prisoners, when the mother of Tipu begged 
that his life might be spared, and her request was seconded by 
the chief Munshi, who declared that Ezeckiel belonged to a 
race known as ‘ the chosen of God. 7 He was accordingly taken 
into Tipu’s service ; but he managed at length to escape to 
Bombay, where, in gratitude for his deliverance, he built the 
synagogue. Leaving the Tadvadi and Mazagaon sections, which 
contain several features of interest, as for example the Victoria 



214 


BOMBAY CITY 


Gardens in the former and the temple of Ghorupdeo in the 
latter, and journeying northward, one reaches the historic 
locality of Parel. It was here and in the neighbouring villages 
of Naigaon, Vadala, and Matunga that Bhlma Raja and his 
followers settled on their arrival from the Deccan about 1294. 
In later times Parel was the favourite quarter of the European 
inhabitants, and contained the official residence of the Governor 
of Bombay. It has now yielded place as a fashionable Euro- 
pean quarter to Malabar Hill and Cumballa Hill (a continua- 
tion of the former), both of which are covered with handsome 
houses and bungalows. The views obtainable from the ridge 
of Malabar Hill and the summit of the Altamont Road, which 
winds up Cumballa Hill, are magnificent. Standing by night 
upon the ridge, one looks down upon the palm-groves of Chau- 
patij and across the sweep of Back Bay to the Rajabai Clock- 
tower, the Secretariat, and the Lighthouse at Colaba Point, the 
whole curve of land being jewelled with an unbroken chain of 
lights, which have earned the appropriate title of e The Queen’s 
Necklace.’ From Cumballa Hill the view to the east includes 
the entire native town, the hill of Mazagaon, upon which, in 
early days, a whitewashed house stood as a guide for vessels 
entering the harbour, and beyond them the harbour, islands, 
and mainland of the North Konkan. To the left lies the 
industrial area, with its high chimney-stacks and mill roofs, 
and the coast section of Siwri, in which may still be seen relics 
of the old fortress built upon a projecting spit of land. Siwri 
in these days contains the European cemetery, which was origi- 
nally the garden of the Horticultural Society of Bombay. On 
the west side Cumballa Hill slopes down to the shore, where, 
close to the Hornby Vellard, the Mahalakshmi temples com- 
mand attention. The present shrines are comparatively modern ; 
but they are stated to stand upon the site of three very old 
temples which were destroyed during the period of Muham- 
madan domination. The temples form the northern limit of 
another suburb, known as Breach Candy, where the houses 
are built close down upon the seashore within the refreshing 
sound of the waves. The ruined fortress of Warli can be visited 
from this point, while a good road leads through the great 
coco-nut woods of Mahlm to the Lady Jamsetjl Causeway and 
the neighbouring island of Salsette. The causeway was opened 
in 1845, up to which time communication between Bombay 
and Bandra, the southernmost village in Salsette, had been 
carried on by means of ferry-boats. 

At Malabar Point the Governor of Bombay has a pretty 



HISTORY 


21$ 

marine villa, in which he spends the cold season of the year. 

During the hot season the Bombay Government repairs to 
Mahabaleshwar, while it spends the rainy or monsoon season 
at Poona. Not far from Malabar Point lie the ruins of the old 
temple of Walkeshwar, which was built by the Silahara dynasty 
some time between a.d. 8io and 1260. Other interesting 
religious monuments in the island are the tomb of a Musalmarv 
pir at Mahim and the great Jama Masjid in the city. The 
former was built about 1431 in memory of Shaikh All Paru, 
and is the only architectural legacy to Bombay of early Muham- 
madan rule. The shrine, which was repaired and enlarged in 
1674, is surmounted by a dome, the inner side of which is 
ornamented with a gilt inscription in Arabic characters record- 
ing the name and dates of the birth and death of the saint. 

An annual fair is still held here, which is attended by Muham- 
madans from all parts of India. The Jama Masjid was built 
in 1802. 

Bombay never attains great extremes of heat or cold, such Climate, 
as are encountered in the interior of India ; but the climate, 
though temperate, is oppressive, owing to the extreme saturation 
of the air with moisture during the greater part of the year. 

The cold season lasts from December till March. In June the 
south-west monsoon breaks, and heavy rain continues with 
great regularity till the end of September. The hottest months 
are May and October. The average rainfall for the twenty 
years ending 1901, as registered at Colaba Observatory, was 
74-27 inches, the maximum being 99-74 and the minimum 35. 

The average temperature is 79*2°. 

In the year 1904 the chief causes of mortality were plague 
(13,504), fever (2,392), and diseases of the respiratory system 

(7,315)- J J 

Originally Bombay consisted of seven separate islands, and History, 
formed an outlying portion of the kingdom of Aparanta or the 
North Konkan, of which the earliest ruler known to history 
was named Asoka. To him succeeded a dynasty of Satakamis 
or Satavahanas, who flourished about the second century a.d., 
and were in turn succeeded by Mauryas, Chalukyas, and 
Rashtrakutas. The earliest inhabitants of the islands were the 
Kolls, an aboriginal tribe of husbandmen and fisherfolk, who 
must have journeyed thither about the opening of the Christian 
era, and formed rude hut settlements in those portions of the 
island which are now known as Upper Colaba, Lower Colaba, 

Dongri, Mazagaon, Naigaon, Sion, Mahim, and Warli. The 
island takes its name from fc the Koli goddess Mumba, a forn^ 



2l6 


BOMBAY CITY 


Hindu 

and 

Muham- 

madan 

rulers, 


Portu- 

guese 

rule, 


of ParvatT, whose temple, as above mentioned, formerly stood 
close to the site now occupied by the Victoria station. 

In the Maurya and Chalukya periods (c. a.d. 450-750) the 
city of Puri on Elephanta island was the chief place in 
Bombay harbour ; but under the Silahara chiefs of the Konkan 
(810-1260) Bombay became better known through the dis- 
covery of the Shrigundi or ‘ stone of trial 5 and the building of 
the Walkeshwar temple at Malabar Point. But no town sprang 
up until Raja Bhlma, who probably belonged to the house 
of the Yadavas of Deogiri, founded Mahikavati (Mahim) as 
a direct result of Ala-ud-dln KhiljI’s raid into the Deccan in 
1294. Bhlma’s followers, among whom the Prabhus, Paishikar 
Brahmans, Panchkalshis, Bhandaris, Bhois, and Thakurs were 
the most noteworthy, spread over the island and settled in 
Mahim, Siwri, Naigaon, Matunga, Vadala, and Parel. Repre- 
sentatives of these classes are found in Bombay to-day, while 
many place-names m the island undoubtedly date back to 
this era of Hindu rule, which lasted till 1348, when Salsette 
and Bombay were conquered by a Muhammadan force from 
Gujarat. The islands remained part, first of the province, 
and then of the kingdom, of Gujarat until 1534, when Sultan 
Bahadur ceded them to the Portuguese. With the exception 
of the well-known shrine at Mahim and one distinct class of 
the population, the Konkani Muhammadans, the era of Mu- 
hammadan rule has left little trace upon modern Bombay, for 
the Sultans of Gujarat contented themselves with establishing 
a military outpost at Mahim, and delegated their administrative 
powers to tributary Hindu chieftains. 

The Portuguese were no more successful in the work of 
colonization than their immediate predecessors. The lands 
were gradually divided by them into manors or fiefs, which 
were granted as rewards to deserving individuals or to religious 
orders on a system known as aforamento, whereby the grantees 
were bound to furnish military aid to the king of Portugal, or, 
where military service was not deemed necessary, to pay a 
certain quit-rent. The northern districts were parcelled out 
among the Franciscans and Jesuits, who were responsible for 
the building of several churches on the island, notably that of 
Our Lady of Hope on the Esplanade, now destroyed, and 
those of St. Michael at Mahim and of Our Lady of Salvation 
at Dadar, which exist to this day. The Quinta or Manor 
House, built some time in the sixteenth century, stood upon 
the site of the modern arsenal behind the Town Hall, and was 
surrounded by a lovely garden. It was partly burnt by the 



HISTORY 


217 


Dutch and English in 1626, but remained standing in a more 
or less dilapidated condition until 1665, when Donna Ignez de 
Miranda, the proprietress of the Manor of Bombay, handed 
it over to the British representative, Humphrey Cooke. The 
intolerance of the Portuguese had seriously hindered the growth 
of the settlement, which, when it was transferred to the English, 
had a population of some 10,000, mostly Kola, Agris, and 
other low castes, with a sprinkling of Prabhus, Brahmans, and 
Muhammadans. 

The English had coveted Bombay for many years before it Cession to 
came into their possession under the terms of the marriage jj^ E I n J£ I 
treaty between Charles II and the Infanta of Portugal. They 
had endeavoured to seize it by force in 1626 ; the Surat Council 
had urged the Directors of the East India Company to pur- 
chase it in 1652 ; and the Directors in their turn had pressed 
upon Cromwell the excellence of the harbour and its natural 
isolation from attack by land. But it was not until 1661 that 
Bombay was ceded to the English king, nor until 1665 that 
Humphrey Cooke took possession of the island on his behalf. 

The revenues at the date of the cession were not large, accruing 
mainly from taxes upon rice lands, oil, and ghl, and upon the 
coco-nut and brab palms which grew in abundance between 
the maidan or Esplanade and Malabar Hill. Moreover, so 
averse were the Portuguese in India to the cession, that they 
retained their hold upon the northern portion of the island, 
declaring that it was private property ; and it was only by the 
vigorous action of Cooke and his immediate successors that 
Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Vadala were taken from the 
Portuguese religious orders and incorporated with the island 
proper. 

The island was transferred in 1668 from the Crown to the Transfer to 
East India Company, who placed it under the factory of Surat. 

The real founder of modern Bombay was Gerald Aungier Gerald 
(1669-77), who believed in the future of 4 the city which by Aungier. 
God’s help is intended to be built,’ and increased its population 
to 50,000 by the measures which he took for the settlement of 
the land revenue, the establishment of law courts, the strength- 
ening of the defences, and the securing of freedom of trade 
and worship to all comers. Among the most important of the 
new settlers were Banias, Armenians, and Parsls. 

In the later years of the seventeenth century the settlement 
became so unhealthy through the silting up of the creeks that 
separated its component islands and through the prevalence of 
plague and cholera (mordexin), that it was said that ‘two mon- 



BOMBAY CITY 


21 $ 

soons were the life of a man.’ Progress was further checked 
by quarrels among the leading men and the rivalry between the 
old and the new East India Companies. The steady unfriend- 
liness of the Portuguese and the prevalence of piracy made 
trade unsafe, and supplies for the large population hard to 
obtain, while down to 1690 the Sid! admirals of the Mughal 
fleet were frequent but unwelcome guests of the English, who 
did their best to trim between them and the Marathas. 

Progress In 1708 a brighter period began with the union of the two 
du ™2 Companies, which was followed by the transfer of the Gover- 

ofeigh- nor’s head-quarters from Surat to Bombay. The two great 

teenth needs 0 f the time were a base of supplies on the mainland and 
century. suppression of piracy. The former object was attained in 
1733 by an alliance with the Sidls, but the pirates, though held 
in check, were not yet suppressed. The Maratha conquest of 
Bassein and Salsette {1737-9) put an end to the hostility of 
the Portuguese, but warned Bombay to strengthen its forces 
by sea and land against a more dangerous enemy. The town 
wall had been finished in 1718, and settlers again flocked in, 
especially from distracted Gujarat. 

The dockyards were extended under the superintendence 
of a ParsI { wadia 5 or ship-builder from Surat, Lowji Nasar- 
wanjl, who arrived in Bombay in 1736; a marine was estab- 
lished about the same date : a criminal court was created in 
1727, and a mayor’s court in 1728 for the settlement of civil 
disputes ; and a bank for the encouragement of trade and agri- 
culture was established in 1720. Severe measures were taken 
for the prevention of treachery, as evidenced by the historic 
trial and conviction of Rama Kamathl ; monetary loans were 
granted, and other conveniences afforded, to various classes, 
such as the weavers and small traders, whose settlement it was 
held desirable to stimulate. As a result, the population had 
expanded to 70,000 by the year 1744, and the revenues of the 
island had risen to about 16 lakhs as compared with about 
Rs. 37,000, which it had yielded to the Portuguese. The most 
notable building in the Fort at this time was St. Thomas’s 
Church, which was opened by Governor Boone on Christmas 
Day, 1718. 

1740-69. The defences of the town were further strengthened by reason 
of the French Wars (1744-8 and 1756-63), and the influx of 
settlers from the mainland made the question of supplies # as 
well as that of the protection of trade from piracy more press- 
ing. Both were in a measure secured by an alliance with the 
Peshwa, which resulted in the acquisition of Bankot (1755) and 



HISTORY 


219 


in the destruction of the pirate nest at Vijayadrug by a force 
under the command of Watson and Clive (1756). The occu- 
pation of Surat castle (1759) an ^ the capture of the forts of 
Malvan and Reddi (1765) were further steps taken in the in- 
terests of trade. This period witnessed the opening of two 
new docks at Bombay, one being completed m 1750 and the 
second in 1762, and a further increase in the number of vessels. 
Regulations were also passed for the preservation of good order 
on the island ; a town scavenger was appointed ; building rules 
were promulgated in 1 748 ; advances were made from the Land 
Pay Office to the poorer inhabitants whose dwellings had 
been destroyed by fire ; passage-boats between Bombay and 
the mainland were organized into a regular service; and a 
Court of Requests was instituted in 1753 for the recovery of 
debt. As a result, a very large increase of population took 
place ; and so many houses were built in the native town that 
many of them had eventually for safety’s sake to be removed. 

Grose referred in 1750 to the enormous amount of building 
which had taken place in the * oarts } ( gardens) and groves ; 
and new thoroughfares were continually being opened through- 
out the period. The old Government House at Parel is first 
spoken of in these years as £ a very agreeable country-house, 
which was originally a Romish chapel, belonging to the Jesuits, 
but was confiscated about 1719 for some foul practices against 
the English interest.’ The building has long been deserted 
by the Governors of Bombay, and is at present utilized as a 
laboratory for plague research. 

It was the wish to acquire Salsette as a defence and a base 1770-1817. 
of supplies that led the Bombay Council to enter the field of 
Maratha politics (1772). The history of the transactions that 
ended in the formation of the modern Presidency is dealt with 
elsewhere. (See Bombay Presidency, History.) In the island 
itself great improvements were made. A tariff of labour rates 
was formulated ; a better system of conservancy was enforced 
in 1777; hospitals, to which Forbes refers in the Oriental 
Memoirs , were erected in 1768 and 1769 ; an accurate survey 
of the land was carried out ; a proper police force was organized 
about 1780 in place of the old Bhandari militia; and in 1770 
the cotton trade with China was started, in consequence of a 
severe famine in that country, and an edict of the Chinese 
Government that a larger proportion of the land should be 
utilized for the cultivation of grain, The orderly extension of 
the native town was also taken in hand about 1770; crowded 
and insanitary houses were in many cases removed; the 



220 


BOMBAY CITY 


Esplanade was extended and levelled ; new barracks were built ; 
and every encouragement was given to the native community 
to build their dwellings at a greater distance from the Fort, 
The great Yellard, which takes its name from Governor Hornby 
(1771-84), was erected during this period, which, by uniting the 
southern boundary of Warli with the northern limit of Cumballa 
Hill, shut out the sea from the central portions of the island, 
and rendered available for cultivation and settlement the wide 
stretch of the flats. The traveller Parsons, who visited the 
island in 1775, speaks of the town as ‘nearly a mile in length 
from the Apollo Gate to that of the Bazar, and about a quarter 
of a mile broad in the broadest part from the bunder across the 
green to Church Gate, which is nearly in the centre as you walk 
round the walls between Apollo and Bazar Gates. Between 
the two marine gates is the castle, properly called Bombay 
Castle, a very large and strong fortification which commands 
the bay ; and the streets are well laid out and the buildings so 
numerous as to make it an elegant town.’ 

In 1798 the mayor’s court gave place to that of a Recorder, 
In 1800 this court was held in Governor Hornby’s house, which 
is familiar in these days as the Great Western Hotel ; and there 
Sir James Mackintosh, who succeeded the first Recorder in 

1802, used to decide civil and criminal suits. In 1793 the 
Governor and Members of Council were the only Justices of 
the Peace in Bombay, and in 1796 sat in a court of quarter 
sessions, inviting two of the inhabitants to sit with them. This 
system continued till 1807, when the Governor and Council 
were empowered to appoint a certain number of the Company’s 
servants or other British inhabitants to act as justices under 
the seal of the Recorder’s Court. Two notable events at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century were the famine of 

1803, which drove a vast number of people from the Konkan 
and the Deccan to seek employment in Bombay, and the great 
fire which broke out in the Fort in the same year. Though the 
damage done to house property was enormous, the conflagra- 
tion enabled the Government to open up wider thoroughfares 
in the most congested parts of the Fort ; and it acted as a great 
incentive to the native community to build their houses, shops, 
and godowns outside the Fort walls, and in those areas which 
are now the busiest portion of the city. The abolition of the 
Company’s monopoly of the Indian trade in 1813 led to a great 
increase in the number of independent European firms and 
largely improved the export trade in raw cotton* 

1818-39. The conquest of the Deccan in 1817-8 put an end to the 



HISTORY 


221 


Maratha troubles and transformed Bombay from a trading town Expansion 
into the capital of a large Province, The Recorder’s Court of Bombay 
was replaced in 1823 by the Supreme Court. The Borghat an?city. Cy 
road to Poona was opened in 1830, and a regular monthly 
mail service to England by the overland route was established 
in 1838. The same year saw the construction of the Colaba 
Causeway, which united the last of the original seven islets to 
the main island of Bombay, and was immediately followed by 
commercial speculation in recovering a certain portion of 
ground for building factories, wharves, and for the greater 
facility of mercantile operations. A new hospital was built in 
Hornby Row in 1825, a new Mint was opened in 1827, and the 
well-known Town Hall was completed after a series of vicissi- 
tudes in 1833. The Bishopric of Bombay was constituted in 
1835, an d i n 1838 $ e old church of St. Thomas became the 
cathedral of the diocese. 

The year 1840 marked the commencement of a period of 1840-70. 
progress and prosperity. The first sod of the Great Indian ^fboom 
Peninsula Railway was turned in 1850; the first 20 miles to Develop-* 
Thana were laid by 1853 ; and ten years later the Borghat 1 ? ent . of 
incline was opened. The Bombay, Baroda, and Central India e Cl y * 
Railway was completed from the north as far as Bombay in 
1864. In 1855 the first contract was made with the Peninsular 
and Oriental Company for a fortnightly mail service, which 
became weekly in 1857. The Austrian Lloyd, the Rubattino, 
and the Anchor lines at this time (1857) started regular services. 

The first Bank of Bombay was opened in 1840; and by i860 
there were at least six large banking corporations, all holding 
an assured position. Industrial enterprises and schemes, such 
as the Elphinstone Reclamation scheme, were promoted ; the 
great Vehar water-works were constructed ; the first tramway 
communications were opened in Colaba in i860; a scheme of 
drainage was formulated in 1861 ; and in 1857 the first spin- 
ning and weaving mill commenced to work. By i860 six more 
mills had been opened, and Bombay had become the great 
cotton market of Western and Central India. Between 1861 
and 1865 occurred the enormous increase in the cotton trade 
which was brought about by the outbreak of the Civil War in 
America. The supply of the American staple being suddenly 
cut off, Lancashire turned eagerly to Bombay for a substitute, 
and poured into the pockets of the mercantile community 
about 81 millions sterling over and above the former price for 
their cotton, An unexampled exportation of cotton continued 
as long as the war was carried on, 1 Financial associations/ as 



222 


BOMBA Y CITY 


Sir Richard Temple wrote in Men and Events of My Time in 
India , ‘ sprang up like mushrooms ; companies expanded with 
an inflation as that of bubbles ; projects blossomed only to 
decay.’ Suddenly, when commercial delirium was at its height, 
the American War ended. The price of Bombay cotton at 
once fell fast, and the whole elaborate edifice of speculation 
toppled down like a house of cards. Nevertheless the com- 
mercial stability of the city suffered no permanent damage, and 
modern Bombay was literally built up and established during 
those years. The wealth of the speculators of the early sixties 
was sunk in the engineering and reclamation schemes, which 
pushed back the sea and gave the island her splendid wharf 
accommodation. It was they who presented Bombay with her 
University Libraiy Buildings, the Rajabai Clock-tower, the 
Jamsetji Jijlbhoy School of Art, and the Mechanics’ Institute. 
The Government aided private enterprise in the task of beauti- 
fying and improving the island ; and it was during this period 
that those great schemes were formulated which have endowed 
the city with the unrivalled line of public buildings facing Back 
Bay, with the Elphinstone Circle, with admirable railway work- 
shops, with a fine dockyard at Mazagaon, with new police courts 
and lighthouses, with the Wellington Memorial Fountain and 
the European General Hospital. Room was made for many 
of these improvements by the demolition of the walls of the 
Fort in 1862. 

Great changes took place at this time in municipal adminis- 
tration. In 1858 a triumvirate of municipal commissioners 
was appointed for the control of urban affairs, which was suc- 
ceeded in 1865 by a body corporate composed of justices for 
the city and island, the entire executive power and reponsi- 
bility being vested in a commissioner appointed by Govern- 
ment for a term of three years. This system existed until 1872, 
when a new municipal corporation, consisting of sixty-four 
persons, all of them ratepayers, was established by law. Con- 
siderable progress was made in sanitation and communications. 
An efficient Health department was organized in 1865 ; many 
old and dangerous graveyards were closed between 1866 and 
1871 ; special committees were appointed to deal with the 
drainage question ; new markets were built, notably the Craw- 
ford Markets, which were opened in 1869 and form one of the 
most useful of all the public improvements executed in Bombay ; 
the water-supply of Vehar was increased; the TulsI water- 
works were commenced ; the Oval and Rotten Row were laid 
out as recreation grounds; and the reclamation of the flats 



HISTORY 


223 

with town-sweepings was after much discussion taken in 
hand. 

Between 1872 and 1881 railway communication was extended Develop 
across the continent of India and steam navigation along the ment up 
coast. The mill industry throve apace, and gave employment 
in 1882 to about 32,000 persons. The Tulsi water-works were 
completed in 1879; the Port Trust, established on the model 
of the Mersey Board in 1873, opened the Prince’s Dock in 
1880; new roads were constructed in various parts of the 
island; the lighting of the city was extended; the Victoria 
Gardens, the Elphinstone Circle Garden, and the Northbrook 
Garden in the poorer portion of the city were laid out between 
1873 and 1874; while in 1878 the municipality raised a loan 
of 27 lakhs for drainage purposes, and commenced the task of 
laying a new main sewer from Camac Bandar to Love Grove, 
and a new outfall sewer, pumping station, and pumping plant 
at Warli. The resources of Bombay were tested in 1878, 
when an expeditionary force was dispatched to Malta : within 
fourteen days after the receipt of orders the Bombay Govern- 
ment engaged 48,000 tons of merchant shipping and dispatched 
from the port 6,000 men and 2,000 horses with two months 5 
supplies of provisions and six weeks 5 supply of water. Again 
in 1899 the salvation of Natal directly resulted from the promp- 
titude with which Bombay carried out the embarkation and 
dispatch to South Africa of a large military force. 

The water-supply of the city was further improved by the 
opening of the Pawai works in 1889, and of the great Tansa 
works in 1891-2. Between 1872 and 1891 much attention 
was paid to education, with the result that the Census of 1891 
showed an increase of 46,000 in the number of literate persons. 

Schools for deaf-mutes were subsidized ; the Victoria Jubilee 
Technical Institute was founded by Lord Reay’s Government ; 
tramway communications were greatly extended ; a good fire 
brigade service was organized ; special cholera and small-pox 
hospitals were erected for the benefit of the poorest classes ; 
and the streets were cleared of lepers to a great extent by the 
opening of the Matunga Leper Asylum, in which the victims 
of this unsightly disease are so well cared for that they feel no 
temptation to stray away. The export and import trade showed 
a remarkable increase during the ten years prior to 1891, while 
the mill industry assumed such large proportions that legisla- 
tion for the regulation of female and child labour became 
imperative in 1890. Not only had sections of the city proper, 
such as Mandvi and Dhobi Talao, been choked with buildings 



224 


BOMBAY CITY 


in such a way that their original character was wholly oblite- 
rated ; but the northern sections of the island, such as Parel, 
Byculla, Tadvadi, Nagpada, and Chinchpugli, had expanded 
through the progress of industrial enterprise into the populous 
dwelling-places of a large immigrant population. 

The great influx of labourers which took place between i860 
and 1890 has been indirectly responsible for the continued 
presence and virulence of the plague, which broke out for the 
first time in 1896. The congested state of many streets, and 
the monstrous overcrowding of houses, which were erected 
to accommodate a great influx of population, have proved 
highly favourable to the spread of a disease which, for more 
than seven years, has played havoc with the cotton industry and 
with trade, and has raised the death-rate of the city and island 
to an alarming figure. It is the object of the City Improve- 
ment Trust, created by Lord Sandhurst’s Government, to open 
out such localities, and, by the erection of model dwellings for 
the artisan classes, to combat successfully the spread of evils, 
such as plague and phthisis, which at present flourish un- 
checked in the moist and infected air of the industrial 
quarters. 

Popula- At the time of the cession of Bombay to the English, the 

tion * population is stated by Dr. John Fryer in his New Account of 
East India and Persia (1698) to have been 10,000; and, ac- 
cording to Niebuhr, it had increased to 70,000 in 1744. In 
1780 a special committee, appointed to inquire into the price 
of food-grains, was furnished with a rough census of all resi- 
dents, which totalled 113,726. By 1814 this number had, 
according to a contemporary writer, risen to 180,000; and an 
estimate recorded in 1836 showed a further increase to 236,000. 
Ten years later the benefits of peace, growth of commerce, 
and improvement of communications had raised the total to 
566,119. On the initiative of Sir Bartle "Frere a properly 
organized census was for the first time taken in 1864, which 
recorded a total population of 816,562. This abnormal figure, 
which was mainly due to the extraordinary prosperity which 
Bombay enjoyed during the American War, decreased in 1872 
to 644,405 ; but the decrease was the natural outcome of the 
reversion of Bombay commercial life to its ordinary groove, and 
was in no wise permanent, as is apparent from the census 
figures of 1881 and 1891, which amounted to 773,196 and 
821,764 respectively. According to the Census of 1901 the 
population of the area administered by the Bombay munici- 
pality, which is coextensive with Bombay island, in an area of 



POPULATION 


22 5 


22 square miles, is 776,006 3 . This figure includes 37,681 
persons who are described as homeless, as the harbour popu- 
lation, or as travellers by the railway. The density of popula- 
tion per acre for the whole island is 51, but this figure varies 
largely in different areas. In Kumbarwada, for example, there 
are 598 persons to the acre, in Khara Talao 556, in Second 
Nagpada 546, in Chakla 472, and in Umarkhadi 460 ; whereas 
in Sion there are only 5 persons to the acre, in Siwri 20, in 
Mahlm 21, and in Warli 25. It will be apparent from these 
figures how suitable a field is afforded by the northern portions 
of the island for the wider and more healthy distribution of 
the inhabitants. The extension of electric traction, which 
the municipality is at present endeavouring to establish, will 
draw off the surplus population of the central portions of the 
city and lower the death-rate. The average population per 
inhabited house is 24-5 for the whole island, rising to 35 in 
B ward, which includes Chakla, Mandvi, Umarkhadi, and 
Dongri, and sinking to 15 in G ward, which comprises Mahim 
and Warli. The great poverty of the majority of the inhabi- 
tants is shown by the fact that 80 per cent, of the whole 
number occupy tenements containing only a single room, the 
average number of dwellers in such a room being about 5. 
Instances were discovered in 1901 of 39, 43, and 54 persons 
occupying and sleeping in a single room ; while three of the 
largest tenement houses in the central part of the island gave 
shelter to as many as 587, 663, and 691 individuals. The 
proportion of males in the total population is over 61 per cent 
The number of females to 1,000 males varies considerably by 
localities, there being 770 in Dongri and only 234 in the 
southern portion of the Fort. A very large proportion of the 
male inhabitants come to Bombay only for a few months in 
search of work, leaving their families in their native villages*. 
The number of children under one year of age had sunk in 
1901 to the very low figure of 9,900; but this was brought 
about by a high rate of mortality among infants since 1897 
and an abnormally low birth-rate. 

Before the outbreak of the plague in 1896 the average 
death-rate for the whole population was 24 per 1,000. Since 
1896 it has risen to 78. The birth-rate is as low as 14 per 
1,000; but this is no indication of the true natural increase, 
the majority of the population being immigrants whose women 
return to their homes at the time of maternity. 

Only 23 per cent, of the total population claim the island 

1 The population in 1906 was 977,822, according to a special Census* 

BO. I* Q 



22 § 


BOMBAY CITY 


as their birthplace; and the proportion of those born in 
Bombay is highest in sections like Dhobi Talao and Chakla, 
which are inhabited respectively by Parsis and Konkani 
Muhammadans, who are really indigenous. The District of 
Ratnagiri in the Konkan supplies Bombay with most of her 
jnill-hands and labourers, while Cutch and the Gujarat Districts 
furnish large numbers of the trading classes. 

Compo- Hardly any city in the world presents a greater variety of 

Bent races. na ti 0 nal types than Bombay. The Hindus and Muhammadans 
of course predominate, but in the busy streets the characteristic 
dress of every Oriental people may be seen. The green and 
gold turban of the Musalman, the large red or white head-dress 
peculiar to the Maratha, the pointed red turban of the Gujarati 
Bania, and the black or brown brimless hat of the Pars! lend 
colour and variety to the scene. In Dongri and Mandvi one 
meets members of well-known commercial classes, such as the 
Osval Jains ; in Chakla will be found the Konkani Muham- 
madans, a very rich and influential community, who trace 
their descent from the ancient 4 Nawaits,’ the children of Arab 
fathers and Hindu mothers, and who have gradually risen 
from the position of ships’ officers, sailors, and boatmen to 
that of prosperous and educated merchants. The Sidts, who 
are descended from the warriors of Sldi Sambhal and from 
Zanzibar slave immigrants, will be seen in the Umarkhadi 
quarter; the Bani-Israil, whose ancestors were wrecked off 
Chaul in the thirteenth century, are settled in the same 
neighbourhood , the Julahas, a poor and somewhat turbulent 
class of Muhammadan weavers, are met with in Nagpada ; the 
portion of Dhobi Talao known as Cavel shelters large numbers 
of Goanese and native Christians, who have regarded this 
locality as their stronghold since the era of Portuguese 
dominion; the unmistakable head-gear of the Arabs is con- 
stantly met with in Byculla; Parel and Nagpada are peopled 
by the lower and industrial classes from the Deccan and the 
Konkan ; while hidden away in many corners of the island 
are small groups of Kolis, the lineal descendants of the earliest 
Bombay settlers known to history. The Parsis exercise an 
influence much greater than is implied by their numbers. 
They began to settle in Bombay soon after the cession 
of the island to the English; and now by the force of their 
inherited wealth, their natural genius for trade, their intelligence, 
and their munificent charities, they hold high rank among 
the native community. Their position was recognized by the 
Crown when Sir Jamsetji Jljibhoy received a baronetcy in 



POPULATION 


227 


1857; and the representative of his family was chosen to 
represent the city of Bombay at the coronation of the King- 
Emperor in 1902. Next in importance to the Parsls are the 
Hindu traders or Banias, who may be divided into two classes, 
those of Gujarat and the Marwaris from Rajputana. A large 
proportion of both these classes adhere to the Jain religion, 
while not a few of the remainder belong to the Vaishnav sect, 
especially to the sub-denomination known as Vallabhacharyas. 

The Muhammadans include representatives from all the great 
countries that have embraced Islam— Arabs, Persians, Turks, 
Afghans, Malays, and Africans. The three classes of trading 
Muhammadans — the Memons, Bohras, and Khojas — are 
especially numerous. The spiritual head of the last-named 
community, His Highness the Aga Khan, was among the 
representative men invited to His Majesty’s coronation in 
1902. The commercial dealings of these three classes are 
chiefly with the Persian Gulf, Zanzibar, and the east coast of 
Africa ; but many of them do not shrink from visiting Europe 
for trade purposes, and are ready to take advantage of the 
improved means of communication now existing between 
Bombay and the rest of the world. The Parsls and Jews 
compete with the English in the markets of Europe. 

The following table gives the population of the city in 1901 Religion 
classified according to religion : — lan ~ 


Religion. 

Number. 

Percentage. 

Hindus .... 

508,608 

65-54 

Muhammadans . 

155.747 

20-07 

Christians .... 

45> i /6 

5-82 

Parsls .... 

46.231 

5 * 9 d 

Jains 

14,248 

1*83 

Jews ..... 

5,357 

.70 

Others .... 

639 

.08 

Total 

776,006 

300-00 


Some idea of the cosmopolitan character of Bombay can be 
formed from the fact that 62 different languages or dialects 
are spoken within its limits. Marathi and Gujarati are the 
most widely prevalent, the latter being the main commercial 
language of the island. A considerable number of Muham- 
madans are bilingual from an early age, speaking Hindustani 
in their homes but conducting their daily business in Gujarati. 
In the same way Gujarati and English are equally well-known 
to many members of the Pars! community. 

Of the total area of the island a considerable portion is still 
Q 2 




228 


BOMBAY CITY 


Cultiva- 

tion. 


Manufac- 

tures. 


cropped. The chief crop grown is rice; but many varieties 
of garden vegetables are also cultivated, particularly onions 
and several members of the gourd tribe. The tending of 
coco-nut trees, and the preparation of intoxicating drink from 
this tree and other species of palms, afford employment to 
a considerable section of the population. The original toddy- 
drawers of Bombay were the Bhandaris, who at present 
number nearly i tvooq persons ; but a large number of them 
discarded their hereditary pursuit in favour of military, police, 
and other duties during the eighteenth century, and they are 
found engaged at the present day in many different occupa- 
tions. The Bombay mangoes are said to have been improved 
from grafts by the Jesuits- and Portuguese priests ; and it was 
from the Mazagaon groves that the royal tables at Delhi, in 
the time of Shah Jahan, were- supplied. They have long been 
famous throughout India for their delicate flavour ; and there 
exist to this day in Mazagaon two- noted trees which bear 
a double crop of mangoes every year. The Bombay ‘pum- 
melo, 5 a shaddock which looks like a large orange, is also 
a favourite fruit. 

Bombay supports all the many industries incidental to the 
active life of a great city and seaport. The trades of dyeing, 
tanning, and metal-workmg are especially prosperous. The 
School of Art has done much to encourage those technical 
faculties which depend upon an artistic and scientific educa- 
tion ; and the work of its pupils, at the Art Exhibition held 
during the Delhi Darbar of 1903, earned very high approbation. 
But the characteristic feature of Bombay manufacture is the 
rapid growth of the European factory system — mills, worked 
by steam and employing a large number of operatives, having 
been erected by local capital, especially in the northern 
suburbs, where the tall chimney-stacks recall a factory town 
in Lancashire. Between 1881 and 1903 the total number of 
factories in the island rose from 53 to 143, the increase being 
mainly due to the construction and opening of new spinning 
and weaving mills; while the number of persons engaged 
in the manufacture and sale of cotton in 1901 was 131,796, 
or 17 per cent, of the total population, as compared with 
101,821 in 1891. This increase of the industry during the 
last decade has taken place in spite of very great disorganiza- 
tion caused by the plague, and in spite of a decline in the 
Chinese demand for Bombay's production. Since 1897 the 
mill industry passed through a grave crisis, resulting to some 
extent from an unsuitable and improvident system of manage- 



TRADE 


22 9 


ment. The better-conducted mills, however, such as those 
of the great Pars! capitalist, the late Mr. Jamsetjl N. Tata, 
have made and still continue to make a steady profit from their 
yarns and piece-goods. The industry has proved an inestimable 
boon to many of the poorer inhabitants of the Konkan and 
the Deccan, who, without the steady wages which it offers, 
might have fared ill during the famines of the last few years. 

At Matunga there are twenty-four salt-works, which yield an 
annual revenue of 17J lakhs. 

The latter half of the nineteenth century witnessed a Trade, 
remarkable development of the trade of the port. In 1854-5 
the whole trade of Bombay was valued at 16 crores, and twelve 
years later (1866-7) it rose to 47 crores. The yearly average for 
the succeeding five years was 51 crores. Between 1876-7 and 
1895-6 the total value of imports and exports, including the 
coasting trade, steadily increased from 6r crores to 105 crores. 

The constant demand from distant markets, coupled with 
a considerable improvement of communications, has brought 
about a rise under every head of imports and exports during 
the last twenty-five years, the most noticeable increase under 
the former category being in sugar and cotton manufactures, 
and under the latter in grain, cotton twist and yam. The 
total value of the sea-borne trade passing through Bombay 
in 1903-4 was 123 crores (exports 64 crores, and imports 
59 crores), of which 101 crores represent trade with countries 
beyond India. The chief exports are raw cotton, grain, seeds, 
cotton twist and yarn; the chief imports are cotton goods, 
metals, and machinery. The number of vessels, sailing and 
steam, which entered and cleared with cargoes from and to 
foreign countries at the port of Bombay in 1903-4 was 
1,607, Wlt b a tonnage of 2,764,303. (For further particu- 
lars of sea-borne trade, see the article on the Bombay Presi- 
dency.) 

Bombay possesses a Chamber of Commerce with 116 mem- 
bers representing 200 firms, and a committee of 12 elected 
annually, whose deliberations are presided over by a chairman. 

The Chamber is represented on the Legislative Council, the 
municipality, the Port Trust, and the Bombay Improvement 
Trust. There is also a special association for protecting and 
furthering the interests of the cotton industry, styled the Bom- 
bay Mill-Owners’ Association. Over 100 mills are represented 
on the general committee, and the opinion of the associa- 
tion therefore carries great weight on all questions connected 
with the industry. Founded in 1868, the association has 



230 


BOMBAY CITY 


Revenue 
and muni- 
cipal 
adminis- 
tration. 


Justice. 


witnessed an increase from 3 to 143 mills in the territory 
from which it draws its members. 

The Government land revenue, amounting to 3 lakhs annu- 
ally, is under the charge of an official styled the Collector 
of Bombay, who is a member of the Covenanted Civil Service, 
and also performs the functions of Collector of Opium and 
Abkari (Excise) and Income-Tax Commissioner. The Presi- 
dency Stamp and Stationery offices and the Steam-Boiler In- 
spection department are also in his charge, and he is assisted 
by one Indian Civilian, who is Chief Inspector of the nume- 
rous factories in the island. The administration of the Sea 
Customs is in charge of a Collector, aided by an assistant, 
both of whom belong to the Imperial Customs Department. 
The ordinary local administration is vested mainly in the 
Bombay municipality, which, as constituted by Act III of 
1888, consists of 72 members— 36 elected by the ratepayers, 
20 by the Chamber of Commerce, the University, and the 
Justices of the Peace, and 16 appointed by Government. The 
corporation thus constituted possesses extensive powers, and 
elects its own president and eight out of twelve members 
of a standing committee which deals with ordinary business. 
The other four members of this committee are appointed 
by Government. A chief executive officer, known as the 
Municipal Commissioner, is appointed by Government, usually 
from the ranks of the Indian Civil Service. The revenue and 
expenditure of the corporation is shown in the table on p. 236. 
The general tax which contributes a large proportion of the 
revenue consists of a tax on houses and lands, fixed at io| per 
cent, on the gross annual value of houses and lands, the | per 
cent, being devoted to the maintenance of a fire brigade. The 
tax produces an annual revenue of 25 lakhs, to which are added 
contributions of about one lakh and 2 lakhs paid respectively 
by Government and the Port Trust. The municipality has 
raised loans amounting in 1 904 to about 479 lakhs, mainly for the 
provision of an adequate water-supply and drainage works. 

Justice is administered by the Bombay High Court, which, 
in addition to the appellate and revisionary powers which it 
exercises throughout the Presidency, is a court of first instance 
for causes arising within the island of Bombay. A Small Cause 
Court and four Presidency Magistrates exercise jurisdiction in 
minor civil and criminal matters. The former takes cogni- 
zance of suits not exceeding Rs. 2,000 in value arising within 
the island. Four benches of honorary magistrates were estab- 
lished in 1903 to deal with minor misdemeanours. 



2 3 * 


POLICE AND JAILS 

The city police force, under a Commissioner, who is directly Police and 
subordinate to Government, consists of 2,126 officers and men, 

83 of whom are mounted. The force includes 72 Europeans. 

There are six Europeans in the sanitary police, a temporary 
body working under the Port Health Officer, but subordinate 
to the Police Commissioner as regards discipline and pro- 
motion. The Commissioner is assisted by a deputy and eight 
Superintendents. The municipal corporation pays a fixed con- 
tribution of 5 lakhs towards the cost of the force. There are 
two special jails in the city, called the House of Correction, 
which is at Byculla, and the Common Prison, at Umarkhadi. 

The question of constructing a new prison is under the con- 
sideration of Government. 

Bombay is the head-quarters of the Bombay brigade, which Military 
falls in the Poona division of the Western (Southern) Command, an6 marine, 
and is commanded by a Brigadier-General. The garrison con- 
sists of three companies of garrison artillery, one company 
of the submarine mining corps, one British and two Native 
infantry regiments 1 , and five corps of volunteers. The volun- 
teers comprise the Bombay Light Horse, the Bombay Volun- 
teer Artillery, the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Volunteer 
Rifles, the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway Volun- 
teers, and the Bombay Volunteer Rifle Corps, with an aggregate 
in 1906 of 1,043 men. In Bombay are also stationed the 
Director and Assistant Director of the Royal Indian Marine, 
which is the modem representative of the old Bombay Marine 
and Indian Navy. The Royal Indian Marine, which chiefly per- 
forms trooping, station, and marine-surveying duties, possessed, 
in 1906, eighteen vessels manned by 97 superior % officers, 71 
engineers, and 1,439 men > w ^ e a l ar g e number of men are 
also employed in the Government dockyard. 

The Port Trust, a small board of thirteen members repre- Port Trust, 
senting commercial and other interests, controls the adminis- 
tration of the port. It had in 1903-4 a revenue of over 64 
lakhs and a reserve fund of 27 lakhs. The Trust is respon- 
sible for carrying out improvements to the port, and has under 
contemplation the early addition of a third dock to the existing 
Victoria and Prince’s Docks, which no longer meet the require- 
ments of local shipping. The foundation stone of this, to 
be called the Alexandra Dock, was laid by His Royal High- 
ness the Prince of Wales in November, 1905. 

A similar board of fourteen members, constituted under the City Im- 
Govemment of Lord Sandhurst in 1898 and styled the Bombay ^ r ^ ment 
1 One of these is now quartered at Santa Cruz in Salsette. 



BOMBAY CITY 


Land 

revenue. 


Education. 


232 

City Improvement Trust, has, as already mentioned, been 
entrusted with the regeneration of the city by the construc- 
tion of new thoroughfares, the demolition of insanitary areas, 
the erection of sanitary quarters for the labouring classes, and 
the development of valuable sites for building. Its chief 
sources of revenue are an annual contribution from the muni- 
cipality and the income from valuable property assigned to 
it by Government. 

There are eight forms of land tenure existing in Bombay : 
namely, pension and tax, quit and ground rent, for as, toka > , 
leasehold, land newly assessed, tenancies-at-will, and inam. 
‘Pension and tax/ from the Portuguese fenfao, represents 
a fixed payment for fee-simple possession in compromise of 
a doubtful tenure, and dates from 1674. It is not subject 
to revision, and is redeemable on payment of thirty years’ 
assessment. ‘Quit and ground rent’ assessment represents 
a tax imposed in 1718 to cover the cost of erecting fortifica- 
tions, and varies from 3 to 5! pies per square yard. Foras 
lands are held on payment of a foras or rent, a term which 
now refers only to the rent paid on lands given out at 
a low rate to persons willing to improve them. The tenure 
dates from 1740, when low-lying land was offered to the public 
for cultivation at a rent or foras of 2 pies per 60 square yards. 
Toka represents a share of the produce of the land, the original 
payment in kind being subsequently replaced by a money payr 
ment, which in 1879-80 was fixed for fifty years. ‘Leasehold’ 
land is held for terms varying from 21 to 999 years. ‘Newly 
assessed lands’ are rated under Act II of 1876, and the 
rates may be raised from time to time. The chief holders 
of inam land in the island are the Lowjl family (1783) and the 
heirs of Jamsetjl BomanjI (1821). They pay no cess or rent 
of any kind. The land revenue of Bombay is collected under 
a special Act (Bombay Act II of 1876, modified by Act III of 
1900), and amounted in 1903-4 to 3-7 lakhs. The excise 
revenue, including tree tax, for the same year was 11*7 lakhs. 

Education was 'represented in 1 880-1 by 146 schools and 
colleges with a total of 16,413 pupils. In 1900-1 the number 
of pupils had risen to 40,104, By the close of March, 1904, 
the city possessed 531 educational institutions of all kinds, 
as detailed in the table on the next page. 

Of these institutions the Grant Medical College, which 
was established in 1845, prepares students for the degrees 
of L.M, & S. and M.D., and is the only college of its kind 
in the Presidency. The Elphinstone College was instituted in 



MEDICAL 


233 


1835 and is "under the management of Government. The 
Bombay Law School, which teaches the full course in Law, is 
held in the Elphinstone College building. Among other im- 
portant establishments are the Wilson College, St. Xavier’s 
College, the Sir Jamsetjl Jljlbhoy School of Art, the Victoria 
Jubilee Technical Institute, the Veterinary College, and 
a school for deaf-mutes. According to the Census of 1901 
the number of those who are wholly illiterate amounts to 81 
per cent, of the total population. 


Class of institutions. 

Number. 

Number of pupils. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Public. 

Arts colleges 

3 

1,086 

29 


Professional colleges . 

2 

1,027 

45 

1,072 

High schools 


8.495 

V73 

9,668 

3,630 

Middle English schools 

49 

2,687 

943 

Primary schools . 

196 

12,785 

6,193 

18,978 

Technical schools 

10 

1,283 

40 

1,323 

Training schools 

2 

13 

13 

Total public 

298 

27,363 

8,436 

35,799 

Private 

233 

7,912 

2,760 

10,672 

Grand total 

531 

35,275 

11,196 

46,471 


A vigorous English and vernacular press flourishes in News- 
Bombay. The Times of India and the Bombay Gazette , both P a P ers * 
of them daily journals, well edited and well informed, repre- 
sent the Anglo-Indian community \ and the Advocate of India^ 
an evening paper, is also widely circulated. The Bombay 
Samdchdr heads the list of vernacular newspapers, the most 
important of which are published in Gujarati. 

For purposes of health administration the city is divided Medical, 
into 4 divisions of 32 sections, each division being placed 
in charge of a qualified medical officer subordinate to the 
Health Officer of the municipality. The municipal hospital 
for infectious diseases at Arthur Road is supplemented by 
numerous private plague hospitals where members of the. 
different communities can be treated. Altogether there are 
12 hospitals, 17 dispensaries, and 19 private unaided institu- 
tions in Bombay, including a European General Hospital and 
4 hospitals and 2 dispensaries for women. The expendi- 
ture on public medical institutions in 1904 was Rs. 5,25,000 ; 
and the annual attendance was 18,304 in-patients and 184,058 
out-patients in the public institutions, and 1,355 in-patients 
and 191,865 out-patients in the 19 private institutions. Be- 




234 


BOMBAY CITY 


The 

plague. 


sides these, 3 railway institutions and 4 state special institu- 
tions annually treat 26,000 and 15,000 patients respectively. 
Under Act I of 1877 vaccination is compulsory in Bombay, 
There are 13 vaccinating stations with 8 vaccinators, and the 
number of persons vaccinated in 1904 was 19,927. 

A leper asylum at Matunga, established by the efforts of 
a former Municipal Commissioner, Mr. H, A, Acworth, pro- 
vides accommodation for 370 inmates at a yearly cost of 
Rs. 33,000. The lepers are mainly drawn from the neigh- 
bouring coast districts, though some come from remote towns 
in Central Asia. They are employed in cultivating food-crops, 
assisted by a system of septic sewage tanks, and the asylum is 
popular among those who are afflicted. 

A public lunatic asylum is maintained at Colaba Point 
for Europeans, Eurasians, and Parsis. It had in 1904 an 
average strength of 136 inmates, costing Rs. 307 per head 
per annum. 

On August 2i, 1896, a case of genuine bubonic plague 
was discovered in a house in Mandvi, a densely populated 
quarter of the native city on the east side of the island. 
The disease spread rapidly, and by December the mortality of 
Bombay had attained alarming dimensions. Measures were 
soon imperatively demanded for checking the epidemic. The 
control of these measures was entrusted to a special committee 
of officers appointed by Government and invested with very 
full powers. Attempts were then made to enforce the segrega- 
tion of persons who had been in contact with a plague patient, 
the removal of the patients to some properly equipped hospital, 
and the disinfection of clothing and premises. These measures 
were essentially unpopular, and besides adding a stimulus 
to emigration on a large scale, the population fleeing as 
much from an unreasoning fear of all forms of control as 
from terror of the epidemic, eventually led to riots and blood- 
shed. The position was one of extreme difficulty. The sani- 
tary service of the city was in the hands of halalkhors or 
scavengers. Had these joined the general exodus, the city 
would in a short time have been rendered uninhabitable. At 
the same time, the exodus of panic-stricken residents threat- 
ened to carry the plague over the whole of the Presidency 
and even beyond its limits. Attempts were made to enlist the 
co-operation of the leaders of native communities ; gradually 
calmer feelings began to prevail, and with the subsidence 
of the epidemic in the hot season, Bombay tended to resume 
its normal aspect. But in the interval the exodus had been 



MEDICAL 


2 35 


enormous (it was roughly estimated at one-half of the popula- 
tion), the disease had been spread far and wide by heedless 
fugitives, business had been brought almost to a standstill, and 
the weekly mortality had risen to the appalling figure of 1,900. 
Annually since the fatal year of 1896 plague has become 
epidemic in the city. The highest rates of mortality reached 
in any week during the succeeding years were : — 


1897-8 

• • • • 2,333 

1898-9 

. 2,413 

1899-1900 . 

• 2,772 

I 900-1 

. 2,632 

1901-2 

. 1,902 

1902-3 

. 2,613 

I 9 ° 3“4 

. 1,676 

190^5 . . 

. . . . 1,789 


The usual season of maximum mortality is February or 
March. Gradually it came to be recognized that the con- 
tinued existence of the plague, combined with the passive 
resistance of the people to measures which they failed to 
approve, rendered drastic expedients both undesirable and in- 
operative. After the abolition of the plague committee, the 
Government maintained for several years a specially organized 
plague administration in Bombay City, charged with the carry- 
ing out of moderate measures of disinfection and isolation, 
as far as possible with the concurrence of the victims. Assist- 
ance was given for the evacuation of seriously infected locali- 
ties by the erection of temporary c health camps ’ in various 
parts of the island. Finally, in 1901, the control of plague 
measures was handed over once more to the Health depart- 
ment of the municipality, with whom it now rests. The inocu- 
lation of healthy persons with Haffkine’s preventive serum was 
carried out on a considerable scale, and with fair success, 
though the operation, partly owing to the shortness of the 
period for which it offers protection, and partly owing to 
prejudice, was never popular. 

[ Census Reports for 1872, 1881, and 1901 ; Sir J. M. Camp- 
bell, Materials towards a Statistical Account of the Town and 
Island of Bombay (Bombay, 1894); S. M. Edwardes, The Rise 
of Bombay , a Retrospect (Bombay, 1902) ; J. Gerson da Cunha, 

1 The Origin of Bombay,’ extra number, Journal of the Bombay 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society , 1900; James Douglas, 
Bombay t . and Western India y 2 vols. (1893).] 



236 


BOMBAY CITY 


Revenue Account of Bombay Municipality for 1903-4 

(In thousands of rupees) 


Receipts. 

Expenditure 

Taxation Proper ; 

General tax 29,03 

Wheel tax and tolls . . 3 > 9 ^ 

Town duties . . .11,69 

Licences . . . .1,06 

Receipts from Government 
for liquor licences . . 1,44 

Receipts from Government 
for tobacco duty . . 2,40 

Total 49,60 

Services rendered, 

Halalkhor tax . . . 8,11 

Water-tax and other mis- 
cellaneous water-works 
revenue .... 15,71 

Total 23,82 

Returns from Property and 
Miscellaneous. 

Market receipts . . , 4,53 

Public gardens , . . 11 

Tramway rent . . . 50 

Contribution from municipal 
servants towards pension, 

&c., fund ... 23 

Interest and profit on 
investments of sur- 
plus loan and other 
balances . . 1,36 

Interest on the sink- 
ing, insurance, worn- 
out mains renewal, 
school-building, and 
net premiums funds 
investments . . 2,23 

3,59 

Miscellaneous . , , 2,34 

Total 11,30 
Grand total 84,72 

General superintendence . 2,34 

Assessment and collection 
and revenue and refund 
audit departments . . 2,99 

Fire brigade . . . 1,24 

Public gardens — mainte- 
nance and new works . 67 

Public works (engineer’s) 
department , . . 15,82 

New works ... 84 

Public health department . 19,79 

Police charges . . . 5,00 

Education . . . .1,13 

Hospitals . . . . 55 

Pensions, gratuities, and 
compassionate allowance 58 

Contribution to the City 
Improvement Trust . 3,50 

Total 54,45 

Municipal debt : — 

Interest and charges on 
loans .... 22,43 

Reduction of debt and pay- 
ment of sinking fund, in- 
cluding investment of in- 
terest accrued on smking 
fund .... 6,76 

Total 29,19 

Investments : — 

Municipal buildings insur- 
ance fund ... 5 

Interest on the insurance, 
'worn-out mains renewal, 
school-building, and net 
premiums fund . , 28 

Total 33 

Miscellaneous . . . 23 

Investment of the premium 
on the last instalment of 

3f lakhs of the 24! lakhs 
loan .... 11 

Grand total 84,31 



m 


NORTHERN DIVISION 

Northern Division. — The most northern Division of the 
Bombay Presidency proper, lying between i8° 53' and 23 0 
37' N. and 71 0 19' and 74 0 29' E., with an area of 13,710 
square miles. It comprises the Districts of Ahmadabad, 
Kaira, Panch Mahals, Broach, Surat, and Thana. It is 
bounded on the north by Rajputana ; on the east by the spurs 
of the Vindhyas, Satpuras, and Western Ghats; on the 
south by the Central Division and the Kolaba District of 
the Southern Division ; and on the west by Kathiawar and the 
Arabian Sea. The head-quarters of the Commissioner are at 
Ahmadabad city. It has a population of 3,513,532, of whom 
786,089 reside in urban areas. The population, which had 
increased by 9 per cent, between 1881 and 1891, decreased by 
10 per cent, during the next decade owing to the famine of 
1899-1900. The Division, though the smallest in the Presi- 
dency proper, is the most thickly populated (average density, 
256 persons per square mile). In 1901 Hindus numbered 
84 per cent, of the total, Musalmans 9 per cent., Jains 2 per 
cent., and Christians 2 per cent., while other religions included 
Sikhs (604), Buddhists (27), Parsis (22,543), Jews (609), and 
Animists (38,230). 

The population and revenue of the Division are shown 
below : — 


District. 

Area 
in square 
miles. 

Population, 

1901. 

Land revenue and 
thoSSds^of* rupees. 

Ahmadabad . 

3.81 6 

795.967 

16,45 

Kaira .... 

i ,595 

7 * 6,332 

22,74 

Panch Mahals 

1,606 

261,020 

3.54 

Broach .... 

1,467 

291,763 

2 3,45 

Surat .... 

1.653 

637.017 

25.49 

Thana .... 

3.573 

811,433 

16,14 

Total 

13.710 

3,513,532 

1,07,81 


The first five of these Districts are in Gujarat and are very 
fertile. The Division contains 47 towns and 4,950 villages. 
The largest towns are Ahmadabad (population, 185,889) and 
Surat (119,306). Other towns with a population over 20,000 












NORTHERN DIVISION 


Boun- 
daries, con- 
figuration, 
and hill 
and river 
systems. 


238 

are: Bandra (22,075), Broach (42,896), Godhra (20,915), 
and Nadiad (31,435). The chief places of commercial im- 
portance are Ahmadabad, Surat, and Broach. The Kanheri 
Caves in Thana District and the Musalman buildings at 
Ahmadabad are of great archaeological and historic interest. 
Dakor in Kaira District is an important place of pilgrimage. 

Under the supervision of the Commissioner of the Northern 
Division are the Political Agencies shown in the following 
table : — 


Agency. 

Name of State. 

Area in 
square 
miles. 

Population, 

1901. 

Gross 
revenue, 
1003-4, in 
thousands 
of rupees. 

Mahl Kantha 
Paianpur . 

Idar and 62 smaller States 
Paianpur, Radhanpur, and 

3 , 5*8 

361,545 

11,41 

RewaKantha 

8 small States 

Balasinor, Bariya, Chota 
Udaipur, Lunavada, Raj- 
pipla, Sunth, and 5 minor 
States and 2 thana circles 

8,000 

467,271 

13,12 

Kaira . 

Surat . 

of 50 talukas . 

4,980 

479,065 

21,07 

Cambay .... 
Bansda, Sachin, Dharampnr, 

350 

75 , **5 

5,54 

Thana. 

and the Dangs estate 

1,960 

179,975 

12,43 

Jawhar .... 

3 io 

47,538 

1,73 


Ahmadabad District. — District in the Northern Division 
' of the Bombay Presidency, lying between 21 0 26' and 23 0 37 ' 
N. and 71 0 19' and 73 0 27' E., with a total area of 3,816 square 
miles. It is bounded on the west and south by the peninsula 
of Kathiawar ; on the north by the northern division of Baroda 
territory ; on the north-east by Main Kantha territory \ on the 
east by the State of Balasinor and the District of Kaira ; and 
on the south-east by the State and Gulf of Cambay. The 
boundary line is irregular, and two portions, the Parantij taluka 
in the north-east and the Gogha petha in the south, are cut off 
from the main body of the District by the territories of native 
States. The compactness of the District is also broken by 
several villages belonging to Baroda and Kathiawar which lie 
within it, while several of its own are scattered in small groups 
beyond its borders. 

The general appearance of the District shows that at no very 
remote period it was covered by the sea. The tract between 
the head of the Gulf of Cambay and the Rann of Cutch is still 
subject to overflow at high tides. In the extreme south, and 
also just beyond the northern boundary, are a few rocky hills. 
But between these points the whole of the District forms a 




AHMADABAD DISTRICT 239 

level plain, gradually rising towards the north and east, its sur- 
face unbroken by any inequality greater than a sandhill. 

The chief physical feature is the river Sabarmati, which 
rises in the north-east, near the extremity of the Aravalli range, 
and flows towards the south-west, falling finally into the Gulf 
of Cambay. The river has three tributaries, the Khari, Meshwa, 
and Majham, which, with the Shelva and Andhari, all flow 
south-west. Flowing east from Kathiawar are the Bhogava, 

Bhadar, Utavli, Nilki, Pinjaria, and Adhia rivers. The waters 
of the Khari are diverted for the irrigation of more than 3,000 
acres by canals 16 miles in length. The only large lake in the 
District is situated in the south of the Viramgam tdluka , , about 
37 miles south-west of Ahmadabad city. This sheet of water, 
called the Nal, is estimated to cover an area of 49 square 
miles. Its water, at all times brackish, grows more saline as 
the dry season advances. The borders of the lake are fringed 
with reeds and other rank vegetation, affording cover to innu- 
merable wild-fowl. In the bed of the lake are many small 
islands, much used as grazing grounds during the hot season. 

In the north of the District, near the town of Parantlj, in a 
hollow called the Bokh (lit. a fissure or chasm), are two smaller 
lakes. Of these, the larger covers an area of about 160 acres, 
with a depth of 30 feet of sweet water; and the smaller, with 
an area of 31 acres, is 8 feet deep during the rains and cold 
season, but occasionally dries up before the close of the hot 
season. There are several creeks, of which the most important 
are those of Dholera, Gogha, and Bavliari. 

The District is occupied mostly by alluvial plains. The Geology, 
superficial covering of alluvium is, however, of no great thick- 
ness. The underlying strata probably include Tertiary and 
Cretaceous sediments, resting on a substratum of gneiss, and 
possibly slates. The Tertiary beds are probably all miocene, 
corresponding in age to the Siwaliks, and consist of sandstones 
or clays, with sometimes rubbly limestone. The underlying 
strata are probably the sandstones of the Umia group, of neo- 
comian or Lower Cretaceous age. Remnants of Deccan trap 
and Lameta (Upper Cretaceous) may occasionally intervene 
between the two formations. The Deccan trap is exposed in 
the western part of the Dhandhuka tdluka . The outlying 
tnahdl of Gogha in Kathiawar consists of Deccan trap, laterite, 
and Siwalik beds, the latter forming the island of Piram, 
renowned for its fossil bones and fossil wood. The saline earth 
in the west of Viramgam was at one time used for the manu- 
facture of saltpetre. 



240 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Botany. 


Fauna. 


Climate 
and tem- 
perature. 


Rainfall. 


History. 


The District as a whole is open and poorly wooded. The 
chief trees are mango, ray an [Mimusops hexandrd ), mahud , 
and mm (Melia Azadirachta). The Modasa hills bear inferior 
teak and bamboo, and also produce the khair , babul , pipal 
[Ficus religiosa)) bordi (Zizyphus Jujuba) y and khakra [Butea 
frondosa). Many of the trees and shrubs supply food, medi- 
cines, and materials for dyeing and tanning. Gum from the 
khair and babul is eaten by the poorer classes. Th t pipal and 
bordi yield a wax much used by goldsmiths for staining ivory 
rods, and the leaves are eaten by buffaloes. The berries of 
the mahud are boiled with grain, and the leaves of a creeper 
called dori [Leptadenia reticulata) form a favourite article of 
food with the Bhlls. From the seed of the mahud soap-oil 
is extracted. Of flowering plants the principal types are 
Hibiscus , Crotalaria y Indigofera ) Cassia , and Ipomoea. 

Tigers are almost extinct. Leopards are found in Modasa, 
and wolves in the low-lying salt lands near the Nal, Wild hog 
are common. Gazelle and barking-deer are also met with. 
The smaller kinds of game are obtained during the cold sea- 
son in great numbers, especially quail, duck, and snipe. Fish 
abound. 

Except in the southern tracts lying along the sea-coast, the 
District, especially towards the north and east, is subject to 
considerable variations of temperature. Between the months 
of November and February periods of severe cold occur, last- 
ing generally from two days to a week. During the hot 
months, from February to June, the heat is severe; and as 
the rainfall is light, the climate in the rainy season is hot and 
close. October is the most sickly month. The mean tempe- 
rature is 8i°, the maximum indoors being 115 0 and the mini- 
mum 47 0 . 

The rainfall varies but slightly between the central portions 
of the District and the outlying tracts. Dhandhuka and Gogha 
are the driest. The maximum average rainfall is 34 inches at 
Modasa, and the minimum 27 at Dhandhuka. The annual 
rainfall for the twenty-five years ending 1902 averaged 29 
inches. In consequence of the ill-defined channels of the 
western rivers and the low level of the ground in the lower 
course of the Sabarmati, the District suffers periodically from 
foods, the chief of which were recorded in the years 1714, 
1739, 1 868, and 1875. 

Although Ahmadabad District contains settlements of very 
high antiquity, its lands are said to have been first brought 
under tillage by the Anhilvada kings (a.d. 746-1298). Not : 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


241 


withstanding the wealth and power of these rulers and the 
subsequent Muhammadan kings of Gujarat, large portions of 
the District remained in the hands of half-independent Bhll 
chiefs, who eventually tendered their allegiance to the emperor 
Akbar (1572) when he added Gujarat to the Mughal empire. 

With the exception of Gogha, the present lands of the District 
were included in the sarkdr of Ahmadabad, which formed the 
head-quarters of the Gujarat Subak, some outlying portions 
being held by tributary chieftains; and after the capture of 
Ahmadabad by the Marathas (1753) the Peshwa and the 
Gaikwar found it convenient to continue this distinction be- 
tween the central and outlying parts. A regular system of 
management was introduced into the central portion, while 
the outlying chiefs were called on only to pay a yearly tribute, 
and, so long as they remained friendly, were left undisturbed. 

Until their transfer to the British in 1803, the position of the 
border chieftains remained unchanged, except that their tribute 
was gradually raised. The first British acquisition in the Dis- 
trict was due to the aggression of the Bhaunagar chief, who, 
intriguing to obtain a footing in Dholera, drove the people to 
seek British protection. The Bombay Government was im- 
plored for years to take possession of Dholera and to protect 
its inhabitants from aggression. In 1802 the offer was ac- 
cepted, the cession being sanctioned by the Gaikwar, then 
predominant in Gujarat as the Peshwa’s deputy. Sir Miguel 
de Souza was sent to examine and report upon this new 
possession, and he was of opinion that it would be of little 
value without the addition of other adjoining estates. These 
were also ceded, and in 1803 Dholka was handed over to the 
British for the support of a subsidiary force. The territory 
thus acquired remained under the Resident at Baroda till 
1805, when it was included in the charge of the newly ap- 
pointed Collector of Kaira. In 1818, in consequence of fresh 
cessions of territory, including the city of Ahmadabad, resulting 
from the overthrow of the Peshwa, Ahmadabad was made a 
separate District. 

The District is rich in Hindu and Musalman buildings of Archaeo- 
considerable architectural beauty, most of which are to be logy * 
found in Ahmadabad City and in its immediate vicinity at 
Sarkhej and Batwa. There are notable specimens of Musal- 
man architecture at Dholka and Mandal. A fine temple of 
Mahadeo, at Bhimnath in the Dhandhuka tdluka , has a mythi- 
cal origin connected with the Pandavas. At Adalaj, 12 miles 
north of Ahmadabad, is the finest step-well in Gujarat, 

BO. I, R 



The 

people. 


Castes and 
occupa- 
tions. 


242 NORTHERN DIVISION 

In 1857 the population of the District was estimated at 
650,223. At the last four enumerations it was: (1872) 
832,231, (1881) 856,119, (1891) 921,507, and (1901) 795,967, 
the decrease during the last decade being due to the severe 
famine of 1900 and to visitations of cholera. The distribution 
in 1901 was as follows : — 


Taluka. 

Area in square 
miles 

Number of 

Population 

Population per 
square mile 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write. 

T owns 

buo 

£ 

Viramgam . 

675 

3 

156 

113,103 

168 

- 26 

10,784 

Parantlj 


J 1 

120 

62,158 

194 

" 25 

4,000 

„ Modasa petha 

; 447 

« 1 

46 

24*595 

194 

- 26 

r ,995 

Sanand 

361 

1 

83 

63.053 

175 

— 22 

4,670 

Daskioi 

345 

1 

137 

314.719 

Q12 

+ 6 

47 . 37 2 

Dholka 

69O 

1 

Il6 

89,780 

I30 

- 24 

7,35 a 

Dhandhuka . 

l l. 2 nfi 

f 3 

141 

98,685 

99 

- 21 

12,329 

,, Gogha petka 


i 1 

63 

29,874 

- - 

99 

- 10 

2,243 

District total 

3,816 

12 

862 

795,967 

209 


90,745 


Of the total population, 665,762, or 84 per cent., are Hindus, 
and 87,183, or 11 per cent., Musalmans, the Christians num- 
bering 3,450- The language chiefly spoken is Gujarati, but in 
the towns Hindustani is generally understood. 

The chief towns of the District are : Ahmad abad, Viramgam, 
Dholka, Dhandhuka, Parantij, Dholera, Modasa, and 
Sanand. 

Among the Hindus, the merchant (Bania or Van!) class 
is the most influential ; but, contrary to the rule in other parts 
of Gujarat, the Shravak Banias, or Jain merchants, are wealthier 
than the Meshri Banias, or Brahmanical traders. The richest 
members of both classes employ their capital locally, supplying 
the funds by which the village usurers and dealers carry on 
their business. Those who do not possess sufficient capital 
to subsist solely by money-lending borrow at moderate rates of 
interest from their caste-fellows, and deal in cloth, grain, timber, 
or sugar. The poorest of all keep small retail shops, or move 
from place to place hawking articles required by the rural 
population for their daily consumption. Shravaks and Meshri 
Banias are also employed as clerks in Government or private 
offices. 

Although Ahmadabad is one of the first manufacturing 
Districts of the Presidency, the large majority of the people 
support themselves by agriculture. Among the Hindus, the 




AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


243 


chief cultivating classes are the Kunbls, Rajputs, and Kolls. 
There is also in most parts of the District, a sprinkling of 
Musalman cultivators or Bohras, as well as Musalmans of the 
common type. The Kunbls, who number 101,000, are an 
important class, many of them being skilled weavers and 
artisans, while some have risen to high positions in Govern- 
ment service, or have acquired wealth in trade; but the 
majority are engaged in agriculture and form the greater part 
of the peasant proprietors in Gujarat. There is no real differ- 
ence of caste between Kunbls and Patidars, though Patidars 
will not now intermarry with ordinary Kunbls. The latter 
are divided into three classes — Levas, Kadvas, and Anjanas. 
Female infanticide, owing to the ruinous expenses attached to 
marriage, having been found prevalent among the Kunbls, the 
provisions of Bombay Act VIII of 1870 were applied to the 
Kadva and Leva Kunbls. Two of the marriage customs of 
the Kadva Kunbls are deserving of notice. When a suitable 
match cannot be found, a girl is sometimes formally married 
to a bunch of flowers, which is afterwards thrown into a well. 
The girl is then considered a widow, and can now be married 
by the ndtrd (second marriage) form — a cheap process. At 
other times a girl is given to a man already married, his 
promise to divorce her as soon as the ceremony is completed 
having previously been obtained. The girl is afterwards given 
in ndtrd to any one who may wish to marry her. Next in 
position to the Kunbls are the Rajputs, who still retain to some 
extent the look and feelings of soldiers. They are divided 
into two classes : Girasias, or landowners, and cultivators. 
The former live a life of idleness on the rent of their lands, 
and are greatly given to the use of opium. There is nothing 
in the dress or habits of the cultivating Rajputs to distinguish 
them from Kunbls, though they are far inferior in skill and less 
industrious. Their women, unlike those of the Girasias, are 
not confined to the house, but help their husbands in field 
labour. The character of the Kolls, as agriculturists, varies 
much in different parts of the District. In the central villages 
their fields can hardly be distinguished from those cultivated 
by Kunbls, while towards the frontier they are little superior to 
those of the aboriginal tribes. Crimes of violence are occa- 
sionally committed among them ; but, as a class, they have 
settled down in the position of peaceful husbandmen — a 
marked contrast to their lawless practices of fifty years ago. 
After Kunbls, the chief castes of the District are Brahmans, 
43,000 ; Rajputs, 23,000 (excluding Girasias, 19,000) ; Vanls 

r 2 



244 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Christian 

missions. 


General 
agricul- 
tural con- 
ditions. 


Chief agri 

cultural 

statistics. 


or Banias, 29,000; Kolls, 188,000; and Dhers, 44,000, 
Mochls (leather-workers) and Kumbhars (potters) are also 
numerous. Jams, mainly Srlmalis, exceed 37,000. The 
Musalmans are chiefly Sunnis. 

There are 3,450 Christians, and missions are numerous in 
the District. The Irish Presbyterians have stations near 
Ahmadabad, Parantij, and Gogha, dating from 1861, 1897, 
and 1844. The Methodist Episcopalians and the Salvation 
Army are also at work, and there is a mission known as the 
Hope and Live Mission. The Salvation Army supports two 
industrial schools, one for girls at Ahmadabad and another at 
Daskroi, and a training home for women with 100 inmates. 
In Daskroi it maintains a farm of 400 acres, on which 
27 families are settled. Dholka and Sanand are stations of 
the American Christian Missionary Alliance, which has made 
640 converts and maintains an orphanage with 600 inmates at 
the former place. Of the 2,800 native Christians, 500 belong 
to the Anglican communion, 500 are Presbyterians, and 460 
Roman Catholics. A remarkable increase in converts, namely 
1,078, was noticed between 1891 and 1901. 

The two principal varieties of soil are black and light. In 
many parts of the District both occur within the limits of 
a single village, but on the whole the black soil is found 
chiefly towards the west, and the light-coloured soil in the east. 
With the help of water and manure the light soil is very fertile ; 
and though during the dry season it wears into a loose fine 
sand, after rain has fallen it again becomes tolerably compact 
and hard. Two other varieties of soil are less generally dis- 
tributed *, an alluvial deposit of the Sabarmatl river, the most 
fertile soil in the District, easily irrigated, and holding water at 
the depth of a few feet below the surface ; and, in the north- 
east, a red stony soil, like that of Belgaum in the south of the 
Presidency. 

The tenures of the District are chiefly talukdari or ryotwari , 
which form respectively 50 per cent, and 32 per cent, of the 
total area. About 6 per cent, is held as indm or jagtr land. 
The chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are shown in the 
table on the next page, in square miles. 

The chief crops are : wheat, covering 228 square miles ; 
jowdr, 380; bajra, 228 ; cotton, 480. The best rice is grown 
in Daskroi, and the next best in Sanand and Dholka. The 
cotton, which has a good staple, is mainly grown in the 
Dhandhuka and Dholka tdlukas . In Daskroi and Dholka 
many garden crops are cultivated. 



AHMAD AB AD DISTRICT 


2 45 


Taluka. 

Total. 

Cultivated 

Irrigated 

Cultnable 

waste 

Forests 

Viramgam 


472 

5 

3 ° 


Parantlj , 

447 

251 

8 

89 

20 

Sanand 

361 

285 

13 

3 ° 


Daskroi . 

345 

236 

20 

33 


Dholka . 

690 

498 

16 

4 ° 


Dhandhuka . j 

1,298 

721 

6 

8 

... 

Total 

3,816 

2 >463 

68 

230 

! 20 


* The area for which statistics are not available is 391 square miles 


The talukdars and mehwasi chiefs, who hold about half the improve- 
lands of the District, are deeply in debt. In consequence, me ° ts in 
the extension and improvement of agriculture are much tural^" 
neglected. During the decade ending 1903-4, 32*3 lakhs practice, 
was advanced to agriculturists for improvements and the pur- 
chase of seed and cattle, of which io| lakhs was lent in 
1899-1900 and 11*7 lakhs in 1 900-1. 

The local cattle are usually under-sized and weakly, but in Cattle, 
Dhandhuka the cows are exceptionally good milkers, yielding and 
as much as 16 pints a day. Bullocks of the Kathiawar and™™*' 
Kankrej breeds are owned by cultivators in Daskroi, Dholka, 
and Dhandhuka. Ahmadabad is one of the best pony-breed- 
ing Districts in the Presidency. Four stallions are maintained 
by the Civil Veterinary department ; and active, hardy ponies 
are also bred by Kabuli merchants from Kathiawar, Kabuli, 

Sindl, and Arab stock. Camels are reared by Rabaris, Rajputs, 
and Sindls in Daskroi, Viramgam, and Dhandhuka. 

The District is not favourable for direct river irrigation, as Irrigation, 
most of the rivers flow in deep narrow channels with sandy 
beds. At the same time there are many spots along the 
course of the Sabarmati, Khari, and Bhadar where, by means 
of a frame on the banks, water can be raised in leathern bags. 
Well-water is also used to a considerable extent. Irrigation 
from tanks and reservoirs is almost confined to the early part 
of the cold season, when water is required to bring the rice 
crops to maturity. In 1903-4, 68 square miles were irrigated, 
of which 50 square miles were supplied by wells, 7 by tanks, 

5 by Government works, and 6 from other sources. The 
Government irrigation works in the District are the Hathmati 
canal and the Khari cut, commanding respectively 29,000 and 
11,500 acres, with a capital expenditure up to 1903-4 of 5 
and 6 lakhs respectively. In all parts of the District, except 
in the west where the water is so salt as to be unfit even for 
purposes of cultivation, wells exist in abundance, and in most 




NORTHERN DIVISION 


Minerals. 


Arts and 
manufac- 
tures. 


Trade 

guilds. 


246 

places good water is found at a depth of about 25 feet. The 
District is also well supplied with reservoirs and tanks for 
storing water, not only near towns and villages, but in out- 
lying parts ; these cover an area of about 14,000 acres. 
Though in favourable years a sufficient supply of water is 
thus maintained, after a season of deficient rainfall many of 
the tanks dry up, causing much hardship and loss of cattle. 
In 1903-4 there were 18,706 wells, of which 15,763 were 
used for irrigation. About 170 tanks have been excavated by 
famine labour. There is little forest in the District, the land 
so classed being fodder and pasture reserves. 

The mineral products are veined agate and limestone. 
Iron-ore seems to have once been worked in Gogha. Portions 
of Dholera and Viramgam contain earth suitable for the pro- 
duction of saltpetre. 

Ahmadabad holds an important place as a manufacturing 
District. Except the preparation of salt, carried on near the 
Rann, most of its manufactures centre in Ahmadabad city. 
At Kharaghoda, about 56 miles north-west of Ahmadabad, 
are situated two salt-works, from which salt is distributed 
through Gujarat. A railway has been carried into the heart 
of the works, and a large store has been built at Kharaghoda. 
Minor depots have been constructed at Ahmadabad, Broach, 
and Surat. Other stations on the railway are supplied by a 
contractor. The salt is made from brine found at a depth 
of from 18 to 30 feet below the surface. This brine is much 
more concentrated than sea-water, and contains in proportion 
about six times as much salt. Saltpetre was once largely 
manufactured in the neighbourhood of the salt-works. The 
other manufactures are cotton cloth, silk, gold- and silver-work, 
hardware, copper- and brassware, pottery, woodwork, shoes, 
and blankets. The artisans of Ahmadabad city have enjoyed 
a high reputation for the skill and delicacy of their handiwork 
since the days of the Gujarat Sultans. Though in 1881 the 
number of mills was only 4, in 1904 there were 38 steam 
cotton-mills, with 632,630 spindles and 7,855 looms, producing 
45 million pounds of yarn and 28 million pounds of cloth. 
They employ 24,048 hands. There are also dye-works, a 
metal factory, a match factory, and an oil-mill. Ahmadabad 
city is at present second only to Bombay as a centre of the 
manufacture of cotton yarn and cloth. 

In consequence of the importance of its manufactures of 
silk and cotton, the system of caste or trade unions is more 
fully developed in Ahmadabad than in any other part of 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


247 


Gujarat. Each of the different castes of traders, manufac- 
turers, and artisans forms its own trade guild, to w T hich all 
heads of households belong. Every member has a right to 
vote, and decisions are passed by a majority. In cases where 
one industry has many distinct branches, there are several 
guilds. Thus among potters, the makers of bricks, of tiles, 
and of earthen jars are for trade purposes distinct : and in the 
great weaving trade, those who prepare the different articles of 
silk and cotton form distinct associations. The objects of the 
guilds are to regulate competition among the members, e.g. by 
prescribing days or hours during which work shall not be done. 

The decisions of the guilds are enforced by fines. If the 
offender refuses to pay, and the members of the guild all 
belong to one caste, the offender is put out of caste. If the 
guild contains men of different castes, the guild uses its influ- 
ence with other guilds to prevent the recusant member from 
getting work. Besides the amount received from fines, the 
different guilds draw an income by levying fees on any person 
beginning to practise his craft. This custom prevails m the 
cloth and other industries, but no fee is paid by potters, 
carpenters, and other inferior artisans. An exception is also 
made in the case of a son succeeding his father, when nothing 
has to be paid. In other cases the amount varies, in pro- 
portion to the importance of the trade, from Rs. 50 to Rs. 500. 

The revenue derived from these fees, and from fines, is ex- 
pended in feasts to the members of the guild, and in charity. 
Charitable institutions, or sadavart, where beggars are fed 
daily, are maintained in Ahmadabad at the expense of the 
trade guilds. 

From a. d. 746 to the close of the sixteenth century Ahmad- Commerce, 
abad was a great trading centre. With the rise of Surat it 
suffered a temporary decline, but under British rule its pre- 
dominance has been regained. The imports comprise sugar, 
piece-goods, timber, metal, grain, coco-nuts, and molasses; 
the exports are cotton, oilseeds, and grain. The trade is 
carried on both by coasting vessels and by rail, and is chiefly 
directed to Bombay through the ports of Dholera and Gogha. 

Before the introduction of railways, the main trade of Cen- Communi- 
tral India and Malwa passed through Ahmadabad, the chief 
articles being grain, ghi, molasses, tobacco, cochineal, iron and and roads, 
copper, silk and cotton, and cloth. The general means of 
transit included carts drawn by two or more pairs of bullocks, 
camels, and pack-bullocks. Fifty years ago there were no 
made roads in the District; and during heavy rains the 



248 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


country became impassable to carts, and traffic was suspended. 
At present the means of communication are three — by road, 
by rail, and by sea. Since 1870 many good roads have been 
constructed; and for internal communication, the common 
Gujarat cart drawn by two and sometimes four bullocks is still 
m use. In 1903-4 there were 124 miles of metalled roads 
and 337 miles of roads suitable for fair-weather traffic only. Of 
the former, 37 miles of Provincial roads and 66 miles of Local 
roads are maintained by the Public Works department. The 
remainder are in charge of the local authorities. Avenues 
of trees are planted along 285 miles of roads. The Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway runs through the District 
for a distance of 86 miles ; the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway 
for 7 miles; the Dhola-Wadhwan branch of the Bhavnagar- 
Gondal-Junagadh-Porbandar Railway for about 14 miles ; and 
the Mehsana-Viramgam branch of the Gaikwar’s Mehsana 
Railway for about 27 miles. Branch metre-gauge lines con- 
nect Ahmadabad city with Parantlj and Dholka, each traversing 
the District for 34 miles. 

Famine During the past two centuries and a half, seventeen years 

calamities! 1 ^ ave been memorable for natural calamities. Of these, three 
were in the seventeenth, seven in the eighteenth, and seven in 
the nineteenth century. The year 1629 is said to have been 
a season of great famine; and 1650 and 1686 were years of 
drought and scarcity. The years 1714 and 1739 were marked 
by disastrous floods in the Sabarmatl; 1718 and 1747 were 
years of scarcity, and 1771 was one of pestilence. In 1755 
extraordinarily heavy rains did considerable damage to the 
city of Ahmadabad. The famine which reached its height 
in r 790-1, and, from having occurred in Samvat 1847, is 
known by the name sudtdld , lasted through several seasons. 
In the nineteenth century the years 1812-3 were marked by 
the ravages of locusts, while 1819-20 and 1824-5 were years 
of insufficient rainfall. In 1834 the rainfall was again short, 
and the distress was increased by vast swarms of locusts. In 
1838 there was a failure of the usual supply of rain. In 1868 
a disastrous flood of the Sabarmatl occurred. In 1875 the 
city of Ahmadabad and the three eastern tdlukas were visited 
by extraordinary floods of the Sabarmatl ; two iron bridges and 
a large portion of the town were washed away, and through- 
out the District 101 villages suffered severely. 

In 1899-1900 the rains failed and the District was visited by 
severe famine. Relief works were opened in September, 1899, 
and continued till October, 1902, the highest daily average 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


249 


relieved on works being 1 47? 53 9 (April, 1900), and on gratui- 
tous relief, 98,274 (September, 1900). The maximum death- 
rate was 100 per r,ooo, and the population in the ten years 
between 1891 and 1901 decreased by 14 per cent. The cost 
of relief measures in the District during the famine exceeded 
78 lakhs, and 24 lakhs of land revenue was remitted. There 
was very great mortality in agricultural stock, which is estimated 
to have decreased by two-thirds. The September rains of 
1900 failed, and the distress was prolonged into 1901. The 
crops of the succeeding year promised well, but were destroyed 
by rats and locusts. Relief measures were again necessary, 
therefore, in 190 1-2, and were not finally closed until season- 
able rain fell in August and September of 1902. 

For administrative purposes Ahmadabad is divided into six District 
tdlukas : namely, Daskroi, Sanand, Viramgam, Dholka, Dhand- 
huka, and Parantij. Gogha is included in the Dhandhuka staff. 
tdluka, and Modasa in the Parantij tdluka. The supervision 
of these charges is distributed, under the Collector, between 
two covenanted Assistants and a Deputy-Collector. 

There is a District and Sessions Judge, whose jurisdiction Civil and 
extends also over the adjacent District of Kaira, and who is 
assisted by a Joint Judge, an Assistant Judge, a Judge of Small 
Causes, and five Subordinate Judges. The city of Ahmadabad 
forms a separate magisterial charge, under a city magistrate. 

The principal revenue officers are also magistrates. The com- 
monest offences are thefts of ripening grain in the harvest 
season, and housebreaking. Serious crimes of violence are 
rare. 

As compared with the other British Districts of Gujarat, an Land 
important peculiarity of Ahmadabad is the great extent of land 
held by the class of large landholders called tdhikddrs and tration. 
mekwdsi chiefs, who own more than half of the District. 

Their possessions comprise the border-land between Gujarat 
proper and the peninsula of Kathiawar. Historically, this 
tract forms 4 the coast, where the debris of the old Rajput 
principalities of that peninsula was worn and beaten by the 
successive waves of Musalman and Maratha invasion.’ But 
these estates are part of Kathiawar rather than of Gujarat. 

Their proprietors are Kathiawar chiefs, and their communities 
have the same character as the smaller States of that peninsula. 

The tdlukdari villages are held by both Hindus and Musalmans. 

Among the Hindus 'are the representatives of several distinct 
classes. The Chudasamas are descended from the Hindu 
dynasty of Junagarh in Kathiawar, subverted by the Musalman 



250 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Sultans of Ahmadabad at the end of the fifteenth century; the 
Vaghelas are a remnant of the Solanki race, who fled from 
Anhilvada when that kingdom was destroyed by Ala-ud-din in 
1298; the Gohels emigrated from Marwar many centuries- 
ago; the Jhalas, akin to the Vaghelas, were first known as 
Makwanas; the Thakardas are the offspring of Solanki and 
Makwana families, who lost status by intermarriage with the 
Rolls of Mahi Kantha. The Musalman families are for the 
most part relics of the old nobles of Ahmadabad. Besides 
these, a few estates are still held by descendants of favourites 
of the Mughal or Maratha rulers ; by Molesalams, converted 
Rajputs of the Paramara tribe, who came from Sind about 
1450 ; and by the representatives of Musalman officers from 
Delhi who obtained lands for service done to the Marathas. 
All Paramaras and Musalmans are called Kasbatis, or men of 
the kasha or chief town, as opposed to the rural chiefs. There 
are also other Kasbatis who say that they came from Khorasan 
to Patan, and received a gift of villages from the Vaghela 
kings. 

The talukdars are absolute proprietors of their estates sub- 
ject to the payment of the jama or Government demand, which 
is fixed for a term of years and is subject to revision at the 
expiry of the term. They cannot, however, permanently 
alienate any portion without the sanction of Government. 
In the course of time the estates have become so subdivided 
that in most villages there are several shareholders jointly 
responsible for the payment of the whole quit-rent. Under 
the shareholders are tenants who pay to the landlord a share 
in the crops, varying from 60 to 50 per cent. In 1862 special 
measures were adopted for the relief of many of the talukdars 
who were sunk in debt. As many as 469 estates were taken 
under the management of Government, and a survey was 
undertaken and completed in 1865-6, with the view of ascer- 
taining the area and resources of the different villages. The 
indebtedness of many of these landowners led to the appoint- 
ment of a special tdlukddri settlement officer, who is respon- 
sible for the administration of the encumbered estates. 

The original survey of the District in 1856-7 settled the land 
revenue at 8-7 lakhs. In 1893 a revised survey, which had 
been commenced in r888, raised the total demand by 2| lakhs. 
The present assessment per acre of ‘dry’ land averages Rs. 1-13 
(maximum Rs. 4-8, minimum Rs. 1-2) ; of rice land, Rs. 5-2 
(maximum Rs. 6, minimum R. 1); and of garden land, 
Rs. 8-4 (maximum scale Rs. 8, minimum Rs. 5). 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 251 

Collections of land revenue and of revenue from all sources 
are shown in the following table, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880-1, 

1S90-1 

1 900-1. 1 1903-4. 

Land revenue . 

Total revenue . 

i 

21,02 ] 

25.84 

21,39 

60,65 

9.S5 

52,54 

23.69 

67,34 


The first municipalities established in the District wereMunici- 
Gogha and Parantlj (1855). In the next five years Dholka, 
Ahmadabad, Viramgam, Modasa. and Dhandhuka were made boards 
municipal towns. The total revenue of the municipalities 
averages about 6 lakhs. There are a District board and six 
ialuka boards, with an income in 1903-4 of 2*4 lakhs, chiefly 
derived from the land cess. The expenditure amounted to 
2*2 lakhs, including Rs. 95,000 spent on roads, buildings, and 
water-works. 

The District Superintendent controls the police of the Police and 
District, with the aid of two assistants. There are 18 police i ails * 
stations and 33 outposts. The force in 1904 numbered 1,170 
men, inclusive of 248 head constables, under 3 inspectors and 
15 chief constables, being one to every 3 square miles or 
nearly 2 per 1,000 of the population. There is also a body 
of 26 mounted police, under 2 daffaddrs and 2 European 
constables. A Central jail at Ahmadabad city has accommo- 
dation for 929 prisoners, and 8 subsidiary jails and r 5 lock-ups 
are distributed throughout the District. The daily average 
number of prisoners in 1904 was 974, of whom 47 were 
females. 

Ahmadabad stands third among the Districts of the Presi- Education, 
dency as regards the literacy of its population, of whom 11*4 
per cent. (20*5 males and 1*7 females) were able to read and 
write in 1901. The number of schools increased from 193 
with 14,638 pupils in 1880-1 to 380 with 30,014 pupils in 
1900-1. In 1903-4 there were 401 schools with 31,460 pupils, 
including 56 schools for girls with 4,872 pupils. Of the 
323 institutions classed as public, 8 are Government, 61 are 
controlled by municipalities, 197 by local boards, 42 are aided 
from public funds, and 15 are unaided. These include one 
Arts college, 6 high schools, 18 middle, 294 primary, 2 training 
schools, one medical school, and one commercial institution. 
Ahmadabad City contains the Arts college, training colleges 
for male and female teachers, and a special school for the sons 
of Gujarat ialukddrs. The total cost of education is about 



252 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


3! lakhs, and the receipts from fees Rs. 70,000. Of the total 
expenditure, 53 per cent, is devoted to primary education. 
Hospitals Besides 5 private dispensaries, the District contains 3 hos- 
anddis- pitals (including a leper hospital) and 18 dispensaries, at 
pensaries r g^ 000 cases were treated in 1904, of whom 4,364 

were in-patients. The expenditure was Rs. 55,500, of which 
Rs. 17,000 was met from Local and municipal funds. A 
lunatic asylum at Ahmadabad city, opened in 1863, has 
accommodation for about 108 inmates. 

Vaccina- The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 
tlon * was 19,000, representing a proportion of 24 per 1,000, which 
is slightly below the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer , ■ vol. iv (1879).] 
Viramgam Taluka.— North-western taluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, lying between 22 0 48' and 23 0 37' N. and 
71 0 42' and 7 2 0 1 8' E., with an area of 675 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 113,103, compared with 152,022 in 
1891, the decrease being due to famine. The density, 168 
persons per square mile, is less than the District average. 
It contains three towns, Viramgam (population, 18,952), the 
head-quarters, Mandal (5,091), and Patri (5,544); and 156 
villages. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
2*3 lakhs. Except in the north, where the surface is broken 
by rolling sandhills, with patches of brushwood, Viramgam 
is a plain of thinly wooded light soil in the east, and of open 
black soil to the west and south, ending in the salt level of the 
Rann of Cutch. More than half of the total area is occupied 
by alienated and talukdari villages. The sandy tract in the 
north is inhabited by Rolls, who dislike regular work, though 
they have long ceased to be turbulent. 

Parantij Taluka, — Taluka of Ahmadabad District, 
Bombay, including the peiha (petty subdivision) of Modasa, 
situated m the extreme north-east of the District, and com- 
pletely surrounded by Native States. It lies between 23 0 3' 
and 23 0 36' N. and 72 0 44' and 73 0 27' E., with an area of 
447 square miles, and contains one town, Parantij (popu- 
lation, 8,175), the head-quarters, and 120 villages in the taluka 
proper, and one town, Modasa (7,267), and 46 villages in the 
petty subdivision. The population in 1901 was 86,753, com- 
pared with 1x6,140 in 1891, the decrease being due to famine. 
The density, 194 persons per square mile, is slightly below 
the District average. Land revenue and cesses in j 903-4 
amounted to 1-4 lakhs. From the north-east, lines of rocky 
bare hills gradually sink west and south into a plain, at first 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


253 


thinly wooded and poorly tilled, then with deeper soil, finei 
trees, and better tillage, till in the extreme west along the 
banks of the Sabarmati the surface is broken by ravines and 
ridges. In the east the staple crop is maize, and in the west 
millet. Garden cultivation is neglected. Water is abundant. 
The taluka is the healthiest and coolest part of the District. 
The rainfall is more certain than elsewhere, but the residents 
are extremely poor. 

Sanand Taluka. — Central taluka of Ahmadabad District, 
Bombay, lying between 22 0 47' and 23 0 7' N. and 72 0 5' and 
72 0 32' E., with an area of 361 square miles. It contains one 
town, Sanand (population, 6,783), the head-quarters; and 83 
villages. The population in 1901 was 63,053, compared with 
81,363 in 1891. The density, 175 persons per square mile, 
is less than the District average. Land revenue and cesses in 
1903-4 exceeded 2 lakhs. Except for an undulating strip of 
land on the west, Sanand forms the centre of a rich plain of 
light soil with well-wooded fields ; in the south and west is 
a bare stretch of black soil. 

Daskroi Taluka. — Head-quarters taluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, lying between 22 0 48' and 23 0 15' N. and 
72 0 28' and 72 0 50' E., with an area of 345 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 314,719, compared with 295,987 in 
1891. The taluka contains one town, Ahmadabad (population, 
185,889), the head-quarters; and 137 villages. Owing to the 
presence of the city, the density of population, 912 persons 
per square mile, is much higher than elsewhere. Land revenue 
and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to nearly 4-4 lakhs. The 
entire taluka , , except for a few gentle undulations in the east 
and south, is a uniform plain. It is crossed by the Sabarmati, 
Khari, and Meshvar rivers, but only in the extreme south are 
their waters used for irrigation. The soil is light, and varies 
from dry sand to rich loam. With good tillage and watering, 
the sandiest fields yield a large return to the husbandman. In 
the loops of land enclosed by the Sabarmati, patches of alluvial 
soil produce the finest sugar-cane and tobacco. The climate is 
hot and dry, and the rainfall averages 28 inches. 

Dholka Taluka. — Central taluka of Ahmadabad District, 
Bombay, lying between 22 0 24' and 22 0 52' N. and 72 0 1 ' and 
72 0 23' E., with an area of 690 square miles. It contains one 
town, Dholka (population, 14,971), the head-quarters; and 
1 16 villages. The population in 1901 was 89,780, compared 
with 118,032 in 1891, the decrease being due to famine. The 
density, 130 persons per square mile, is much below the Dis- 



254 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


tiict average. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to 3*2 lakhs. The taluka is a plain sloping south-west to the 
Little Rann. In the east, along the Sabarmati, the fields are 
hedged and the land is thickly planted with fruit trees. The 
south-west is a bleak country exposed to the biting winds 
of the cold season. The only river is the Sabarmati, The 
annual rainfall averages 34 inches. 

Dhandhuka Taluka.— Southern taluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, including the petty subdivision of Gogha, 
lying between 2 1° 26' and 22° 33' N. and 7i°i9'and 72°23 / E., 
with an area of 1,298 square miles. There are 3 towns, 
Dhandhuka (population, 10,3x4), the head-quarters, Dholera 
(7,356), and Ranpur (6,423), in the taluka proper, and one, 
Gogha (4,798), in the outlying petty subdivision, with 204 
villages in both. The population in 1901 was 128,559, com- 
pared with 157,963 in 1891, the decrease being due to famine. 
This is the most thinly populated taluka^ with a density of only 
99 persons per square mile. Land revenue and cesses in 1 903-4 
amounted to nearly 3-1 lakhs. The surface of the taluka is an 
open, treeless, black-soil plain, sloping gently towards the Gulf 
of Cambay. In the west is a tract of bare hills and rough 
valleys, with millet-fields and garden patches. Cotton is grown 
in the centre and wheat m the east. The water-supply is 
scanty. There are no large rivers, and the streams of the 
Bhadar and the Utavli lose themselves in marshes. Wells are 
few and irrigation limited. The climate is trying, except in the 
cold season. Rainfall varies from 18 to 58 inches. 

Ahmadabad City.— Chief city in the District of the same 
name, Bombay, situated in 23 0 2' N. and 72 0 35' E., 310 miles 
by rail from Bombay, and about 50 miles north of the head of 
the Gulf of Cambay. Ahmadabad possesses a station on the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, and is the 
junction between that line and the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, 
the metre-gauge line to Delhi. It is also the starting-point 
of the recently constructed feeder-lines to Parantij and Dholka, 
the former being the pioneer enterprise in railway construction 
with rupee capital in Western India. 

Popvla- In the days of its prosperity the city is said to have contained 

ton, a p 0 p U i a ^ 0n of about 900,000 souls ; and so great was its 
wealth that some of the traders and merchants were believed 
to have fortunes of not less than a million sterling, During 
the disorders of the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
Ahmadabad suffered severely, and in r8i8, when it came 
under British rule, was greatly depopulated. In 1851 it con- 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


2 55 


tained a population of 97,048, in 1872 of 119,672, in 1881 of 
127,621, and in 1891 of 148,412. The city is now the second 
largest in the Presidency, and has (1901) a population of 
185,889, including 4,115 in the cantonments. The Hindus, 
numbering 129,505, or 70 per cent, of the total, form the 
wealthiest and most influential class. The Jains, of whom 
there are 15,460, come next in the order of importance, being 
the wealthy traders, merchants, and money-lenders of the city. 

The Kunbl caste supplies a large proportion of the weavers 
and other artisans. Though the majority of Musalmans, who 
number 38,159, seek employment as weavers, labourers, and 
peons, there are a few wealthy families who trade in silk 
and piece-goods. Christians number 1,264. Ahmadabad is 
the head-quarters of the Gujarat Jain sect, who have upwards 
of 120 temples here. While in and around the city there is no 
place deemed holy enough to draw worshippers from any great 
distance, no less than twenty-four fairs are held, and every 
third year the Hindu ceremony of walking round the city 
bare-footed is observed. 

Ahmadabad ranks first among the cities of Gujarat, and is History, 
one of the most picturesque and artistic in the Bombay Presi- 
dency. The name of the present city is derived from its 
founder, Ahmad Shah, Sultan of Gujarat (1411-43) ; but 
before that date a city named Ashaval existed on the same site, 
attributed to Raja Karan, a Solanki Rajput of Anhilvada. 

It stands on the raised left bank of the Sabarmatl river, about 
173 feet above sea-level. The walls of the city stretch east 
and west for rather more than a mile, enclosing an area of 
about 2 square miles. They are from 15 to 20 feet in height, 
with fourteen gates, and at almost every 50 yards a bastion 
and tower. The bed of the river is from 500 to 600 yards 
broad ; but, except during occasional freshes, the width of the 
stream is not more than 100 yards. To the north of the city 
the channel keeps close to the right bank ; and then, crossing 
through the broad expanse of loose sand, the stream flows 
close under the walls, immediately above their south-western 
extremity. Ahmadabad is built on a plain of light alluvial soil 
or gorat, the surface within the circuit of the walls nowhere 
rising more than 30 feet above the fair-weather level of the river. 

From its position, therefore, the city is liable to inundation. 

In 1875 the floods rose above the level of a large portion, 
causing damage to 3,887 houses, estimated at about 5 lakhs. 
Beyond the city walls the country is well wooded, the fields 
fertile and enclosed by hedges. The surface of the ground is 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


Architec- 
ture and 
principal 
remains. 


256 

broken at intervals by the remains of the old Hindu suburbs, 
ruined mosques, and Musalman tombs. The walls of the city, 
built by Ahmad Shah, were put into thorough repair in i486 
by the greatest of his successors, Mahmud Shah Begara 

(i 4 S 9 “ I 5 II )j an(i in i 8 3 2 were a S ain restore<i under the Briti sh 
Government. In 157^ Ahmadabad was, with the rest of 
Gujarat, subjugated by Akbar. The emperor Jahangir spent 
some time here. During the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies Ahmadabad was one of the most splendid cities of 
Western India. There were, according to Firishta, 360 dif- 
ferent wards, each surrounded by a wall. The decay of the 
Mughal empire led to disastrous changes. Early in the 
eighteenth century the authority of the court of Delhi in 
Gujarat had become merely nominal ; and various leaders, 
Musalman and Maratha, contended for the possession of 
Ahmadabad. In 1738 the city fell into the hands of two of 
these combatants, DamajI Gaikwar and Momin Khan, who, 
though of different creeds, had united their armies for the 
promotion of their personal interests, and now exercised an 
equal share of authority, dividing the revenues between them. 
The Maratha chief having subsequently been imprisoned by 
the Peshwa, the agent of his Mughal partner took advantage of 
his absence to usurp the whole power of the city, but per- 
mitted Damaji’s collector to realize his master’s pecuniary 
claims. DamajI, on obtaining his liberty, joined his forces 
with those of Raghunath Rao, who was engaged in an expe- 
dition for establishing the Peshwa’s claims in Gujarat. In the 
troubles that followed, the combined Maratha armies gained 
possession of Ahmadabad in 1753. The city was subsequently 
recaptured by Momin Khan II in 1755-6, but finally acquired 
by the Marathas in 1757. In 1780 it was stormed by a British 
force under General Goddard. The place was, however, re- 
stored to the Marathas, with whom it remained till 1818, when, 
on the overthrow of the Peshwa’s power, it reverted to the 
British Government. 

The architecture of Ahmadabad illustrates in a very inter* 
esting manner the result of the contact of Saracenic with 
Hindu forms. The vigorous aggressiveness of Islam here 
found itself confronted by strongly vital Jain types, and sub- 
mitted to a compromise in which the latter predominate. 
Even the mosques are Hindu or Jain in their details, with 
a Saracenic arch thrown in occasionally, not from any con- 
structive want, but as a symbol of Islam. The exquisite open 
tracery of some of the windows and screens supplies evidence — 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


257 

which no one who has seen can forget— of the wonderful plas- 
ticity of stone in Indian hands. 

‘The Muhammadans/ says Mr. James Fergusson, ‘had here 
forced themselves upon the most civilized and the most essen- 
tially building race at that time in India ; and the Chalukyas 
conquered their conquerors, and forced them to adopt forms 
and ornaments which were superior to any the invaders knew 
or could have introduced. The result is a style which com- 
bines all the elegance and finish of Jain or Chalukyan art with 
a certain largeness of conception, which the Hindu never quite 
attained, but which is characteristic of the people who at this 
time were subjecting all India to their sway/ 

The following list gives the remains of most interest in the 
city and its neighbourhood : — 

i. Mosques. — (i) Ahmad Shah ; (2) Haibat Khan ; (3) Saiyid 
Alam ; (4) Malik Alam ; (5) Rani Asni (otherwise called Sipri, 
a corruption of Shehepari) ; (6) Sid! Saiyid ; (7) Kutb Shah ; 

(8) Saiyid Usmani ; (9) Mian Khan Chishti ; (10) Sldl Raslr ; 

(n) Muhafiz Khan; (12) Achhut Blbl; (13) Dastur Khan; 

(14) Muhammad Ghaus and the Queen’s and the Jama 
mosques. The Jama Masjid, finished in 1424 by Sultan 
Ahmad, is one of the most remarkable buildings of its class 
in India. It displays a skilful combination of Hindu and 
Muhammadan elements of architecture, and the broad court- 
yard, paved with marble and flanked by five domes, presents 
an imposing appearance. 

ii. Tombs.— (1) Ahmad Shah I ; (2) Ahmad Shah’s queen; 

(3) Darya Khan ; (4) Azam Khan ; (5) Mir Abu ; and (6) Shah 
Wazlr-ud-din. 

iii. Miscellaneous. — Ancient well of Mata-Bhawani at Asarva ; 
the Tin Darwaza or ‘Triple gateway’; the Kankaria tank, 
about a mile to the south-east of the city ; Harir’s well ; the 
Shahi Bagh ; Azlm Khan’s palace ; tombs of the Dutch, and 
the temples of Swami Narayan Hathisingh and Santidas ; the 
Chandola and Malik Shaban tanks. 

iv. Mausoleums in the neighbourhood. — (1) Sarkhej, about 
5 miles from Ahmadabad; (2) Batwa, about 6 miles from 
Ahmadabad ; and (3) Shah Alam’s buildings, situated half-way 
between Ahmadabad and Batwa. 

The peculiarity of the houses of Ahmadabad is that they are Dwelling- 
generally built in blocks or pols, varying in size from small il0nses ‘ 
courts of from five to ten houses to large quarters of the city 
containing as many as 10,000 inhabitants. The larger blocks 
are generally crossed by one main street with a gate at each 

s 


BO, I. 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


Munici- 

pality. 


Military. 


Arts and 
manufac- 
tures. 


258 

end, and are subdivided into smaller courts and blocks, each 
with its separate gate branching off from either side of the 
chief thoroughfare. 

The Ahmadabad municipality was established in 1857. It 
includes the two square miles of territory within the city walls 
and the railway suburbs outside, as well as the hamlet of 
Saraspur. Before the constitution of the municipality, a fund 
raised in 1830 and styled the ‘town wall fund* was available 
for municipal purposes. In 1903-4 the total income of the 
municipality (including loans) was nearly io| lakhs. The 
chief sources were octroi (Rs. 1,60,000), house and land tax 
(Rs. 42,000), water rate (Rs. 88,000), and conservancy (Rs. 
51,000). The total expenditure was Rs. 11,02,000, including 
administration (Rs. 54,000), public safety (Rs. 18,000), water- 
supply (Rs. 29,000), and conservancy (Rs. 1,06,000). In 1890 
an attempt was made to drain one of the more thickly popu- 
lated quarters on the gravitation system. After a compre- 
hensive scheme had been prepared by a European expert, 
the operations were gradually extended to about half the urban 
area, at a cost of 14 lakhs. The annual maintenance charges 
for the 28 miles of drains completed by 1906 exceeds Rs. 14,000, 
and are met by a drainage rate. A sewage farm of 353 acres 
is worked at a profit in connexion with the scheme. Prior 
to 1891 the water-supply of Ahmadabad depended upon wells, 
tanks, and a pump-service from the Sabarmati river, which, 
constructed in 1849 and improved in 1865, was situated in 
a somewhat insanitary portion of the city. The present works, 
which were opened in 1891 and were handed over to the 
municipality in the following year, cost nearly 8 lakhs, of which 
4| lakhs was contributed by Government. The head-works 
are situated at Dudheshwar on the left bank of the Sabarmati, 
about 2,000 yards north-west of the city, and comprise four 
supply-wells, a pump-well, and a high-level reservoir, the water 
being pumped from the wells by steam-power. The total 
length of the service is 82 miles, and the annual expenditure, 
which is met by a water rate, amounts to about Rs. 53,000. 

The cantonment is situated north of the city at a distance of 
3! miles, and close by, in the Shahi Bagh, is the residence 
of the Commissioner. The cantonment usually contains a 
battery of artillery, a few companies of British infantry, and 
a Native regiment, and has an income of Rs. 14,000. 

Ahmadabad was formerly celebrated for its manufactures in 
cloth of gold and silver, fine silk and cotton fabrics, articles of 
gpld, silver, steel, enamel, mother-of-pearl, lacquered ware, and 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


m 


fine woodwork. It is now the centre of a rising cotton-mill 
industry. The Dutch founded a factory in 1618, which was 
removed in 1 744. The building is now used by the Bombay 
Bank. No trace remains of the English factory founded in 1614 
by Aid worth. It is not mentioned in 1780 when the city was 
captured by General Goddard. The prosperity of Ahmadabad, 
says a native proverb, hangs on three threads, silk, gold, and 
cotton; and though the hand manufactures are now on a 
smaller scale than formerly, these industries still support a large 
section of the population. All the processes connected with 
the manufacture of silk and brocaded goods are carried on. 
Of both the white and yellow varieties of China silk the 
consumption is large. Basra silk arrives in a raw state. The 
best is valued at Rs. 18 or Rs. 20 a pound. Bengal silk 
fetches almost an equal price. Ahmadabad silk goods find 
a market in Bombay, Kathiawar, Rajputana, Central India, 
Nagpur, and the Nizam’s Dominions, The manufacture of 
gold and silver thread, which are worked into the richer 
varieties of silk cloth and brocade, supports a considerable 
number of people. Tin- and electro-plating are also carried 
on to some extent. Many families are engaged as hand-loom 
weavers working up cotton cloth. Black-wood carving is 
another important industry, and the finest specimens of this 
class of work may here be seen. 

The common pottery of Ahmadabad is far superior to most 
of the earthenware manufactures of Western India. The clay 
is collected under the walls of the city, and is fashioned into 
domestic utensils, tiles, bricks, and toys. To give the clay 
a bright colour the potters use red ochre or ramchi, white earth 
or khdri \ and mica or abrak, either singly or mixed together. 
No glaze is employed, but the surface of the vessels is polished 
by the friction either of a piece of bamboo or of a string of 
agate pebbles. A few of the potters are Musalmans, but the 
majority are Hindus. A considerable manufacture of shoes 
and leather-work gives employment to a large number. The 
manufacture of paper, which was formerly an industry of some 
importance, is declining; and the little paper now made is 
used exclusively for native account-books. 

The principal industry of Ahmadabad is the spinning and 
weaving of cotton yarn and piece-goods in factories. The 
first mill was opened 1861. By 1904 there were 34 mills, with 
about 569,000 spindles and 7,035 looms, employing 18,000 
to 20,000 persons daily, and representing a capital of 150 lakhs. 
Some of the finest cloth woven in Indian mills is made at 



260 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Education, 

&c. 


Ahmadabad, usually from imported yarn. In 1904 the mills 
produced 42 million pounds of yam and 26 million pounds of 
woven goods, largely for local consumption, though some part 
of the out-turn is exported. There are also an oil-mill, a match 
factory, and dye-works. 

Besides 89 private and public vernacular schools, the city 
has an Arts college with a law class attached to it. It also 
contains two training colleges, one for male and the other for 
female teachers, a medical school, and a commercial class. 
In i86r a law lectureship was founded in Ahmadabad, to 
which lectures in English, Sanskrit, logic, mathematics, and 
science were subsequently added ; but the classes were poorly 
attended and were closed in 1873. In 1879 the Gujarat 
College was reopened and affiliated to the Bombay University. 
Its average daily attendance is 143. In addition to the Gujarat 
High School, recently opened, there were in 1904 five high 
schools with 1,927 pupils, and six middle schools with 416 boys 
and 134 girls ; of the middle schools, three are girls’ schools. 
The city contains five printing presses, and four vernacular 
newspapers are issued. There are a Victoria Jubilee Dis- 
pensary for women, a leper asylum, a lunatic asylum, eight 
dispensaries, and the usual station hospital. There are five 
libraries in the city, of which the Hemabhai Institute with 
4,000 volumes is the best known. A club exists for the 
promotion of social intercourse between European and native 
ladies. 

[Hope and Fergusson, Architecture of Ahmadabad (1866) ; 
Rev, G. P. Taylor, ‘ The Coins of Ahmadabad,’ vol. xx of the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Branch (1900); 
Jas. Burgess, ‘Muhammadan Architecture of Bharoch, Cambay, 
Dholka, Champanlr, and Muhammadabad in Gujarat,’ vol. vi of 
the Archaeological Survey of Western India (1896).] 

Bavliari.— Seaport on the creek of the same name, in the 
Dhandhuka taluka of Ahmadabad District, Bombay, situated 
in 22 0 4' N. and 72 0 f E. Population (1901), 980. In 1903-4 
the imports and exports were each valued at 8 lakhs, the chief 
articles of trade being cotton, grain, ghi, piece-goods, coco-nuts, 
oil, molasses, and timber. 

Dhandhuka Town.— Head-quarters of the taluka of the 
same name in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, situated in 
22 0 23' N. and 71 0 59' E., on the right bank of the Bhadar, 
62 miles south-west of Ahmadabad city and 100 miles north- 
west of Surat. Population (1901), 10,314. The town lies 
in an open plain, exposed to the burning winds of the hot 



AHMAD AB AD DISTRICT 261 

season. The water-supply is extremely bad. Bohras and 
Modh Vanls form a large class of the population. Coarse 
cloth, pottery, and carpenters’ work are the chief industries. 
Together with Dholka, the town was ceded to the British in 
1802. The municipality, established in i860, had an average 
income of about Rs. 12,000 during the decade ending 1901. 
In 1903-4 its income was Rs. 16,000, including a grant of 
Rs. 5,000 for educational purposes. Dhandhuka is a place 
of some antiquity. In the twelfth century it rose to fame as 
the birthplace of the Jam teacher, Hemchandra, in whose 
honour Kumar Pal of Anhilvada raised a temple known as 
Vehar ( ‘ the cradle ’). The survey for a railway extension from 
Dholka has been made. The town contains a Sub-Judge’s 
court, a dispensary, and six schools, of which one is an English 
middle school for boys with 60 pupils and the remainder are 
vernacular schools, four for boys and one for girls, attended 
respectively by 465 and 120 pupils. 

Dholera (or Roha Talao). — Seaport in the Dhandhuka 
taluka of Ahmadabad District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 15' N. 
and 72 0 ii' E., in the peninsula of Kathiawar, 62 miles south- 
west of Amhadabad city. It is one of the chief cotton marts in 
the Gulf of Cambay. Population (1901), 7,356. Dholera was 
the first part of the District to come into British possession. 
It was surrendered by the proprietors in 1802 to save them- 
selves from the encroachments of the Bhaunagar chiefs, and 
was then a village of 300 houses, with no trade. Though 
called a port, the town of Dholera lies about 12 miles from the 
sea. The Bhadar or Dholera creek, on which it stands, is said 
to have been, a century ago, open for boats up to Dholera ; 
but for the last seventy years the creek has silted up and trade 
passes through two ports — Khun, about 5 miles lower down on 
the same creek, and Bavliari, on an inlet of the sea, about 
16 miles south. There is a lighthouse visible for 12 miles 
at the entrance to the creek. Dholera has given the trade 
name to a quality of cotton well-known in the European 
market. During the American Civil War (1862-5) it was the 
chief cotton port in Gujarat. Before Dholera became a muni- 
cipal town (1889), its conservancy and sanitary charges were 
met from the ‘Dharam Talao 5 fund, created about the year 
1818, for supplying water on the road to Dholera. The 
average income of the municipality during the decade ending 
1901 was nearly Rs. 9,000, the income in 1903-4 being 
Rs. 9,600. The town contains a dispensary and five schools, 
of which one is an English middle school for boys with 



262 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


28 pupils and the rest are vernacular schools, three for boys 
and one for girls, attended respectively by 350 male and 
152 female pupils. The sea-borne trade in 1903-4 was valued 
at 19 lakhs : imports 6 lakhs, and exports 13 lakhs. 

Dholka Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same 
name in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, and present terminus 
of the Ahmadabad-Dholka Railway, situated in 22°44' N. and 
7 2 0 27' E., 22 miles south-west of Ahmadabad city. Popu- 
lation (1901), 14,971. The extension of the railway to 
Dhandhuka is under consideration, and a survey has been 
made. Dholka is situated amidst ruined palaces, mosques, 
mausoleums, and spacious tanks embanked and lined with 
masonry. Though not regularly fortified, it is surrounded by 
a wall of mud 4 miles in circumference, and is probably one 
of the oldest towns in Gujarat. It is supposed, in the early 
Hindu period, to have been visited by the Pandavas, to have 
sheltered prince Kanaksen of the Solar race, and Minal Devi, 
the mother of Siddha Raja of Anhilvada (1 094-1 143), and to 
have been held by Yir Dhaval, the founder of the Vaghela 
dynasty (thirteenth century). During the Muhammadan period 
Dholka was the residence of a governor from Delhi, and it still 
contains the remains of many fine Musalman buildings. It 
was taken by the Marathas in 1736, came into the Gaikwar’s 
hands in 1757, and was eventually ceded to the British in 1804. 
The greater part of the inhabitants are Kasbatis (townsmen), 
the descendants of the soldiers of fortune who came with the 
Vaghelas when driven from Anhilvada by Khiljl Ala-ud-dln in 
1298. The municipality, established in 1856, had an average 
income of Rs. 15,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 17,000, derived chiefly from octroi 
(Rs. xx, 000). The town contains a Sub-Judge's court, a dis- 
pensary, a mission orphanage, and seven schools, of which 
one is an English middle school with 62 boys, one an English 
class with 4 boys attached to the mission orphanage, and five 
vernacular schools— four for boys with 899 pupils and one for 
girls with 15 1. 

Gogha.— Town in the Dhandhuka tdluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, situated in 21 0 41' N. and 72 0 17' E., in the 
peninsula of Kathiawar, on the Gulf of Cambay, 193 miles 
north-west of Bombay City. Population (1901), 4,798. About 
three-quarters of a mile east of the town is an excellent 
anchorage, in some measure sheltered by the island of Piram, 
which lies still farther east. It appears to have been known 
as the port of Gundigar in the days of the Vallabhi kingdom, 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


263 


and was mentioned by Friar Jordanus in 1321 as Caga. The 
natives of this town are reckoned the best sailors or lascars 
in India; and ships touching here may procure water and 
supplies, or repair damages. The roadstead is a safe refuge 
during the south-west monsoon, or for vessels that have parted 
from their anchors in the Surat roads, the bottom being a uni- 
form bed of mud, and the water always smooth. There is 
a lighthouse on the south side of the entrance, visible for 
10 miles. When the Dutch raised Surat to be the chief port 
of Gujarat, the Cambay ports w r ere more or less injured. 
Gogha has of late years lost its commercial importance. 
During the American Civil War it was one of the chief cotton 
marts of Kathiawar* It is now deserted, its cotton-presses idle, 
and its great storehouses ruinous and empty. Its rival, 
Bhaunagar, is ir miles nearer to the cotton districts, and has 
the advantage of railway communication. North of the town 
is a black salt marsh, extending to the Bhaunagar creek. On 
the other sides undulating cultivated land slopes to the range 
of hills, 12 miles off* South of the town is another salt marsh. 
The land in the neighbourhood is inundated at high spring- 
tides, which renders it necessary to bring fresh water from 
a distance of a mile. The town contains a Sub-Judge's court, 
a dispensary* and four boys’ schools, of which one is an 
English middle school with 18 pupils and three are vernacular 
schools with 230 pupils, including one girl. The municipality, 
established in 1855, had an average income of Rs. 4,000 
during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 its income was 
Rs. 5,800. The sea-borne trade of Gogha in 1903-4 was 
valued at Rs. 1,87,000: exports, Rs. 81,000; imports, 
Rs. 1,06,000. 

Kharaghoda* — Village in the Viramg§m tdluha of Ahmad- 
abad District, Bombay, situated in 23 0 N. and 71 0 50' E., on 
the border of the Little Rann of Cutch. Population (1901), 
2,108. At the time when Ahmadabad passed to the British, 
the eastern shore of the Little Rann contained five large salt- 
works in the possession of petty chiefs. These were gradually 
acquired by purchase between 1822 and 1840, and were subse- 
quently closed in 1875 in favour of a single manufactory at 
Kharaghoda. This, however, proved unequal to meeting the 
constantly increasing demand for salt; and in 1881-2 new 
salt-works were opened at Ooru, which is 6 miles north of 
Kharaghoda and is connected with it by a line of rail. In 
1904-5 the total out-turn of salt from these two works was 
2,545,521 maunds, of which 2,313,965 maunds were sold. 



264 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Kharaghoda is the head-quarters of two Assistant Collectors 
of Salt Revenue, of whom one is in charge of the works and 
the other of the preventive establishment which patrols a line 
extending from Dhanduka to Jamaiya. The town contains 
a dispensary, a library, a dharmsala , and a market ; and water 
is supplied by pipes from a tank built at a cost of 2§ lakhs 
about a mile to the north of the town. 

Mandal. — Town in the Viramgam tdluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, situated in 23 0 17' N. and 71 0 55' E., 15 
miles north-west of Viramgam station on the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway. Population (1901), 5,091. The 
municipality, established in 1889, had an average income of 
Rs. 5,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 5,230. The town contains some mosques of 
archaeological interest* notably, the Jama Masjid, the Saiyid 
Masjid, the KazI Masjid, and the Ganjni Masjid. It also 
contains a dispensary, and three boys’ schools and one girls’ 
school, attended respectively by 255 and 54 pupils. 

Modasa. — Town in the Parantij tdluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, situated in 23 0 18' N. and 73 0 18' E., on 
the Majham river, 52 miles north-east of Ahmadabad city. 
Population (1901), 7,276. Modasa occupies an important 
strategical position between Gujarat and the hilly tracts con- 
stituting the Native States of Idar and Dungarpur. In the 
reign of Sultan Ahmad of Gujarat (1411-43) it was a fortified 
post ; and at the close of the sixteenth century it was the chief 
place in a tract of 162 villages, yielding a revenue of 8 lakhs. 
It is an old town with several inscriptions. The chief indus- 
tries are dyeing, calico-printing, and oil-pressing. Mahud oil 
is exported for soap. There is a through camel traffic in raw 
cotton and opium with Malwa. Modasa was constituted a 
municipality in 1859. The income during the decade ending 
1901 averaged about Rs. 6,000, and in 1903—4 amounted to 
Rs. 6,800. The town contains a dispensary and five schools, 
of which one is an English middle school for boys with 22 
pupils, and four are vernacular schools— namely, three for boys 
with 392 pupils and one for girls with 86 pupils. 

Parantij Town (Pardntej).— Head-quarters of the tdluka 
of the same name in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, with a 
station on the Ahmadabad-Parantlj Railway, situated in 23 0 
26' N. and 72° 51' E., 33 miles north-east of Ahmadabad city. 
Population (1901), 8,175. Parantij is a prosperous town, and 
has been a municipality since 1855. The income during the 
decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 7,000, and in 1903-4 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


265 


amounted to Rs. 7,700. The chief exports are gkJ, grain, and 
leather. Formerly there was a considerable local soap industry, 
but this has now greatly decreased. The town contains 6 
schools, 5 for boys and one for girls, attended by 644 male 
and 109 female pupils. These include an English middle 
school with 19 pupils, and a mission orphanage with an indus- 
trial class attached to it. There is also a dispensary. 

Patri ( Fatdi ). — Town in the Viramgam tdluka of Ahmad- 
abad District, Bombay, situated in 23 0 ii' N. and 71 0 53' E., 
on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 58 miles 
west of Ahmadabad city, on a bare plain at the border of the 
Rann of Cutch. The town is surrounded by a wall and con- 
tains a strong castle. Population (1901), 5,544. The chief 
trade is in cotton, grain, and molasses. The town has a dis- 
pensary and two vernacular schools, one of which is for girls, 
attended by 242 and 128 pupils respectively. 

Piram (. Perim ). — Island in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, 
situated in 21 0 36' N. and 72° 21' E., in the Gulf of Cambay, 
4§ miles south of Gogha, and 2 J from the nearest part of the 
Kathiawar shore. Piram is a reef of rock covered in part by 
brown sand, its dimensions at high water being one mile by 
about half a mile. It is included in the estate of the Gogha 
Kasbatis, to whom it was assigned by one of the Delhi emperors. 
Except on the south, it is surrounded by rocky reefs rising to 
the surface from a depth of from 60 to 70 feet. Past the island 
the tide runs with extreme force. To avoid the chopping sea 
and sunken reefs, boats crossing from Gogha to Piram stand 
out as if making for Dehej Bara at the mouth of the Narbada. 
In the east of the island millet is grown and the low sand-hills 
are covered by asclepias. Beyond these are some riim trees 
( Melia Azadirachta) and a fringe of mangrove bushes. The 
island is uninhabited in the rains, but contains a few families 
of husbandmen and fishermen during the fair season. On the 
ruins of an old bastion there is a dioptric light of the fourth 
order, visible for 17 miles. 

Piram is the Baiones Island of the Periplus . Till the four- 
teenth century it would seem to have remained in the hands 
of Bariya Kolls. Then under their leader Mokharji, the Gohel 
Rajputs, who about a century and a half earlier had retired 
from Marwar to Gujarat, passed south from Ranpur near 
Dhandhuka and took Gogha and Piram. Strengthening him- 
self in his island fortress, Mokharji became a great pirate chief ; 
but his power was short-lived. About the year 1300 complaints 
of his piracies were laid before Muhammad bin Tughiak, who 



266 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


was then in Gujarat quelling a revolt. Advancing in person 
he attacked Piram, slew Mokharji, and took his fort. The 
island was then deserted, and an attempt to colonize and fortify 
it failed. The Hindu seamen of the Gulf of Cambay still 
cherish MokharjI’s memory, seldom passing Piram without 
making him an offering. Of his stronghold there remains, 
skirting the shore, a ruined wall, with, below high-tide level, 
a gateway ornamented by two rock-cut elephants to feet long 
and 8 or 9 feet high. No further attempt would seem to have 
been made to fortify Piram till, on the decay of Mughal power, 
about the middle of the eighteenth century, the ambitious 
Surat merchant Mulla Muhammad All built a fort on the island 
and tried to establish himself as an independent chief. Afraid 
of the climate his people forsook him, and the Mulla, giving 
up Piram, built a fort at Athva on the Tapti, a few miles below 
Surat. The lines of the Mulla’s fortress, from whose ruins the 
lighthouse tower was built, may be seen near the centre of 
the island stretching across its entire breadth. Besides traces 
of fortifications there are remains of temples, one of them with 
a rudely cut sitting figure of Buddha. The local story that 
Mokharji built a mole from the mainland to Piram has, per- 
haps, no better foundation than the half-sunk wall and gate- 
way and the reefs that, at low water, stand out like a giant’s 
causeway. 

Its large store of fossils gives a special interest to Piram. 
Besides masses of petrified wood, large quantities of animal 
remains were fo$nd in 1836. Almost all were embedded in 
the rock in the south-east corner of the island, where the sea 
washes bare the lower conglomerate. The remains are the 
same as those of Upper Sind and of the Siwalik Hills. Besides 
two titanic ruminants, apparently with no living types, named 
the Bramatherium and the Sivatherium, there are species of 
elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ox, antelope, several 
forms of crocodile, fresh-water tortoises, and fishes of gigantic 
size. 

Ranpur. — Town in the Dhandhuka taluka of Ahmadabad 
District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 21' N. and 71 0 43' E., on 
the north bank of the Bhadar river, at its confluence with the 
Goma. Population (1901), 6,423. On the raised strip of 
land between the two rivers is an old fort, partly in ruins. 
Ranpur was founded about the beginning of the fourteenth 
century by RanajI Gohil, a Rajput chieftain, the ancestor 
of the Bhaunagar family. Here his father SekajI had settled, 
and named the place Sejakpur ; but the son, having 



AHMADABAD DISTRICT 


267 


strengthened Sejakpur with a fort, called it Ranpur. Some 
time in the fifteenth century the ruling chief embraced the 
Muhammadan religion and founded the family of the present 
Ranpur Molesalams. About 1640 Azam Khan built the fort 
of Shahapur, whose ruins still ornament the town. In the 
eighteenth century Ranpur passed to the Gaikwar, and from 
him to the British in 1802. Ranpur is a station on the 
Bhavnagar-Gondal Railway. The municipality, established 
in 1889, had an average income of about Rs. 6,000 during 
the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the income amounted 
to Rs. 6,800. The town contains a dispensary and three 
schools, of which one is an English middle school with 
33 pupils, and two are vernacular, one for boys and one for 
girls, attended respectively by 317 and 125 pupils. 

Sanand Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, situated in 23 0 N. and 
7 2 0 23' E., on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Rail- 
way, 18 miles from Ahmadabad city. Population (1901), 6,783. 
It was formerly one of the capitals of the house of Koth. The 
municipality, established in 1885, had an average income 
of about Rs. 8,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 
1903-4 the income amounted to Rs. 8,500. The town con- 
tains three schools, two for boys and one for girls, attended 
respectively by 310 and 128 pupils, and including an English 
middle school with 25 pupils. 

Viramgam Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the 
same name in Ahmadabad District, Bombay, situated in 
2 3 0 7' N. and 72 0 3' E., on the Wadhwan branch of the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, and also the 
junction for the Gaikwar-Mehsana and the Kharaghoda sections 
of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Population (1901), 18,952. 
The town possesses two cotton-mills, and is the centre of the 
cotton and oilseed trade of the District. Viramgam has a 
municipality, established in 1857, with a revenue averaging 
about Rs. 35,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 
1903-4 the income amounted to Rs. 37,500, It is supplied 
with water chiefly from three reservoirs, of which the Mansar 
lake, built about 1090 by Minal Devi, the mother of Sidh 
Raja, king of Anhilvada (1094-1143), is the chief attraction 
of the place. It is bordered by numerous small shrines of 
architectural merit. Close by are two old temples devoted to 
Krishna and Mahadeo. The town contains a Sub-Judge’s 
court, two dispensaries, a high school with 49 pupils, and 
a middle school with 126 pupils, 



268 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Boun- Kaira District {Kheda).— District in the Northern Division 
d Tf ’ ra« of ttie Bomba y Bresi(ienc y» ty in g between 22 0 14' and 23 0 71' N. 
Eon, muT and 72 0 30' and 73 0 23' E., with an area of 1,595 square miles, 
hill and ft j s bounded on the north by Ahmadabad District, Mahi 
systems. Kantha, and the small State of Balasinor in the Rewa Kantha 
Agency; on the west by Ahmadabad District and the State 
of Cambay j on the south and east by the river Mahi and the 
Gaikwar’s territory (Baroda). The breadth of the District 
varies from 25 to 40 miles. 

Excepting a small corner of hilly ground near its northern 
boundary, and in the south-east and south, where the land 
along the Mahi is furrowed into deep ravines, Kaira forms 
one unbroken plain sloping gently towards the south-west. 
The north and north-east portions are dotted with patches 
of rich rice land, broken by untilled tracts of low brushwood. 
The centre of the District, called the charotar , or c goodly ’ 
land, is very fertile and highly cultivated ; the luxuriant fields 
are surrounded by high-growing hedges, and the whole country 
is dotted with clusters of large shapely trees. Westward, 
this belt of rich vegetation passes into a bare though well- 
cultivated tract of rice land, growing more barren and open 
to the south till it reaches the maritime belt, whitened by 
a salt-like crust, on the Gulf of Cambay. 

The Mahi, the largest river of Kaira, and the third in 
importance of the Gujarat rivers, flows for nearly 100 miles 
along the east, south-east, and south boundary of the District. 
This 100 miles may be divided into three sections : first 
a stretch of 40 miles over a rough and rocky bed, then 
10 miles of a still stream with a sandy bed, and lastly 45 miles 
of a tidal river. The fords in the District are at Kavi, Dehvan, 
Gajna, Khanpur, and Ometa. At Verakhandi, the limit of the 
flow of the tide, the bed is in the dry season 500 yards wide, 
the stream 120 yards, and the average depth 1^ feet. A small 
"bore’ rises in the estuary at springs and dashes itself on the 
Dehvan. The SabarmatI, the fourth largest river in Gujarat, 
flows for 14 miles along the western boundary, and is much 
used for irrigation. The Shedhi, the chief drainage line of 
the plain between the Mahi and the SabarmatI, being charged 
with soda, is not adapted for irrigation. The Khari, one of 
five smaller streams, waters a large area by means of canals 
and sluices, but fails at the end of the rice season, that is to 
say about November, 

Geology. The District has not yet been geologically surveyed in any 
detail. The Kaira plain is, with the exception of the few 



KAIRA DISTRICT 


269 


sandy hills and rocks in Kapadvanj and Thasra, a deep bed 
of alluvium, most of it the debris of the gneiss and meta- 
morphic limestones of the Aravalli Hills. In the raised tract 
along the banks of the Mahi, water is found only at a depth 
of from 80 to no feet. Away from the river, wells have their 
springs from 40 to 60 feet deep, rising through strata of earth 
mixed with limestone nodules, alternating with sand overlying 
layers of limestone. From this limestone, when tapped, water 
rises to within 25 feet of the surface. The age of these 
strata is not known. They may be Tertiary or Cretaceous. 
Formerly, in parts of the District, water was to be found 
at a higher level. Many old wells are said to have been made 
useless by the earthquake of 1819, which lowered all the 
springs from 5 to 10 cubits. In some cases deeper sinking 
has overcome the evil ; in others, a fine stratum of quicksand 
makes farther cutting dangerous. The hot springs of Lasundra, 

10 miles south-east of Kapadvanj, rise to the surface in ten 
or twelve cisterns, the hottest reaching a temperature of 115 0 . 

Like those at Tuva in Godhra, 20 miles to the south-east, and 
at Anaval, 150 miles south, the Lasundra springs are slightly 
sulphurous, and thought to be useful in skin diseases. 

The District has no forests or forest lands, the trees either Botany, 
standing singly or in small groves. In the north the mahua 
(Bassia laiifolia ), and in the south the mango and the limbdo or 
mm (. Melia Azadirachta\ are the commonest kinds, while the 
custard-apple, sitaphal (Anona sqttamosa ), is abundant all over 
the District. The ray an ( Mimusops hexandra :), the kanaj( Ulmus 
integrifolia ), the karanj or kaniji (. Pongamia glabra\ and the 
aduso (Ailanthus excelsa ) also occur freely distributed. Man- 
goes are sent in considerable quantities to*Baroda, Ahmadabad, 
and Kathiawar. During the hot season the fieshy corolla of 
the mahua flower is eaten by the poorer classes and by cattle, 
and from it is distilled a favourite liquor. Mixed with whey, 
the berries of the rayan form, during the hot season, the 
staple food of a large section of the Koli population. 

Tigers and leopards, which haunted the bed of the Mahi Fauna, 
till a few years ago, are now rarely heard of, owing to the 
spread of tillage and their pursuit by European sportsmen. 
Hyenas, jackals, foxes, wild hog, antelope, gazelle, and hares 
are common. Of game-birds, snipe, quail, and many species 
of duck abound ; while geese, bustard, partridge, and florican 
may occasionally be shot. Poisonous snakes are common. 
Mahseer and other fresh-water fish are caught in the waters 
of the larger rivers. 



2)0 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Climate To Europeans the climate is trying. From November to 

and tem* March the air is pleasant and bracing. By the people of the 

perature. Strict the c h aro t a r or central portion is considered healthy. 

Rainfall. The rainfall varies but slightly in different parts of the District. 
The annual fall is 38 inches in the Nadiad, Borsad, and Anand 
talukas, while it averages about 34 inches over the whole 
District. The average temperature is 82°, the maximum 
being 116 0 and the minimum 43 0 . 

History. Kaira District is made up partly of lands acquired from 
the Peshwa in 1802 by the Treaty of Bassein, partly of 
territory transferred by the Gaikwar of Baroda in 1803 and 
1817. Rajputs reigned in Kaira from 746 to 1290, and, 
excepting perhaps Thasra and Kapadvanj, the District formed 
part of the directly managed portions of Anhilvada, At the 
end of the fourteenth century Kaira passed to the Muham- 
madan kings of Ahmadabad, and in 1573 was transferred to 
the Mughals. In 1720 the Marathas appeared, and from that 
time to the fall of Ahmadabad in 1752 the District was the 
scene of perpetual struggles between the Marathas and the 
Muhammadan viceroys. The Marathas were victorious, and 
in 1753 the District was shared between the Peshwa and the 
Gaikwar. Part of Kaira came into British possession in 1803, 
and the rest in 1817. Under the terms of the Treaty of 
Bassein (December 31, 1802), the Napad group of villages 
was handed over by the Peshwa. In 1803 the Gaikwar ceded 
Nadiad, Matar, and Mahudha, as well as the fort and town 
of Kaira, for the maintenance of troops supplied by the British 
Government. Again, by treaty dated November 6, 1817, the 
Gaikwar ceded Mehmadabad, Alina, Thasra, Antroli, and 
half of the town and district of Petlad to provide for the 
payment of additional troops. At the same time, Kapadvanj 
and Bhalaj were received in exchange for the district of 
Bijapur in Northern Gujarat. 

The territories acquired in 1803, together with Dholka, 
Dhandhuka, Ranpur, and Gogha, which now form part of 
Ahmadabad District, remained in charge of the Resident 
at Baroda from the date of their cession till May, 1805. 
During this time a European Assistant and native officers 
administered, according to local usage, the police and justice 
of the country. In 1805 a Collector was appointed, with 
jurisdiction over the ceded tracts, both those to the north 
of the Mahi and those to the west of the Gulf of Cambay. 
In the same year the town of Kaira was selected as a large 
military station. The increase in the British possessions 



KAIRA DISTRICT 


271 


consequent on the treaty of November, 1817, necessitated 
fresh administrative arrangements. The territory north of the 
Mahl was, from January 1, 1818, divided into the two Districts 
of Kaira and Ahmadabad. In 1830 Kapadvanj was included 
in Ahmadabad, and Kaira became a sub-collectorate under 
the Collector of Ahmadabad. In 1833 Ahmadabad and Kaira 
were again separated. Since then, more than once, villages 
have been transferred from one District to the other, and the 
original irregular groups and collections of villages have been 
gradually consolidated into seven taluhas . 

Throughout the District are Hindu and Musalman buildings Archaeo- 
of interest. The rauza of Mubarak Saiyid (died a. h. 966) logy * 
at Sojale is one of the finest of the latter. Kapadvanj contains 
some buildings of great antiquity : a beautiful arch described 
by Forbes in his Rds Mala , , a kund or basin of consecrated 
water, a mosque, and a well ; and an underground temple of 
Mahadeo which has recently been explored for the first time. 

It is also remarkable for a fine Jain temple recently built. 

In 1846 the population of Kaira District was returned at The 
566,513. By 1872 it had risen to 782,938. In 1881 the P eo P le - 
population was 805,005; in 1891, 871,794; and in 1901, 
716,332. The decrease of 18 per cent, during the last decade 
was due to the famine and cholera of 1899-1900. The 
District is divided into 7 tdlukas, with area and population 
(1901) as given in the following table 


Taluka. 

Area in square 
miles. 

Number of 

Population. 

Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write. 

Towns. 

Villages. 

Kapadvanj . 

m 

I 

87 

75 , » 5 ? 

270 

- 26 

5:591 

Mehmadabad 

171 

2 

66 

75.926 

444 

- 18 

7,007 

Thasra . 

*57 

I 

96 

73.98o 

288 

— 22 

6,154 

Matar . 

216 

I 

Si 

61,522 

285 

— 22 

4 : 884 

Nadiad 

224 

2 

9 1 

148,452 

663 

- 13 

i 6 ,oqo 

Anand . 

244 

3 

85 

143,305 

§87 

- l6 

18,336 

Borsad . 

204 

I 

92 

137,889 

673 

- 15 

12,631 

District total 

1,595 

II 

598 

726 , 333 

449 

- 18 

70,702 


The number of towns in the District in 1901 was 11, and 
of villages 598. The chief towns are Nadiad, Kapadvanj, 
Kaira (the head-quarters), Anand, and Mehmadabad. 
Owing to the large fertile areas which the District comprises, 
it is the most thickly populated in the Presidency. The most 
populous talukas are Nadiad, Borsad, and Anand. Gujarati 




272 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Castes and 
occupa- 
tions 


Christian 

missions. 


is the vernacular. Classified according to religion, Hindus 
in 1901 numbered 614,146, or 85 per cent, of the total; 
Muhammadans, 68,187, or 9 per cent.; Christians, 25,210; 
Jains, 8,469 ; and Parsls, 209. 

The following castes are of importance : Brahmans, 38,000 ; 
Vanis, 22,000; Rajputs, 21,000; Chamars, 13,000; Kunbls 
(agriculturists), 127,000; Kolls (agriculturists), 252,000; Dhers 
or Mahars, 21,000. The Muhammadans include 16,000 
Pathans and 10,000 Bohras. 

The Lewa and Kadva Kunbls are the best farmers in the 
District, and a sober, peaceable, and industrious race. The 
Kunbls of certain villages are held in honour as descended 
from the leading men among the original settlers in Gujarat. 
The Rajputs, with the exception of a few who, with the title 
of Thakur, still retain landed estates, have sunk into the mass 
of ordinary peasant proprietors. The Kolls number 252,000, 
or 35 per cent, of the total population. Idle and turbulent 
under native rule, they are now quiet, hard-working, and 
prosperous. Among Hindu low castes, the Dhers are dis- 
tinguished for industry and good behaviour. They formerly 
lived in comfort by weaving coarse cotton cloth, but the com- 
petition of the Bombay and local mills is now shutting them 
out of the market Of the Musalman population, about one- 
third, under the name of Saiyids, Shaikhs, Pathans, and Mu- 
ghals, represent the foreign conquerors of Gujarat. The 
remainder, called Momnas, Bohras, Tais, and Ghanchis, are 
the descendants of Hindus converted to Islam under the 
Ahmadabad kings. Musalmans of the first class, employed 
chiefly as cultivators or in Government service as police or 
messengers, are for the most part poor. Musalmans of the 
second class are artisans, chiefly weavers and oil-pressers, and 
are hard-working and well-to-do. Most of the population are 
dependent on agriculture, which supports 67 per cent, of the 
total. General labour supports 4 per cent, and the remainder 
are distributed between commerce and trade, personal service, 
&c. Over 15,000 are engaged in cotton-weaving. 

At the Census of 1901 the native Christian population of 
the District was returned at 25,131, showing an increase of no 
less than tenfold since 1891. This may to some extent be the 
result of conversions to Christianity during the famine; but it 
is noteworthy that the Salvation Army has been active in 
Kaira for some years, and that a large number of the Christians 
are Salvationists, mainly converted from the lowest classes. 
Besides the Salvation Army, the following missions are at 



KAIRA DISTRICT 


273 


work m the District : the Irish Presbyterian, with stations at 
Borsad and Anand, which maintains 2 Anglo-vernacular and 
46 vernacular schools, 4 orphanages, and a hospital at Anand, 
and has settled 14 colonies of converts on waste land procured 
from Government ; the Methodist Episcopal at Nadiad, which 
maintains 165 sehools, an industrial school, an orphanage, and 
a dispensary, and which undertook extensive relief operations 
in the famine of 1900; the Christian Alliance in the Matar 
taluks which maintains 9 schools and an orphanage and 
industrial school at Kaira ; and the Roman Catholic at Anand, 
which maintains 19 schools, an industrial school, and an 
orphanage and dispensary. The Salvation Army maintains 
112 schools and a well-equipped hospital at Anand, which is 
very popular among all classes. Khasivadi, ‘the beautiful 
garden,’ in Borsad town was the first to show a leaning towards 
Christianity, two families having been converted there in 1847. 

There is an English church at Kaira known as St. George’s 
Church, established about 1825. 

The soil belongs to four classes : light, medium, black, and General 
alluvial, with subordinate varieties. The light soil is the most ^f^on- 
common, varying in quality from the loose-grained yellow sand ditions. 
of the fields near the Sabarmati and the Mahi, to a rich lighter 
mould common in the central tdlukas , and found to perfection 
in the south-west comer of Matar. The medium soil is fairly 
well distributed over the whole District. The black soil of 
Kaira is poor and generally contains either soda or limestone. 

Alluvial soil or bhdiha is found near the Vatrak river and is a 
rich garden mould. 

The greater part of the land of the District is ryotwdri Chief agri- 
(1,075 square miles, or 88 per cent, of the total area), about 
7 per cent, being held on udhad or quit-rent tenure The main and princi- 
statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are shown in the following P al cro P s * 
table, in square miles : — 


Taluka. 

Total 

area. 

Cultivated 

Irrigated. 

Cultivable 

waste, 

Kapadvanj . 

279 

182 

2 

45 

Mehmadabad 

171 

131 

5 

13* 

Thasra . 

257 

I41 

I 

5 

52 

Matar . 

216 

I 4 I 

3 

34 

Nadiad . 

224 

I 9 I 

10 

6 

Anand . 

244 

196 

4 

2 t 

Borsad . 

204 

149 

12 

1 

Total 

1.595* 

1,131 

37 

153 


* The area for which statistics are not available is 129 square miles, 
bo. 1. j 




274 NORTHERN DIVISION 

The chief crops, with the area under each in square miles 
(1903-4), are : bdjra (313), kodra (162), rice (u$\jowar (91), 
and wheat (18). 

Cotton is grown in small patches (10 square miles). The 
finest tobacco in Western India is grown in Kaira, occupying 
24 square miles, mostly in the Nadiad, Borsad, and Anand 
talukas \ but the cultivators, though skilful in rearing the plant, 
know nothing of its preparation for the European market. 
Two varieties of tobacco are grown, the talabdi or local plant 
and the khdndeshi or plant introduced from Khandesh. An 
irrigated field yields twice as large a crop as a dry one. About 
the beginning of July, as soon as the first rain has fallen, the 
seed is sown in a well-prepared plot of ground, and after about 
a month and a half the seedlings are ready for transplantation. 
The field is scored in squares by a heavy, long-toothed rake, 
and at each point of intersection a seedling is set. The plant 
takes about five and a half months to ripen. As soon as it 
is ready, it is carefully examined, and divided into two classes, 
kdlio and jar do ; the kdlio is cut down, stalk and all, and laid 
out to dry ; the jardo is left a little longer, and then the leaves 
are stripped off the stem. A moth caterpillar is the chief 
enemy of the plant. Tobacco-growing is a costly process, and 
can be undertaken only by substantial cultivators. It has been 
calculated that the cost of growing an acre of plant is Rs. 270, 
and the profit Rs. no. Cotton is grown only from the local 
plant, and occupies every seventh furrow in fields sown with 
ordinary grain crops. 

Improve- Several attempts have been made to improve the Kaira 
“ cotton, but without success. Indigo was once one of the chief 
tnral exports from Gujarat, but by 1827 it had almost ceased to be 
practice, produced. A later attempt to encourage the growth in Kaira 
was attended with failure. A Government silk garden was 
started in 1837, but was closed in 1847. The Nadiad Agri- 
cultural Association's small experimental farm has been re- 
moved to Kamta, and has practically been handed over to the 
department of Agriculture, which has enlarged its scope and is 
providing new buildings. Numerous experiments in the culti- 
vation of tobacco and other staple crops of the District have 
been made. It has been ascertained in the course of these 
experiments that a better yield of tobacco is obtained by grow- 
ing it continuously instead of in rotation, that deep tillage 
increases the out-turn, and that Sumatra tobacco cannot be 
grown. The desi or local tobacco stands first in quality and 
quantity, and the Belgaum varieties second, During the ten 



KAIRA DISTRICT 


275 


years ending 1903-4, a total of 19-8 lakhs was advanced to 
cultivators under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists* 

Loans Acts, of which 7*7 lakhs was lent in 1899-1900, and 
8*8 lakhs in 1900-1. 

Cattle are imported from Kathiawar and Kankrej in Northern Cattle and 
Gujarat. Some of the largest used to be bred in the District P onles * 
at Bhalaj, and many villages of the Nadiad taluka are famous 
for their bullocks. Ponies are bred in the District, but they 
are not suitable for cavalry remounts. Two Government pony 
stallions are maintained by the Civil Veterinary department. 

Of the total cultivated area of 1,131 square miles, 37 square Irrigation, 
miles, or 3 per cent., were irrigated in 1903-4. The chief 
sources of irrigation are it minor works, 10,886 wells, and 
1,391 tanks. The wells most commonly in use are deep, 
shallow wells being found only in the Matar taluka. The 
water is drawn up by bullocks in four leathern bags working 
simultaneously. The ponds are used for irrigating rice lands. 

After the close of the cold season few of them hold any large 
supply of water. The Khari sluice system irrigated nearly 
8,800 acres in 1903-4. In r 902 large reservoirs were constructed 
at Goblaj, Tranja, Nagrama, and Vangroli by famine labour. 

Iron ore was at one time worked in the neighbourhood of Minerals. 
Kapadvanj. In the bed of the Majam river, about 1 5 miles 
from Kapadvanj, are found varieties of agate and moss-stone. 

The bed of the Mah! contains masses and boulders of trap; while 
on its upper course, on the Balasinor frontier, rock is plentiful, 
including trap, with occasional limestone, quartz, and granite. 

The opening of steam factories at Ahmadabad and at Nadiad Arts and 
has greatly reduced the demand for hand-spun cotton, once a ^* fac " 
staple. The water of the District is thought to be especially 
good for dyeing purposes. Soap and glass are manufactured at 
Kapadvanj. A steam spinning mill, established at Nadiad in 
1876 at a cost of about 5 lakhs, has 14,568 spindles, which 
turn out over a million pounds of yam, and employ 584 
persons. Considerable quantities of coarse cloth for home 
consumption are woven in hand-looms by the lower castes of 
Hindus. In the larger towns calico printing is carried on by 
classes known as Bhavsars and Chhlpas. 

The chief exports are cotton prints, grain, tobacco, butter, Commerce, 
oil, and mahud flowers; the chief imports are piece-goods, 
grocery, molasses, and dye-stuffs. Kaira is particularly noted 
for its ghi or clarified butter, the export of which is valued at 
8 lakhs. The gM when made is forced into large leathern 
bottles holding from 60 to 2 qo lb. 



2j6 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Communi- 
cations. 
Railways 
and roads. 


Famine. 


In 1884 there was only one made road in the District. 
There are now 166 miles of metalled and 19 of unmetalled 
roads. Of the former, 33 miles of Provincial roads and 123 
miles of local board roads are maintained by the Public Works 
department. All the watercourses are bridged except the 
large rivers, and avenues of trees are maintained along 49 
miles. New roads were constructed by famine labour in 1900 
from Mehmadabad to Dakor and from Borsad to Agas railway 
station. The whole of the District is connected with Ahmad- 
abad city by metalled roads. The main line of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway passes through the District 
from north to south for 38 miles, and a branch line from Anand 
runs through the Panch Mahals to Godhra, where it connects 
with the Godhra-Ratlam Railway, traversing the District for 34 
miles. In 1890 another branch line was opened from Anand 
to Petlad in Baroda territory, and thence in 1901 to Cambay 
town, thus bringing Kaira into close connexion with the sea. 
This line traverses the District for 6 miles. Ferries ply across 
the Mahl. 

A severe famine took place in 1791-z, when rain fell only 
once; in 1 81 3-4 there were only two showers of rain through- 
out the year; in 1825 the later rains failed, and remissions of 
land revenue to the amount of over lakhs were granted. 
On the other hand, the period 1814-22 was marked by heavy 
floods and rainfall that caused much damage to the country. 
In 1834 locusts ate up the crops, and remissions amounting 
to nearly 2 lakhs were sanctioned. In 1837, 1868, and 1871 
disastrous storms swept over the District. During the forty 
years 1836-76, though the rainfall had at times been scanty and 
the crops failed, no season of famine or even of general scarcity 
occurred in Kaira. Owing to the scanty rainfall in 1877 (19-13 
inches), there was a partial failure of crops, and the poorer 
people, especially in the Kapadvanj and Thasra talukas in the 
north-east, suffered some distress, which, however, did not leave 
behind serious results. In 1899 the monsoon failed and the 
District was visited by severe famine. In April of the follow- 
ing year nearly 85,000 persons, exclusive of 8,000 dependants, 
were on relief works, and 15,000 more received gratuitous relief. 
The number increased to 143,000 by July of the same year, 
excluding 13,000 dependants and 38,000 on gratuitous relief. 
The latter reached a maximum of 113,000 in August. It is 
calculated that there was, during the three years 1900-2, an 
increase of 112,464 deaths over the yearly average. The loss 
of cattle in the year 1899-1900 amounted to 233,000. The cost 



KAIRA DISTRICT 


277 


of relief measures in the District, including the Panch Mahals, 
was over 88 lakhs. Remissions of land revenue to the amount 
of 35 lakhs were granted in these two Districts. The loans 
granted to agriculturists in Kaira alone amounted to 19 lakhs. 

The District is divided into two subdivisions, in charge of an District 
Assistant Collector and a Deputy-Collector respectively, and is 
composed of the seven talukas of An and, Borsad, Kapadvanj, s t a ff. 
Matar, Mehmadabad, Nadiad, and Thasra. The Collector 
is ex-officio Political Agent for Cambay State and Additional 
Political Agent for Rewa Kantha. 

For judicial purposes the District is included in the jurisdic- civil and 
tion of the Judge of Ahmadabad. There are 5 Subordinate ? rin ? ina l 
Judges for civil work, and 23 officers, including a bench 0 f JttStlce * 
magistrates, to administer criminal justice. The common 
offences are murder in Borsad and Anand, and housebreaking, 
burglary, cattle-stealing, and thefts elsewhere. 

In 1803, when Kaira was ceded to the British, the District Land 
afforded examples of various forms of land revenue administra- revenue 
tion. In the centre were three kinds of villages: rasti or^ lon> - 
peaceable, mehwas or refractory, and an intermediate class of 
rasti-mehwas villages. The refractory villages were occupied by 
the turbulent descendants of the Rajput and Koll warriors. 

Here Koll thakurs or chiefs administered despotically their little 
clusters of huts. Revenue was demanded but seldom paid. 

The peaceable villages were mostly grants from Government to 
those who had done some public service. The most important 
Muhammadan grants were called maliki, and were held rent- 
free. Internal administration was the concern of the village 
community. There were four forms of village government, the 
commonest being that by which the village headman engaged 
annually for the payment of a certain sum to Government. 

The profits of a good year, under this the most simple and 
general system, went to the headman ; on the other hand, the 
headman had to bear any loss from failure of crop or short 
tillage. Above the headman or paid were the revenue-farmers 
( kamamsdars ), who fixed the village contributions ; and below the 
headmen were the cultivators and coparceners of the village. 

A class quite apart, called manotidars , or money-lenders, arose 
as sureties for the payment of the revenue. This short state- 
ment furnishes an outline of the Maratha revenue system. It 
had the merit of simplicity and was calculated to ensure the 
recovery of revenue. At the same time it is clear that it was 
productive of abuses and suffering to the cultivating classes. 

When the District was taken over by the British in 1803, the 



Munici- 
palities 
and local 
boards. 


Police and 
jails. 


278 NORTHERN DIVISION 

system was continued with but small modification until 1862. 
In that year the revenue survey system, which deals directly 
with individual cultivators, was introduced. The result of the 
survey assessment was to increase the land revenue demand from 
nf to 13J lakhs, or by 11 per cent. In 1894 a resettlement 
was undertaken and completed in 1896, which further enhanced 
the total revenue by 17 per cent. The average rates of assess- 
ment are : ‘dry ’ land, Rs. 3-7 (maximum Rs. 6-12, minimum 
Rs. i~8 ) ) rice land, Rs. 5-11 (maximum Rs. 6-12, minimum 
Rs. 1-8) ; garden land, Rs. 9-9 (maximum scale Rs. 7, mini- 
mum Rs. 5). 

Collections of land revenue and total revenue have been as 
follows in recent years, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880-1. 

1890-1 

1901-2. 

I 903 “ 4 . 

Land revenue . , 

Total revenue . 

19,69 

21,65 

I 9>52 

20,00 

10,34 

10,69 

18,31 

20,73 


Of the Government villages, 88 are held on the narvaddri 
tenure. The peculiarity of this tenure is that it involves joint 
responsibility for the payment of the Government revenue. In 
narvaddri villages the patidars or sharers belong to the Kunbl 
caste, and on account of being narvadars hold a high position 
among their fellows, being the descendants of the old proprie- 
tary cultivators. This tenure has been preserved by Act V of 
1862 of the Bombay Government, but the land tax is levied 
at survey rates on the whole arable land. The villages on the 
banks of the river Mahi held on the mehwdsi tenure pay their 
revenue in a lump sum. A clan of Musalman yeomen, known 
as the Maliks, have for nearly 400 years held 27 villages on 
a special tenure. 

The District contains 10 municipalities : namely, Kaira, 
Kapadvanj, Mehmadabad, Nadiad, Dakor, Borsad, Anand, 
Umreth, Od, and Mahudha. The District board was estab- 
lished in 1863, and there are 7 tdluka boards. The total 
expenditure of all these boards in 1903-4 was 2\ lakhs, of which 
half a lakh was spent on roads and buildings. The chief source 
of income is the land cess. 

The District Superintendent of police has the assistance of 
2 inspectors and 10 chief constables. There are 12 police 
stations. The force in 1904 numbered 555 men, working under 
133 head constables. Six mounted police under one daffaddr 
were also maintained. There are 8 subsidiary jails in the 




KAIRA DISTRICT 


279 


District, with accommodation for 187 prisoners. The daily 
average prison population in 1904 was 36, of whom 2 were 
females, 

Kaira stands fourth among the Districts of the Presi- Education, 
dency in the literacy of its population, of whom 9*9 per cent. 

(17*9 males and 0*9 females) were able to read and write in 
1901. In 1855-6 there were only 7 schools, attended by 1,036 
pupils ; by 1876-7 the number of schools had risen to 189 and 
the number of pupils to 14,720. In 1881 there were 205 
schools with 16,107 pupils, who increased to 27,261 by 1891, 
and numbered 27,911 in 1901. In 1903-4 the District con- 
tained 365 schools, of which 84 were private, attended by 
17,474 pupils, including 2,581 girls. Besides one high school, 
there were 14 middle and 266 primary schools. Of the 281 
public institutions, one is managed by the Educational depart- 
ment, and 246 by local or municipal boards, while 30 are aided 
and 4 unaided. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 
was Rs. 1,85,000, of which Rs. 23,000 was derived from fees. 

Of the total, 79 per cent, was devoted to primary schools. 

In 1904 the District had one hospital and 8 dispensaries, with Hospitals 
accommodation for 94 in-patients. The number of patients and dli r 
treated in 1904 was 110,069, including 1,122 in-patients; and pensanes ‘ 
3,675 operations were performed. The expenditure was 
Rs. 21,000, of which Rs. 15,000 was met from Local and 
municipal funds. The Irish Presbyterian and Salvation Army 
Missions have each opened a dispensary at Anand, to which 
hospitals are shortly to be added. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 Vaccrna- 
was 17,000, representing a proportion of 24 per 1,000, which is tion * 
slightly below the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. iii, Kaira and 
Panch Mahals (1879).] 

Kapadvanj Taluka. — Northern tdluka of Kaira District, 

Bombay, lying between 22 0 52' and 23 0 7' N. and 72 0 50' and 
73 0 19' E., with an area of 279 square miles. The taluka is in 
shape an oblong, 15 miles long and 30 miles broad, and contains 
one town, Kapadvanj (population, 15,405), the head-quarters, 
and 87 villages. The population in 1901 was 75,258, compared 
with 101,527 in 1891. The density is only 270 persons per 
square mile, the District average being 449. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 1*8 lakhs. Towards the 
south and west, Kapadvanj is a rich and well-cultivated plain 
clothed with trees. The Mobar and the Vatrak Sow through it, 
but these streams are of little use for irrigation, being highly 



28 o 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


charged with soda. The water-supply generally is scanty. 
Bajra, rice, jowar , and maize are the staple crops. 

Mehmadabad Taluka. — North-western taluka of Kaira 
District, Bombay, lying between 22 0 44/ and 22 0 55' N. and 
72 0 36' and 72 0 57' E., with an area of 171 square miles. It 
contains two towns, Mehmadabad (population, 8,166), the 
head-quarters, and Kaira (10,392), the District head-quarters; 
and 66 villages. The population in 1901 was 75,926, compared 
with 92,367 in 1891. The density, 444 persons per square 
mile, is almost equal to the District average. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to nearly 2*4 lakhs. The 
taluka consists of a rich level plain, mostly open and thinly 
wooded. The land is poor, light, and sandy, but a portion is 
suited for rice cultivation. The Meshvo and Vatrak are shallow 
streams running south-west. 

Thasra, — North-eastern taluka of Kaira District, Bombay, 
lying between 22 0 38' and 22 0 58' N. and 73 0 3' and 73 0 23' E., 
with an area of 257 square miles. It contains one town, Dakor 
(population, 9,498), and 96 villages. The population in 1901 
was 73,980, compared with 75,622 in 1891. The density, 288 
persons per square mile, is much below the District average. 
The head-quarters are at Thasra. The land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to more than 2*1 lakhs. To the 
north and north-west the upland is bare of trees and poorly 
tilled. Towards the south the plain, broken only by the deep- 
cut channel of the Shedhi, is rich and well-wooded. The water- 
supply is scanty. 

Matar. — Western taluka of Kaira District, Bombay, lying 
between 22 0 26' and 22 0 50' N. and 72 0 30' and 72 0 47' E., 
with an area of 216 square miles. Besides the main portion, 
some isolated villages lie separated from the rest by belts of 
Baroda and Cambay territory. The taluka contains one town, 
Matar (population, 4,001), the head-quarters; and 81 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 61,522, compared with 79,285 in 
1891. The density, 285 persons per square mile, is much 
below the District average. The land revenue and cesses in 
*9°3-4 amounted to more than 3 lakhs. The country lacks 
natural drainage, so that the climate is malarious during the 
rains. Rice lands are found in many parts. 

Nadiad Taluka. — Central taluka of Kaira District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 22 0 35' and 22 0 53' N. and 72 0 46' and 73 0 
5' E., with an area of 224 square miles. It contains two 
towns, Nadiad (population, 31,435), the head-quarters, and 
Mahudha (8,544) ; and 91 villages, including Chaklasi 



KAIRA DISTRICT 


28 1 


(7,340). The population in 1901 was 148,452, compared 
with 171,084 in 1891. The density, 663 persons per square 
mile, is much above the District average. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to more than 4*3 lakhs. Well- 
grown groves of fruit and timber trees, highly tilled fields girt 
with hedges, and large substantially built villages, prove the 
taluka to be one of the richest parts of Gujarat. 

Anand Taluka. — Central taluka of Kaira District, Bombay, 
lying between 22 0 26' and 22 0 44' N. and 72 0 52' and 73 0 13' 
E., with an area of 244 square miles. It contains three towns, 
Umreth (population, 15,549), Od (6,072), and Anand (10,010), 
the head-quarters; and 85 villages, including Karamsad (5,105), 
Napad (5,053), and Sarsa (5,113). The population in 1901 
was 143,305, compared with 169,766 in 1891. The density is 
587 persons per square mile. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to more than 4-8 lakhs. Except towards 
the east, where the land is bare of trees, uneven, and seamed 
with deep ravines, the whole is a flat rich plain of light soil, 
well tilled and richly wooded. The water-supply is scanty. 

Borsad Taluka. — Southern taluka of Kaira District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 22 0 14' and 22 0 33' N. and 72 0 39' and 73 0 
5' E., with an area of 204 square miles. It contains one town, 
Borsad (population, 13,001), the head-quarters; and 92 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 137,889, compared with 162,143 
in 1891. It is the most thickly populated taluka in the District, 
with a density of 673 persons per square mile. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to nearly 4*2 lakhs. 
Owing to its intersection by Baroda and Cambay territory, the 
taluka is very broken and irregular in shape. The Mahl is the 
only river. It flows along the southern boundary, and is 
throughout the whole distance tidal ; but the shallowness of its 
channel, its shifting sand-banks, and the force of its tidal wave, 
make it useless for boats. Except in the south, along the banks 
of the Mahl, the whole is a highly cultivated plain sloping 
gently westwards, intersected by rich hedgerows and adorned 
with groves of magnificent trees. The water-supply is good. 

Adas (or Arras). — A plain in Kaira District, Bombay, 
situated in 22 0 29' N. and 73 0 2' E., between Anand and the 
Mahl river, which has, in modem times, been the scene of 
three battles. At the first of these (1723) Rustam All, the 
imperial governor of Surat, was, through the treachery of Pilaji 
Gaikwar, defeated and slain by Hamid Khan, deputy of Nizam- 
ul-mulk. At the second (February, 1775) Raghunath Rao 
Peshwa was defeated by the Maratha confederation. At the 



282 NORTHERN DIVISION 

third, a few months later (May 18, 1775), the Maratha army 
was, after a severe struggle, defeated by a British detachment 
under the command of Colonel Keating. Of the third battle 
of Adas, James Forbes, who was present, gives the following 
details : The enemy’s cannon silenced, and their cavalry dis- 
persed by the British artillery, a party was sent forward to take 
their guns. While a strong force of cavalry opposed this 
party’s advance, a body of Maratha troops, professing to be 
partisans of Raghunath Rao, was allowed to pass between the 
advanced party and the main British line. Attacked both in 
front and rear, the forward party resisted bravely till the 
grenadiers, facing to the right-about to change ground, by some 
mistake began to retreat. The rest followed, and at the same 
time a tumbril of shells blowing up added to the confusion. 
The men retreated at first in order, but getting broken at a high 
hedge, fled to the main line. The enemy followed, but were 
met by so steady a fire of grape-shot and shell that they were 
driven off the ground. The British were left masters of the 
field, and a gun that had fallen into the enemy’s hands was 
retaken. The engagement lasted for four hours. Victory was 
dearly bought. Of fifteen British officers in the advanced divi- 
sion, seven were killed and four wounded. Eighty Europeans, 
many native officers, and 200 men, were killed or missing. 

Anand Town* — Chief town of the taluka of the same 
name in Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 22°33 / N. and 72 0 
58' E, Population (1901), 10,010. It is a junction on the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 40 miles south of 
Ahmadabad, where the Godhra-Ratlam and the Petlad Rail- 
ways join the main line. The municipality was established in 
1889. The receipts during the decade ending 1901 averaged 
Rs. 6,600. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,900. There are 
branches of the Irish Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and 
Salvation Army missions in Anand; and the town has 2 
ginning factories, 3 dispensaries, and 5 schools (4 for boys and 
one for girls), attended by 612 male and 209 female pupils. 
These include 2 English middle schools with 66 boys. The 
Salvation Army maintains a well-equipped hospital, which is 
open to all classes. 

Borsad Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 25' N. and 72 0 
54' E. Population (1901), 13,001. The town is protected by 
a double line of fortifications, the outer of which is in disrepair? 
the inner in fair preservation. These fortifications are modern, 
having been constructed by RangojI, a Maratha leader, who 



KAIRA DISTRICT 283 

fixed his head-quarters here in 1741. The fort was constantly 
the scene of fighting till 1748, when, after a siege of five months, 
the Gaikwar captured the town and made RangojI prisoner. 
Borsad is the seat of a Presbyterian mission. Since 1889 it 
has been a municipal town with an average income during the 
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 8,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 12,000, including grants for education. A well, built in 
1497, with 7 storeys and 13 arches, is of archaeological interest 
The town contains a Sub-Judge's court, a dispensary, and 9 
schools (6 for boys and 3 for girls) with 783 and 298 pupils 
respectively, including an English mission school, belonging to 
the Irish Presbyterians, with 64 pupils. 

Chaklasi. — Town in the Nadiad taluha of Kaira District, 
Bombay, situated in 22 0 39' N. and 72 0 57' E. Population 
(1901), 7,340. In 1898 an outbreak occurred here among 
persons of the Dharala caste, who had been led to believe that 
the British Government had ceased to exist. The police were 
at first repulsed, but eventually arrested the ringleaders. The 
town contains a boys 5 school with 303 pupils. 

Dakor. — Place of pilgrimage for Hindus, in the Thasra 
taluha of Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 45' N. and 
73 0 ii' E., on the Godhra-Ratlam branch of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway, 9 miles north-east of 
Anand. Population (1901), 9,498. The chief object of 
interest at Dakor is the temple of Ranchodji or Krishna. The 
image of the deity was brought from Dwarka by Bodhano, a 
Rajput. There are monthly meetings, but the largest gather- 
ings take place about the full moon in October-November, 
when as many as 100,000 pilgrims assemble. The municipality 
was established in 1864. The receipts during the decade 
ending 1901 averaged Rs. 19,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 17,000, derived chiefly from house and pilgrim taxes. 
The town contains a dispensary and five schools (four for 
boys, including an English middle school, and one for girls), 
attended by 364 and 74 pupils respectively. 

Kaira Town (K/ieda). — Head-quarters of Kaira District, 
Bombay, situated in 22 0 45' N. and 72 0 41' E., 7 miles south- 
west of Mehmadabad station on the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway, and 20 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. 
Population (1901), 10,392. Kaira is a very ancient place, 
having a legendary connexion with the Mahabharata, and is 
proved by the evidence of copperplate grants to have existed 
as early as the fifth century a.d. Early in the eighteenth 
century it passed to the Babi family, with whom it remained 



284 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


till 1753, when it was taken by the Marathas under Damaji 
Gaikwar. It was finally handed over to the British by Anand 
Rao Gaikwar in 1803. Its frontier position rendered Kaira 
important ; and a force of infantry, cavalry, and artillery was 
stationed there until the transfer, m 1830, of the frontier 
station to Deesa. The climate is said to have improved of 
late years. Earthquake shocks were felt in i860 and 1864. 
The courthouse is a handsome building with Greek pillars. 
Near it is a part of the old jail, in 1814 the scene of a riot 
in which the prisoners rose, and which was only suppressed 
with a loss of 19 killed and 12 wounded. The municipality 
was established in 1857, and its income during the decade 
ending 1901 aveiaged Rs. 15,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 1 8,000, chiefly from a house and land tax. Besides 
the Government revenue offices, the town contains a Sub- 
Judge’s court, a civil hospital, and 6 schools (5 for boys and 
one for girls), attended by 543 male and 82 female pupils. 
The boys’ schools include an English school with 92 pupils. 

Kapadvanj Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the 
same name in Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 23 0 i' N. 
and 73 ° 5' E. Population (1901), 15,405. Near the walls, 
which protect the place, are the ruins of an ancient town, the 
scene of some hard-fought battles during the Maratha ascen- 
dancy. It was exchanged for Bijapur in 1817. Kapadvanj 
derives its importance from lying on one of the main trade 
routes between Central India and the coast. The principal 
objects of interest in the town are a fine reservoir with a well 
in the centre, and an arch in the Chalukya (1000-1300) style 
of architecture. A sacred pool, with traditional healing quali- 
ties, is inside the well. South of the pool is an underground 
temple of Mahadeo, which was discovered in a.d. 1044, if 
popular tradition is to be relied on. The idol appears to have 
been placed underground to protect it from the iconoclastic 
zeal of early Musalman invaders. Of modern buildings that 
of most note is a Jain temple, the interior of which is richly 
ornamented with marble pillars, and has a marble pavement 
inlaid with delicacy and taste. The municipality was estab- 
lished in 1863. The average receipts for the decade ending 
1901 were Rs. 15,000; and in 1903-4 the income was Rs. 16,000, 
chiefly derived from a house and land tax. Precious stones, 
such as agate and onyx, are found in large quantities in the bed 
of the Mohar, a rocky stream half a mile north of the town. 
Manufactures are soap, glass, and leathern butter-jars. The 
most important article of trade is grain. Besides supplying 



KAIRA DISTRICT 


285 


a considerable local demand, Kapadvanj goods are exported 
to the Panch Mahals, Balasinor territory, and Central India. 
The town contains a Sub-Judge’s court, a dispensary, and 
11 schools (9 for boys, including an English school with 
52 pupils, and 2 for girls), which are attended by 804 and 
258 pupils respectively. 

Karamsad. — Pdtidar village in the Anand taluka of Kaira 
District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 33' N. and 72 0 54' E., and 
one of the thirteen kulin villages of the District. Population 
(1901), 5,105. It contains a middle school with 38 pupils. 

Mahudha. — Town in the Nadiad taluka of Kaira District, 
Bombay, situated in 22 0 49' N. and 72 0 56' E. Population 
(1901), 8,544. Mahudha is said to have been founded by 
a Hindu prince named Mandhata about two thousand years 
ago. The municipality was established in 1889, the average 
income during the decade ending 1901 being Rs. 8,ooo. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,300. The town contains a dis- 
pensary and four schools (three, including an English school, 
for boys and one for girls), attended by 377 male and 70 female 
pupils respectively. 

Mehmadabad Town ( Mahmudabdd ). — Head-quarters of 
the taluka of the same name in Kaira District, Bombay, 
situated in 22 0 50' N. and 72 0 46' E., on the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway, 17 miles south of Ahmadabad. 
Population (1901), 8,166. It was founded in 1479 by Mah- 
mud Begara, who ruled in Gujarat from 1459 to 15 11, and 
improved by Mahmud III (1537-54), who built a deer-park 
with an enclosure 6 miles long. At each corner of the park 
was a palace with gilded walls and roof. On the right-hand 
side of the gates leading to the palaces were placed bazars. 
Of the existing objects of interest, the most notable are two 
tombs in the village of Sojale, about 2 miles to the north-east 
of the town, built in 1484 in honour of Mubarak Saiyid, one 
of the ministers of Mahmud Begara, and of his wife’s brothers. 
Mehmadabad has been a municipality since 1863, with an 
average income of Rs. 9,500 during the decade ending 1901. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,600. The town contains 
a dispensary and four schools, three (including an English 
middle school with 57 pupils) for boys and one for girls, 
attended by 427 and 102 pupils respectively. 

Nadiad Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 42' N. and 
7 2 0 52' E., on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 
29 miles south-east of Ahmadabad. Population (1901), 31,435, 



286 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Hindus numbering 26,239, Muhammadans 4,468, and ‘others ’ 
728. At the beginning of the seventeenth century Nadiad 
was a large town with cotton and indigo manufactures, and in 
1775 was described as one of the prettiest cities of Gujarat, 
flanked by nine strong gates and a dry moat. In that year 
Raghunath Rao Peshwa levied upon it a fine of Rs. 60,000 
for its adhesion to the cause of Fateh Singh Gaikwar. In 1838 
it was said to be a thriving place, carrying on a considerable 
trade with Malwa. Nadiad has been a municipality since 1866, 
with an average income of Rs. 51,000 during the decade 
ending 1901, In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 44,000, derived 
chiefly from octroi (Rs. 19,000) and house and land tax 
(Rs. 11,000). The town is the centre of an extensive trade in 
tobacco and ghi , and contains a cotton mill, a brass foundry, 
and a sugar factory. There is also a model experimental farm. 
Nadiad has a high school with 287 pupils, and 2 middle 
schools with 142 pupils. It also contains 10 vernacular 
schools — 8 for boys, including one conducted by the Methodist 
Episcopal Mission, and 2 for girls — attended by 1,676 and 
31 1 pupils respectively. An industrial class is attached to 
the Methodist school. A Sub-Judge’s court and a dispensary 
are located here. The town also contains a handsome public 
hall and library, known as the Dahi Lakshmi Library. 

Napad. — Village in the Anand taluka of Kaira District, 
Bombay, situated in 22 0 29' N. and 72 0 59' E., 14 miles west 
of the Vasad railway station. Population (1901), 5,053. Till 
1869 Napad was a mdmlatddr’s station. North of the village 
is a handsome pond, 500 yards in circuit, said to have been 
built about four hundred years ago by a Pathan named Taze 
Khan Narpali, governor of Petlad. It is enclosed by brick 
walls, and is octagonal in shape, a triangular flight of steps 
within each side leading to the water. On the west is an 
Idgah, or place for Id prayers, with a flight of granite steps 
leading to the lake. Along the bank beyond the Idgah are 
traces of terraces and other buildings. The well, to the east 
of the village, also the work of Taze Khan Narpali, was repaired 
in 1838 by a Baroda merchant. 

Od. — Town in the Anand taluka of Kaira District, Bombay, 
situated in 22 0 37' N. and 73 0 7' E. Population (1901), 
6,072. It has been a municipality since 1889. The income 
during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 5,000, In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 4,980. The town contains three vernacular 
schools, two for boys and one for girls, attended by 262 and 
51 pupils respectively. 



PINCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


287 


Sarsa.— Town in the Anand taluka of Kaira District, 

Bombay, situated in 22 0 33' N. and 73° 4' E. Population 
{1901), 5,1x3. Sarsa contains two old wells dating from 1044, 
and a temple of Vaijanath built in 1156, the supposed year 
of the foundation of the town. There are two schools, one 
for boys and one for girls, attended by 230 and 74 pupils 
respectively. 

Umreth. — Town in the Anand taluka of Kaira District, 

Bombay, situated in 22 0 42' N. and 73 0 / E., on the Godhra 
branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 

14 miles north-east of Anand and 5 miles south-by-west of 
Dakor. Population (1901), 15,549. It is one of the most 
populous and wealthy towns in the District. Near the town 
is a step-well estimated to be nearly five hundred years old. 

It has five storeys and 109 steps, and is ascribed to Sidhraj, 
king of Anhilvada. The municipality was established in 1889. 

The income during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 12,000. 

In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 14,000. The town has a cotton- 
ginning factory, a Sub-Judge’s court, a dispensary, and 2 English 
middle schools with 195 pupils. It also contains 5 vernacular 
schools, 4 for boys and one for girls, attended by 458 and 
no pupils respectively. 

Panch Mahals (or ‘ Five Subdivisions ’). — District in the Bonn- 
Northern Division of the Bombay Presidency, lying between ^ r e ^^ n ' 
22 0 15' and 23 0 ii' N. and 73 0 22' and 74 0 29' E., with an and hill 
area of 1,606 square miles. It consists of two separate parts, | nver 
divided by a broad strip of the Bariya State of the Rewa " 

Kantha Agency. Of these, the western portion is bounded 
on the north by the States of Lunavada, Sunth, and Sanjeli ; 
on the east by Bariya State ; on the south by Baroda State ; 
and on the west by Baroda State, the Pandu Mehwas, and the 
Mah! river, which separates it from Kaira District. The 
eastern portion is bounded on the north by the States of 
Chilkari and Kushalgarh; on the east by Western Malwa 
and the river Anas; on the south by Western Malwa; and on 
the west by the States of Sunth, Sanjeli, and Bariya. 

The two sections of the District differ considerably in appear- 
ance. That to the south-west (except a hilly area covered with 
dense forest, comprising the Pavagarh hill) is a level tract of 
rich soil ; while the other portion is much more rugged and 
includes many varieties of soil, from fertile twice-cropped 
valleys to barren stony hills. In some of the western villages, 
the careful tillage, the well-grown trees, and the deep sandy 
lanes bordered by high hedges overgrown with tangled creepers 



288 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


recall the wealthy tracts of Kaira. In other parts are wide 
stretches of woodland and forest, or bare and fantastic ridges 
of hills without a sign of tillage or population. 

Though there are many streams and watercourses, the 
District has no large river, except the Mahl, which touches it 
on the north-west. The Anas and Panam occasionally dry 
up in the hot season. The District is, however, sufficiently 
supplied with water. The Orwada lake near the Panam river 
is said never to have been dry, and to have a pillar in the 
centre visible only in times of extreme drought. 

Pavagarh in the south-west corner of the District is the 
only mountain of any size. It rises 2,500 feet from the plain 
in almost sheer precipices, and has a rugged and picturesque 
outline on the summit, which is strongly fortified, and was 
formerly a place of much consequence. 

Geology. Except m its south-west corner, no detailed inquiry into the 
geology of the Panch Mahals has been made. In the eastern 
division, though black and clay soils occur, the surface is 
chiefly a somewhat shallow light-red soil much mixed with 
gravel. The rocks are believed to be mainly metamorphic 
with a few trap outliers. In the western division, near 
Godhra, all the surface rocks are metamorphic, and in other 
places metamorphic rocks alternate with beds of quartzite 
sandstone. The geological survey of the south-west of the 
District shows two chief geological features : the great volcanic 
mass of Pavagarh, and a group of semi-metamorphic beds, 
chiefly quartzite or quartzite sandstone, known as the Cham- 
paner beds. Pavagarh is an isolated outlier of the Deccan 
trap, all that remains of a range of basaltic lavas and ash-beds 
that stretched south to the Rajpipla hills. Unlike those to 
the south-east, the Pavagarh traps lie perfectly flat. Their 
mineral character is in many parts peculiar. Of the numerous 
terraces below the upper flat of the hill, some are ordinary 
basaltic lava-flows ; but many are of a light purple clay-rock 
rare in other places. Somewhat cherty in appearance and 
containing small crystals of glassy felspar, this rock is some- 
times mottled purple and grey. It is almost always distinctly 
marked by planes of lamination parallel to the stratification, 
sometimes so finely as to be more like an ordinary shale than 
a volcanic lock. Similar beds are very rare in the Deccan 
trap, and no other instance of their development on so large 
a scale has been observed in Western India. The group of 
quartzite sandstone beds has been traced for about 20 miles 
east of Pavagarh and for 7 or 8 miles south of Champaner. 



PANCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


289 


The other beds are mostly slates, conglomerates, and lime- 
stones, ferruginous bands occasionally occurring. There are 
hot springs 10 miles west of Godhra at Tuva, where Kolls and 
Bhils assemble in March to worship Mahadeo. 

The most prominent trees of the District are the mango, Botany. 
mahua , tamarind, ray an ( Mwiusops hexandra ), and banyan, 
which give the country a park-like appearance. In addition 
to the banyan or vad {Ficus bengalensis\ other members of the 
fig family are met with, such as the pipri {Ficus Tsiela ), the 
imbar or gular (F glomerata, , and the pipal (F. religiosa). 

In the Kalol taluka rows of palmyra palms, many of them 
encircled by a pipal \ at once attract notice. Teak and khdkra 
{Butea frondosa) are common. The gum of the latter is 
gathered by the Naikdas, who manufacture rope from its roots. 
Among other common trees are the samra {Prosopis spicigera ), 
karanj {Po?igamia glabra }, bor {Zizyphus Jujuba ,) aduso 
(Ailanihus excels a) } sirnal {Bombax malabaricum ), and shamla 
{Eriodendron anfractuosuni). The commonest shrubs are the 
onkla {Alangium Lamarckii ) and the sitaphal or custard-apple 
{Ano?ia squamosa ). Of climbing shrubs, the kavaj ( Mucunna 
prurie?is\ gavna {Canavalia ensi/ormis), and Ipomoea sepiaria 
with its pale pink flowers are of frequent occurrence. The 
lotus is found in the marshes. Among Labiatae and Amaran- 
taceae the most noticeable are Leucas linifolia^ L . Cephalotes , 

Celosia argeniea , and Achyranthes aspera. The milk-bush 
{Euphorbia Tirucalli) and prickly-pear {Opaniia nigricans ) are 
common in hedges. 

When in 1861 the District was taken over by the British Fauna. 
Government, big game of all sorts and many kinds of deer 
abounded. Wild elephants were common three centuries ago, 
and fifty years back tigers were numerous. The number is 
now greatly reduced. Snakes are common throughout the 
District, especially in and near Godhra. 

In healthiness the climate varies greatly. The well-tilled Climate 
parts, Kalol in the west and Dohad in the east, would seem 
to be free from any special form of sickness, and to be healthy 
for new-comers as well as for the local population. Godhra, 
surrounded by large areas of forest and waste, though fairly 
healthy for residents, is a trying climate for strangers. The 
hot and rainy seasons have a depressing effect on Europeans. 

The mean temperature is 83°. 

In the eastern division the rains are late in their arrival. Rainfall. 
Halol petka has the heaviest average fall (41 inches) ; the 
lowest is in Dohad (30). The average rainfall at Godhra town 

u 


BO. I. 



290 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


is 38 inches, mainly received during the south-west monsoon. 
The rainfall is generally heavier than in other Gujarat Districts, 
owing to the proximity of the Rajplpla hills. 

History. The history of the Panch Mahals is the history of the city 
of Champaner, now a heap of ruins. During the Hindu 
period Champaner, founded about the end of the eighth 
century, was a stronghold of the Anhilvada kings and of the 
Tuar dynasty. The Chauhans followed the Tuars, and re- 
tained possession of it and of the surrounding country until 
the appearance of the Muhammadans under Mahmud Begara 
in 1484. From this time until 1536 Champaner remained the 
political capital of Gujarat. In 1535 Humayun pillaged the 
city, and in the following year the court and capital were 
transferred to Ahmadabad. The Marathas under Sindhia 
overran and annexed the District in the middle of the 
eighteenth century; and it was not until 1853 that the ad- 
ministration was transferred to the British. In 1861 owner- 
ship was also transferred, and Sindhia received compensation 
for the Panch Mahals in lands near Jhansi. At this date the 
District was placed under the Political Agent for Rewa Kantha. 
In 1864 the revenue was made payable through Kaira; and 
in 1877 the Panch Mahals were formed into a distinct Col- 
lectorate. Since 1853 the peace has been twice disturbed — 
once in 1858 by an inroad of mutineers, under Tantia Topi ; 
and a second time in 1868, when the Naikdas (said to be the 
Muhammadan descendants of the population of Champaner) 
rose, but were dispersed by Captain Macleod and a detach- 
ment of the Poona Horse. The chief criminal, Joria, was 
hanged. 

Archaeo- There are few remains of archaeological interest in the District. 

logy ’ On the hill of Pavagarh are the ruins of the Sat Mahal or 
£ seven-storeyed palace/ from which the ladies of the zanana 
used to witness the pleasures of the chase ; the Machi Haveli 
or ‘terrace palace/ the Makai Kothar or ‘maize storehouse/ 
and the Navlakh Kothar or ‘ nine-lakh granaries.’ The summit 
is occupied by a famous shrine of Kalika Mata ; and there 
are some mediaeval temples on the hill. The Jama Masjid of 
Champaner is known for its massive grandeur and perfect 
finish (14x4), and some finely decorated mosques and tombs 
are buried in the adjacent jungle. 

The The District contains 4 towns and 689 villages. At the 

pe°ple. j agt f our enum erations the population was: (1872) 240,743, 
(1881) 255,479, (1891) 313,4x7* and (1901) 261,020. The 
decrease in the last decade was due to the famine of 1900, 



RANCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


291 


which pressed with great severity on the Bhils and other wild 
tribes of the District. The three principal towns in the 
District are : Godhra, the head-quarters, Dohad, and Jhalod. 
The tdluka areas and population are as follows 



u 

«s 

Number of 

Population. 


Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

0 

Taluka 

gfj 

3! 

K 

< 

Towns. 

1 

£ 

Population 
square m 

Number 
persons ah 
read at 
write. 

Dohad 


i 1 

114 

58,887 

i 150 

J 

< _ i 4 

3 j° 9 6 

„ Jhalod petka 

i 1 

98 

31.931 

1 - 35 

i >307 

Godhra 

5S5 

I 

225 

q6,4o6 

165 

- 10 

5 >680 

Kalol . . . 

„ Halol petha 

j+H 


80 

172 

39.964 

33.832 

[178 

I 1 

3.255 

1,482 

District total 

1,606 

4 

689 

261,020 

163 


14,820 


Of the total population, 210,521, or 80 per cent., are 
Hindus, and 21,349, or 5 per cent., Muhammadans. Gujarati 
is spoken by 97 per cent, of the inhabitants. 

Among the Hindus the most numerous castes are Rolls Castes and 
(49,000) and Patelias (ro 3 ooo). The majority of the abori- 
ginal tribes are Bhils, who number 98,000, or 37 per cent, of 
the total population ; other aborigines number 8,000, nearly 
all Naikdas. Until recent years the aboriginal tribes were 
turbulent, and much addicted to thieving and drunkenness. 

The Bhils, as a rule, now cultivate the same fields continuously 
although many still practise nomadic tillage on patches of forest 
land, which they abandon after a year or two. Formerly, they 
never entered a town except to plunder, but now they crowd 
the streets, selling grain, wood, and grass. The Naikdas are 
found only in the wildest parts, chiefly in Halol, and are em- 
ployed as labourers and woodcutters ; a tew practise nomadic 
tillage. The Bhils and Naikdas do not live in villages, but 
each family has -a separate dwelling ; and they are still prone to 
move from place to place for superstitious reasons. The agri- 
cultural population of the District is being steadily strengthened 
by an immigration of Kunbis from neighbouring tracts. These 
now amount to 2*4 per cent, of the whole, and are chiefly found 
in the western portion. The Muhammadan population con- 
sists largely of the trading Bohras and a caste of oilmen known 
as Ghanchis (7,000). These men, as their name implies, are 
generally oil-pressers ; but in former times they were chiefly 
employed as carriers of merchandise between Malwa and the 
coast. The changes that have followed the introduction of 
railways have in some respects reduced the prosperity of these 




292 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


professional carriers, and the Ghanchis complain that their 
trade is gone. Much of the best cultivated land in the 
neighbourhood of Godhra and Dohad is in their hands; 
and, though turbulent on occasions, they are, as a class, so 
intelligent, pushing, and thrifty, that there seems little reason 
to doubt that before long they will be able to take advantage 
of some opening for profitable employment. 

The District is an agricultural one, more than 71 per cent, 
of the people depending on the land. Of the rest, n per cent, 
are supported by industries and 9 per cent, by general labour. 
Trade is in the hands of the Banias (7,000) and Bohras (5,000), 
the latter monopolizing the very considerable timber business. 
The Banias are well represented in all villages of any size. 
Christian In 1872 there were only 24 Christians, representing Euro- 
missions. p ean 0 ffi cers anc [ their servants. According to the Census of 
1901 there were 489 native Christians, mostly in the Dohad 
taluka (329); and 17 Europeans and Eurasians. The Irish 
Presbyterian Mission has stations at Dohad and Jhalod, and 
the American Methodist Episcopal Mission works at Godhra. 
The Salvation Army has been working in Dohad and Jhalod 
since 1890. The Irish Presbyterian Mission maintains alto- 
gether 9 schools, of which 4 in Jhalod are for Bhlls, 4 orphan- 
ages, and 2 agricultural settlements at Dohad and Rajespur, 
on which the boys of the schools are settled after two years 5 
training. The American Mission maintains a girls 5 school 
and 10 village schools. Marriages according to Christian 
rites have been solemnized between 19 couples of Bhll 
converts. 

General The soil of the District differs considerably from that of 
toUon ^ estern Gujarat. There are great varieties of soil: alluvial 
ditions. in the north-west of Godhra; mal } a dull black soil, to the 
south of Godhra; and beyond that a large tract of light 
gorddu land. The soil of the eastern division is both light 
and black, and, owing to the abundance of water, is very 
productive. An area of about 40,000 acres is capable of 
bearing two crops in the year— maize followed by gram or 
wheat — without irrigation. 

Chief agn- The tenures of the District are ryotwari (41 per cent.), 
stetSucs folukddri (25 per cent.), mehwasi (6 per cent.), and lease- 
andpnnci- hold (9 per cent.) About 18 per cent, consists of mam and 
pal crops, jagir estates. The chief statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 
are shown in the table on the next page, in square miles. 

Maize is the staple food-crop of the District (161 square 
miles), and is especially important in the Dohad tciluka. 



PANCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


m 


Next in importance is bajra (81), grown chiefly in Kalol and 
Godhra. The other crops largely cultivated are rice (67), 
gram (63), and sesamum (65). Gram is mainly produced in 
Dohad and Godhra. Rice is of inferior quality. Tur and 
castor are also grown, as well as small quantities of sugar- 
cane in Godhra and Kalol, and til (sesamum) is sown in 
partly cleared or new fields. Since 1902 cotton has been 
raised in Kalol and Halol. During the decade ending 
1903-4, 9*5 lakhs was advanced to cultivators for improve- 
ment of land and the purchase of seed and cattle, of which 
4-6 lakhs was lent in 1 900-1 and nearly 2 lakhs in 1901-2. 


Taluka. 

Total 

area. 

Cultivated 

Irrigated. 

Cultivable 1 « ro . 
waste. | Forests - 

Dohad . 

607 

341 

if 

IOI 

114 

Godhra 

585 

330 

I 

67 

139 

Kalol . 

414 

260 

1 

4 

3 2 

78 

Total 

1 ,606* 

931 

3 

1 

200 ) 

! 

331 


* The area for which statistics are not aiatlable is 210 acres. 


Little care is taken in breeding cattle. The bullocks are Cattle, 
poor, small, and weak, but hardy and active, and can work on P onies > 
the poorest fare. Ponies are small and poor, the result of 
careless breeding and bad keep. Goats are fairly plentiful. 

Sheep are few and are confined to Dohad ; they are of poor 
breed. 

The fields are watered from rivers, tanks, and wells, the Irrigation, 
total area irrigated in 1903-4 being 3 square miles. Wells 
supplied 1,660 acres, tanks 125, a Government canal 12, and 
other sources 3 acres. There are altogether 2,582 wells, 

3 tanks, and one Government work, the Muvalia tank. From 
rivers water is drawn by means of rough wooden lever-lifts 
(dhekudis\ costing about Rs. 3 to set up. As springs are 
found close to the surface, wells are seldom sunk deeper 
than from 15 to 30 feet. 

The Panch Mahals form the only District in Gujarat with Forests, 
a large forest area. Till i860 the produce of these forests was 
in little demand, and much damage had been done to them by 
previous neglect. There remains in consequence little timber 
of any size. In 1866 the construction of the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway raised the value of timber. Efforts 
were then made to introduce a more efficient system of manage- 
ment. The District possesses 331 square miles of forest, and 
the forest revenue amounted in 1903-4 to 1 J lakhs. The timber 




294 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


and firewood are chiefly exported, about 40 per cent, of the 
former and 20 per cent, of the latter being consumed locally. 
Except the flowers of the mahua , the minor produce is of little 
consequence. The flowers are gathered for export, while the 
tree also supplies food and drink to the Bhils, and furnishes 
excellent timber. The rayan grows in beautiful clusters, and 
its fruit forms the chief food of the poorest classes. 

Mines and Compared with other Gujarat Districts, the Panch Mahals 
minerals. are rich [ n minerals. The hills contain iron, lead, manganese, 
and mica. Iron ore is found in the village of Palanpur in the 
Kalol tdluka and near Jambughoda and Shivrajpur in Halol, 
but is not worked. Mining for manganese on a large scale is 
now being carried on in Halol by a European firm. Lead ore 
occurs in Narukot, but is too poor in silver to repay the cost of 
working. Talc is quarried near the Narukot hills. A useful 
sandstone for paving is found at Bajarwada, and the common 
Godhra granite, a very durable stone, is worked 9 miles from 
Pali station. 

Com- The through trade of the District was once very flourishing, 
merce * especially after the reduction of transit duties ; but the opening 

of the Malwa line of the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway into 
Central India from Khandwa interfered for a time with this 
traffic. The recently constructed railway from Godhra to Rat- 
lam has now revived it. The chief exports to Gujarat are grain, 
mahua flowers, timber, and oilseeds ; the chief imports from 
Gujarat are tobacco, salt, coco-nuts, hardware, and piece-goods. 
Timber is the chief article of export, and most of it comes from 
the Bariya and Sanjeli forests. The only industry of any im- 
portance is the making of lac bracelets at Dohad. Dohad is 
also looked upon as a granary in time of necessity for Malwa, 
Mewar, and Gujarat. 

Communi- The Anand-Godhra branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Railways Central India Railway and the Godhra-Ratlam-Nagda Rail- 
and roads, way pass through the District from west to east, connecting 
Godhra with Anand on the west and Dohad on the east. 
The former traverses the District for 15 miles, the latter for 
39 miles. A chord-line from Baroda to Godhra, which was 
opened in 1904, traverses the District for 17 miles. There 
are four main roads, one connecting Lunavada with Godhra, 
while another runs from the railway at Sunth Road to the 
Sunth border. The old road running parallel to the railway 
line from Anand to Dohad is still maintained where it passes 
through this District, and a branch of it, metalled and bridged, 
connects Jhalod with the railway at Limkheda in Bariya. 



PANCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


29 5 


There is a bridged but unmetalled road from Godhra to 
Kalol and Halol, and thence across to the Jambughoda 
frontier. A metalled road from Limbdi through Dohad to 
the Alirajpur frontier has recently been completed. The 
total length of roads in the District in 1903-4 was: metalled, 

82 miles ; unmetalled, 68 miles. Of the former, 45 miles 
of Provincial roads and 37 miles of local roads are maintained 
by the Public Works department. Avenues of trees are planted 
along 38 miles. 

In 1845 the maize crop was destroyed by locusts. During Famine, 
the twenty years ending 1879 want of rain caused scarcity 
and distress on five occasions, 1853, 1857, 1861, 1864, 
and 1877. The District again suffered in 1899. Relief works 
were opened in September, 1899, and continued till October, 

1902. The highest daily average relieved was: on works, 

71,204 (July, 1900) ; and gratuitously, 75,188 (August). It is 
calculated that nearly 300 persons and over 200,000 cattle 
died from privation in 1899-1902. The cost of relief measures 
in this and the adjacent District of Kaira was over 88 lakhs. 
Remissions of land revenue amounting to over 35 lakhs were 
granted in the two Districts. Advances to agriculturists 
amounted to 8| lakhs in the Panch Mahals alone. 

In the Godhra and Kalol talukas crops are occasionally 
injured by mildew, insects, or frost; and in 1903-4 the early 
crops suffered severely from locusts. 

For purposes of administration the Panch Mahals form District 
a non-regulation District under the charge of an officer styled 
the Collector, who is also Political Agent, Rewa Kantha. The staff. 
District is divided into two divisions, in charge of an Assistant 
and a Deputy-Collector respectively. There are three talukas , 

Dohad, Godhra, and Kalol, and two pethas or petty sub- 
divisions, Jhalod and Halol. 

For civil judicial purposes the District is included in the Civil and 
jurisdiction of the Judge of Ahmadabad, while since 1905 ? n _^ inal 
it has been part of the Broach Sessions Division. There are J 
two Sub-Judges for civil work, at Dohad and Godhra, and 
eight officers to administer criminal justice. The commonest 
forms of crime are theft of cattle and housebreaking, in both 
of which the aboriginal tribes are proficient. 

Before the management of the District was taken over by the Land 
British, the chief revenue contractor recovered the revenue 
under several systems. Villages in the hands of large land- tration. 
holders paid a lump sum fixed on an estimate of their probable 
revenue. Others were represented by their headmen, who 



296 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Muni- 
cipalities 
and local 
boards. 


were responsible for an amount fixed on a rough estimate of 
what the village could afford to pay. Some villages were 
farmed in groups to sub-contractors on five-year leases, with 
yearly increasing rents. In other cases the division of crops 
and levy of a plough cess fixed by the revenue superintendent, 
or desat] varied according to the caste of the cultivator from 
Rs. 2 to Rs. 15 a plough, or, at the rate of 7 acres to a plough, 
from 4 annas to Rs. 2 an acre. When spice, sugar-cane, and 
other rich crops were grown, an extra cess was levied. In 
villages where a division of crops was in force the government 
share varied from a third to a half. When the British took 
over the management in 1853, the Government respected the 
position of the large landlords, talukdars , and thdkurs , who 
were chiefly Rolls owning estates varying from one village to 
forty or fifty. These villages were valued, and a certain pro- 
portion of the full assessment was fixed as revenue for a period 
of years. The alienations of Government villages were inquired 
into and settled on an equitable basis. The transit duties and 
other vexatious levies of the former government were abolished. 
On the transfer of the Panch Mahals from Sindhia in 1861, 
they were in the first instance placed under the Political Agent 
for Rewa Kantha. In the same year the survey settlement 
of Halol, Dohad, and Jhalod was carried out, to be followed 
in 1870 by the survey settlement of Godhra and Kalol. 
A resettlement of the District has been in progress since 1903. 
The original survey found that the cultivated area was 1-4 per 
cent, in excess of that recorded, and the settlement enhanced 
the total revenue from 1 • 8 7 to 2*02 lakhs. The present average 
assessment per acre of ‘dry’ land is R. 0-10-5 (maximum 
Rs. 2, minimum R. 0-14) ; of rice land, Rs. 2-3 (maximum 
Rs. 2-8, minimum R. 1) ; and of garden land, Rs. 2-12 (maxi- 
mum Rs. 4-7, minimum Rs. 1-9). 

Collections of land revenue and total revenue, which are 
still paid through Kaira, have been as follows, in thousands 
of rupees . — 



1890-1. 

1900-1. 

1903-4. 

Land revenue . 

Total revenue . 

2,84 

3 ,™ 

95 

1,04 

2 ,75 

3>°4 


Outside the municipalities of Godhra and Dohad, local 
affairs are managed by the District board and the three tdluka 
boards of Godhra, Kalol, and Dohad. The Local funds 
yielded in 1903-4 a revenue of Rs. 58,000, and the expen- 




PANCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


297 


diture amounted to Rs. 68,000, of which about Rs. 15,000 was 
spent on roads and buildings and Rs 6,000 on water-works. 

The chief source of income is the land cess. 

The District Superintendent has the control of the police Police and 
administration, assisted by 2 inspectors and 7 chief constables. J ails * 
There are 5 police stations. The force in 1904 numbered 504 
men, working under 118 head constables, besides 8 mounted 
police under 2 daffadars. There are 5 subsidiary jails and 3 
lock-ups in the District, with accommodation for 73 prisoners. 

The daily average prison population in 1904 was 43. 

The Panch Mahals stand eighth among the Districts of the Education. 
Presidency in the literacy of their population, of whom 5*7 per 
cent. (10-5 males and o-8 females) were able to read and write 
in 1901. In 1855-6 there were only 7 schools attended by 
327 pupils; by 1881 the number of schools had risen to 39 
and of pupils to 2,794. In 1890-1 there were 6,499 pupils, 
and in 1900-1, 5,902. Private and public schools in 1903-4 
numbered 124, attended by 5,628 pupils, including 1,071 girls. 

Of the X12 public institutions, one is managed by the Educa- 
tional department, 96 by local boards, and 12 by municipalities, 
while three are unaided. These institutions include a high 
and middle school and rn primary schools. The total ex- 
penditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 48,000, of which 
Rs. 5,000 was derived from fees. Of the total, 83 per cent, 
was devoted to primary schools. 

In 1904 the District possessed 1 hospital and 5 dispensaries. Hospitals 
The Dohad civil hospital, established in 1870, was transferred and dl ?" 
to Godhra many years ago. These institutions contain accom- pensanes ’ 
modation for 69 in-patients. The total treated in 1904 num- 
bered 36,000, including 702 in-patients. The expenditure was 
Rs. 10,000, of which Rs. 2,800 was met from Local and 
Rs. 500 from municipal funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 Vaccina* 
was 8,522, representing a proportion of 33 per 1,000, which is tion - 
much above the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer , vol. iii (Kaira and 
Panch Mahals) (1879)] 

Dohad Taluka. — Eastern tdluka of Panch Mahals District, 

Bombay, including the petty subdivision (j>etkd) of Jhalod, 
lying between 22 0 38' and 23 0 n' N. and 74 0 2 ' and 74 0 
29' E., with an area of 607 square miles. It contains 2 
towns, Dohad (population, 13,990), its head-quarters, and 
Jhalod (5,917); and 2x2 villages. The population in 1901 
was 90,818, compared with 117,999 * n 1891, the decrease, 



298 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


which occurred chiefly in Jhalod, being due to famine. The 
density, 150 persons per square mile, is slightly below the 
District average. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to about lakhs. The taluka is a compact and 
well-wooded tract, hilly and picturesque throughout. Occa- 
sional frosts occur in the cold season. The Anas river flows 
along the eastern boundary, and several large reservoirs for the 
storage of water exist. 

Godhra Taluka. — Northern taluka of the western portion 
of Panch Mahals District, Bombay, lying between 22 0 42' and 
23 0 6' N. and 73 0 22' and 73 0 58' E., with an area of 585 square 
miles. It contains one town, Godhra (population, 20,9 1 5), the 
head-quarters; and 225 villages. The population in 1901 was 
96,406, compared with 107,567 in 1891, the decrease being 
due to famine. The density, 165 persons per square mile, is 
nearly equal to the District average. The land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 92,000. The taluka is 
chiefly a roughly tilled plain, covered with brushwood and 
forest ; but to the north its surface is broken by patches and 
peaks of granite rock. The westerly portion is well wooded 
and well tilled. The climate is unhealthy. The annual rainfall 
averages 40 inches. The Mahi and the Panam flow through 
the taluka . Maize is the staple of cultivation. 

Kalol Taluka. — Southern taluka of the western portion of 
Panch Mahals District, Bombay, including the petty subdivision 
( petha ) of Halol, lying between 22 0 15' and 22 0 44' N. and 
73 0 22' and 73 0 44' E., with an area of 414 square miles. It 
contains one town, Kalol (population, 4,446), the head-quarters ; 
and 2 52 villages. The population in 1901 was 73,796, compared 
with 87,851 in 1891, the decrease being due to famine. The 
density, 178 persons per square mile, slightly exceeds the 
District average. Kalol forms a rich well-wooded plain, its 
fields fenced with hedges and rows of brab palms, its villages 
compact and comfortable. Three rivers cross the taluka : from 
east to west the Mesri in the north, the Goma in the centre, 
and the Karad in the south. These rivers become torrents in 
the rains, and trickling streams in the cold season. Light or 
gorddu soil lies all over this part of the country; the black 
cotton soil is not met with. The petty subdivision of Halol is 
a well-wooded and tilled plain surrounding the hill fort of 
Pavagarh. To the east and south, low isolated hills stand out 
from a rich black-soil plain, most of it waste. Within 4 or 
5 miles of the hills the climate is unhealthy and the water 
often deleterious. Three rivers, the Karad, Visvamitri, and 



PINCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


299 


Devnadf, cross Halol from east to west. Water lies near the 
surface. Cultivation is rude, and the peasantry inert The 
annual rainfall averages 3 7 inches. The land revenue (including 
Halol) and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to more than i-i lakhs. 

Bhimkund.—A large earthen basin formed by a waterfall of 
the Khan river about 70 feet high in the tdluka of Dohad, 
Panch Mahals District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 45' N. and 
74 0 19' E., 5 miles south of Dohad. Here, four days before 
the Holi festival (March), come thousands of Bhlls, some of 
them from considerable distances. Those who have during 
the year lost friends, relations, or parents, bring their ashes 
with them and throw them into the pool. Then they wash, 
and, going to Brahmans, who are always present in great 
numbers, have a red spot marked on the brow, and in return 
give some small present in money or grain. Then drinking 
begins, and, if money lasts so long, is kept up for about 
a fortnight. 

Chakki-no-Aro (or ‘Grindstone Bank 5 ).— Place of pil- 
grimage on the Karad river in the Kalol tdluka of Panch 
Mahals District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 35' N. and 73 0 35' E., 
between the villages of Medapur and Marva. In the middle 
of the river where the channel is deepest stands a large rock, 
over which, in ordinary course, the stream would flow in a 
cascade into the deep pool below. But above the rock 
a rectangular reservoir has been built, about 15 feet square, 
and 4 to 5 feet deep, partly of brick and partly of rock, the 
large rock forming its lower side. Into this the water of the 
river runs, and passes out of it, not over the large rock, but by 
a channel, 6 to 8 feet long, cut from the deepest part of the 
reservoir right through the centre of the rock. Out of this 
the water spouts and falls into a deep pool several feet below. 
At eclipses of the sun, and at the Mahoda Parv or Somvati 
Amas, when the last day of the month falls on a Monday, and 
also on other occasions, Brahmans, Rajputs, and Vanls come 
to bathe and wash away their sins in the pool. The legend is 
that a certain Raja Sulochan of Benares was troubled with a 
growth of hair on the palms of his hands, sent him as a punish- 
ment for his sins. As none of the Benares seers could cure 
him, he was advised to go to the famous Vishvamitra, who 
lived where Pavagarh now stands. Vishvamitra told him that 
if he sacrificed at a spot in the river where a sacred grindstone 
lay, his sms should be destroyed as grain is ground to powder 
in a grindstone. The Raja went to the spot, built a place 
of sacrifice, and cut a conduit in the rock through which 



3 00 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


to feed with butter the fire of his sacrifice. The river became 
known as the Kar ( £ hand ’), since corrupted into Karad Ganga, 
and the place of sacrifice as the Chakki-no-Aro or ‘ grindstone 
bank.’ Half the grindstone is still there , the other half was 
stolen by a Gosain, who, being pursued, threw it away where 
it still lies between the villages of Viasra and Alali in Kalol. 

Champaner. — Ruined city in the Kalol tdluka of Panch 
Mahals District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 29' N. and 73 0 
32' E., 25 miles north of Baroda, at the north-east base of 
Pavagarh, a fortified hill of great strength. It is a station on 
the Baroda-Godhra chord railway, recently constructed. The 
name is derived from the champak- tree. The first building 
of the Musalman city was begun in 1483, when Mahmud 
Begara was besieging the Rajputs in Pavagarh. As a sign 
that he would not leave till the fort was taken, he laid the 
foundation of a beautiful mosque. The fort fell in 1484, and 
the Rajputs fled to Chota Udaipur and Deogarh Banya, where 
their descendants still rule. Mahmud Begara raised a noble 
city at the base of the hill, bringing his ministers and court 
from Ahmadabad, made it his capital, and styled it Mahmud- 
abad Champaner. It grew rapidly and developed a flourishing 
trade, being especially famous for silk-weaving and the manu- 
facture of sword-blades. It is worthy of note that the materials 
for its iron industry were found in the adjacent hills. The 
greatness of Champaner was short-lived. In 1535 it was 
pillaged by the emperor Humayun ; and on the death of 
Sultan Bahadur Shah the capital and court were re-transferred 
to Ahmadabad. By the beginning of the seventeenth century 
its buildings were falling into ruins, the jungle was encroaching, 
and the climate had greatly deteriorated. When taken by the 
British in 1803 only 500 inhabitants were found. Several 
attempts to colonize it have failed on account of the unhealthy 
climate; and at present the only inhabitants are two Roll 
families and some pujdris connected with the temple worship 
on Pavagarh. 

The magnificent ruins of Champaner make it a place of 
great interest. From the spurs on the north-east, the only 
side on which the hill is accessible, the fortifications of Pava- 
garh are brought down to the plain and closed by a wall one 
mile in length running due east and west. Outside this line, 
and in part replacing the old fortifications, is the Bhadar, or 
citadel, of Mahmud Begara. A perfect rectangle about three- 
quarters of a mile long and 280 yards broad, the Bhadar is 
enclosed by a wall of massive blocks of freestone, strengthened 



PINCH MAHALS DISTRICT 


301 


by bastions at regular intervals, and beautified by small carved 
balconies in the best Musalman style. This was the centre 
of the city, which stretched with fair gardens and beautiful 
buildings from Halol, 4 miles away on the west, to an immense 
park on the east, the boundaries of which are marked by the 
traces of an extensive wall. On the north-east was constructed 
the Bada Talao (‘ great lake’), fed by a canal from the eastern 
hills. Rums of beautiful workmanship are scattered over the 
whole area, and five of the mosques are still in fair preservation. 
Of the most notable of these, the Jama Masjid, which stands 
about 50 yards from the east gate of the Bhadar, it may be 
said that for massive grandeur and perfect finish it is inferior 
to no Musalman building in Western India. To the south-east 
of the Bhadar, enclosed by a spur of the overhanging moun- 
tain, is a large deep reservoir completely surrounded with 
stone steps. 

[Forbes, Ras Mala ; Briggs, Ferishta , vol. iv, p. 70; Hamilton, 
Hindustan , vol. i, p. 681; Tra?isactions of Bomb ay Literary 
Society , vol. i, p. 151 ; hidian Antiquary, vol. lxii, p. 5, and 
vol. xliii, p. 7. 

Dohad Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same 
name in Panch Mahals District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 50' 
N. and 74 0 16' E., on the Godhra-Ratlam Railway. Popu- 
lation (1901), 13,990. As the name Dohad (or ‘two boun- 
daries’) implies, the town is situated on the line separating 
Malwa on the east from Gujarat on the west. It is a place 
of considerable traffic, commanding one of the main lines 
of communication between Central India and the sea-board. 
The strongly built sarai dates from the reign of the Gujarat 
Sultan, Ahmad I (1411-43). It was repaired by Muzaffar II 
(1511-26), also a Gujarat monarch, and is said to have been 
again restored under the orders of the emperor Aurangzeb 
(1658-1707). Dohad was constituted a municipality in 1876. 
The municipal income during the decade ending 1901 averaged 
about Rs. 13,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. r 2,000. The 
town contains a Sub- Judge’s court, a dispensary, and five schools 
for boys and one for girls, attended by 176 and 91 pupils 
respectively. 

Godhra Town, — Head-quarters of the ialuka of the same 
name in Panch Mahals District, Bombay, and also head- 
quarters of the District, situated in 22 0 46' N. and 73 0 37' E., 
on the Godhra-Ratlam Railway, 319 miles from Bombay. 
Population (1901), 20,915 ; Hindus number 10,028, Muham- 
madans 10,083, and Jains 635. Formerly it was the residence 



302 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


of a provincial governor under the Muhammadan kings of 
Ahmadabad. Godhra is now the head-quarters of the Rewa 
Kantha Political Agency, which was transferred from Baroda 
to the Collector of the Panch Mahals in 1880. The Godhra 
municipality, constituted in 1876, had an average income of 
Rs. 19,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 20,104. There are two tanneries doing a 
moderate business. Godhra is the centre of the trade in 
timber and firewood extracted from the forests of the District 
and neighbouring States, and exported to the rest of Gujarat. 
Near the town is an embanked lake 70 acres in area. The 
town contains a Sub- Judge’s court, a civil hospital, and an 
English high school with 154 pupils; also five vernacular 
schools for boys and two for girls, with 194 and 315 pupils 
respectively. 

Halol. — Head-quarters of the petty subdivision ( petha ) 
of the same name in the Kalol taluka of Panch Mahals Dis- 
trict, Bombay, situated in 22 0 30' N. and 73 0 29' E., on the 
high road to Jambughoda, about 7 miles south of Kalol and 
4 north-west of Pavagarh hill. Population (1901), 2,819. 
Besides well-to-do Kunbl cultivators, the largest class in the 
village, there are Van! traders carrying on business in grain 
and forest produce with Jambughoda, and in hardware, tobacco, 
and cloth with Godhra and Baroda. At Halol is said to have 
been (1484) the most beautiful of all the gardens for which 
Champaner was famous. The chief relic of its former pros- 
perity as a suburb of Champaner is a reservoir of considerable 
size to the north-east. Near the present site is a mausoleum, 
which was described in 1785 as consisting of two large and 
five small domed structures, all of admirable workmanship, the 
two larger containing marble tombs adorned with excellent 
skill. Since then some of the domes have fallen, but in other 
respects the buildings are in good repair. They were raised 
by Bahadur Shah (1526-37) in honour of his brother Sikandar 
Shah, who was murdered by Imad-ul-mulk in 1526 (May 30) 
after a reign of three months and seventeen days. The 
mausoleum contains two other tombs — one to Nasir Khan, 
the other to Latlf Khan, both of them brothers of Bahadur 
Shah, who died in the same year (1526). The town contains 
a dispensary, and two schools for boys and one for girls, 
attended by 181 and 51 pupils respectively. 

Jhalod. — Town in the petty division {petha) of the same 
name in the Dohad taluka of Panch Mahals District, Bom- 
bay, situated in 23 0 6' N. and 74 0 9 ' E. Population (1901), 



PANCH MAHALS DISTRICT 303 

5,917. The inhabitants are mostly Bhils, Ghanchis, and 
Kunbls. There is an export trade in grain, pottery, cotton 
cloth, and lac bracelets in imitation of the costly ivory Ratlam 
bracelets. Flagstone is also exported in large quantities. The 
town contains a dispensary and six schools, four for boys and 
two for girls, attended by 223 and 88 pupils respectively. 

Pavagarh. — Hill fort m the Kalol taluka of Panch 
Mahals District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 31' N. and 73 0 36' E., 
about 28 miles east of Baroda and 11 miles south-east of 
Champaner Road station on the Baroda-Godhra Railway. 
It stands on an isolated hill surrounded by extensive plains, 
from which it rises abruptly to the height of 2,500 feet, being 
about 2,800 feet above the level of the sea. The base and 
lower slopes are thickly covered with rather stunted timber; 
but its shoulders and centre crest are, on the south, west, and 
north, cliffs of bare trap, too steep for trees. Less inacces- 
sible, the eastern heights are wooded and topped by massive 
masonry walls and bastions, rising with narrowing fronts to the 
scarped rock that crowns the hill. To the east of Pavagarh 
lie the vast Barya State forests, and the hill seems to form the 
boundary between the wild country to the east and the clear 
open plain that stretches westward to the sea. On the east 
side of the north end of the hill are the remains of many 
beautiful Jain temples; and on the west side, overlooking a 
tremendous precipice, are some Musalman buildings of more 
modern date, supposed to have been used as granaries. The 
southern extremity is more uneven, and from its centre rises 
an immense peak of solid rock, towering to the height of 
about 250 feet. The ascent to the top of this is by a flight 
of stone steps, and on its summit stands a Hindu temple of 
Kali, with a Musalman shrine on its spire. The fortifications 
include the lower fort, a massive stone structure with strong 
bastions stretching across the less precipitous parts of the 
eastern spur. This line of fortification is entered by the 
Atak Gate, once double, but now with its outer gate in 
ruins. Half a mile farther is the Moti or Great Gate, giving 
entrance to the second line of defence. The path winds up 
the face of the rock through four gates, each commanding the 
one below it. Massive walls connect the gates and sweep up 
to the fortifications that stretch across the crest of the spur. 
Beyond the Moti Gate, the path for about 200 yards lies over 
level ground with a high ridge on the left, crowned by a strong 
wall running back to the third line of defence. This third 
line of defence is reached through the Sadan Shah Gate, 



3°4 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


a winding passage cut through the solid rock, crowned with 
towering walls and bastions, and crossed by a double Hindu 
gateway. 

In old inscriptions the name of the hill appears as Pavak- 
garh or ‘fire 'hill.’ The first historical reference to it is in the 
writings of the bard Chand, twelfth century, who speaks of 
Ram Gaur the Tuar as lord of Pava. The earliest authentic 
account is about 1300, when it was seized by Chauhan Rajputs, 
who fled from Mewar before the forces of Ala-ud-dln Khiljl. 
The Musalman kings of Ahmadabad more than once attempted 
to take the fort, and failed. In 1484 Sultan Mahmud Begara, 
after a siege of nearly two years, succeeded in reducing it. On 
gaining possession, he added to the defences of the upper and 
lower forts, and for the first time fortified the plateau, making 
it his citadel. In spite of its strength, it was captured through 
treachery in 1535 by the emperor Humayun. In 1573 it fell 
into the hands of Akbar. In 1727 it was surprised by Krish- 
naji, who made it his head-quarters, and conducted many raids 
into Gujarat. Sindhia took the fort about 1761 ; and Colonel 
Woodington captured it from Sindhia in 1803. In 1804 it was 
restored to Sindhia, with whom it remained until 1853, when 
the British took over the management of the Panch Mahals. 
Bonn- Broach District (. Bharuch ). — District in the Northern 
figuration 1 " Division of the Bombay Presidency, lying between 21 0 25' and 
and hill * 22 0 15' N. and 72 0 31' and 73 0 io' E., with an area of 1,467 
and river S q Uare miles. It is bounded on the north by the river Mahl, 
systems. se p ara t es ft f rom the territory of Cambay ; on the east 

and south-east by the States of Baroda and Rajplpla ; on the 
south by the river Kim, dividing it from Surat District To 
the west lies the Gulf of Cambay, along the shore of which the 
District stretches for a distance of 54 miles. The name is 
derived from Bharukachha, a corruption of Bhrigu Kachha, 

* the field of Bhrigu/ the eponymous hero of Broach city. 

The District forms an alluvial plain 54 miles in length, sloping 
gently westwards to the shores of the Gulf of Cambay, and 
varying in breadth from 20 to 40 miles. With the exception of 
a few hillocks of sand-drift along the coast, and some mounds 
in the neighbourhood of Broach city, the level of the plain is 
unbroken by any rising ground. The Mahl and Kim— the 
former a river of 300 miles in length, with a drainage area 
estimated at from 15,000 to 17,000 square miles, and the latter 
with a course of 70 miles and a drainage area of about 700 
square miles— form respectively the northern and southern 
boundaries of the District, Between these limits are two other 



BROACH DISTRICT 


305 


rivers which discharge their waters through the Broach plain 
into the Gulf of Cambay — the Dhadhar about 20 miles south 
of the Mahl, and the Narbada between the Dhadhar and the 
Kim. The Dhadhar passes through the Broach plain for 24 
miles, or about one-third of the entire length of its course ; and 
the Narbada flows for the last 70 miles of its course through 
the District, gradually widening into an estuary, whose shores 
when they fall away into the Gulf of Cambay are more than 13 
miles apart. The water of these rivers is not made use of for 
irrigation ; and though each has a tidal estuary extending for 
several miles inland, none of them, except the Narbada, and 
for a short distance the Dhadhar, is serviceable for purposes of 
navigation. Owing to the height of the banks of its rivers, the 
District is, for drainage purposes, to a great extent dependent 
on creeks or backwaters running inland, either directly from 
the coast-line or from the banks of rivers at points in their 
course below the limit of tidal influence. Of the salt-water 
creeks or backwaters, the three most important are the Mota, 
breaking off from the Dhadhar river about 6 miles west of the 
town of Amod; the Bhukhi, running inland from the right 
bank of the Narbada, about 1 5 miles west of the city of Broach ; 
and the Wand, an inlet from the shore of the Gulf of Cambay, 
about 8 miles north of the mouth of the Kim river. 

The surface of the plain consists, over almost its entire area, Geology, 
of black cotton soil, highly fertile and well cultivated. This 
black soil covers deposits of brown clay, containing nodular 
limestone above and gravel and sand underneath. Within 30 
miles of the coast hardly any rocks are to be seen. Farther 
inland, the gravels and clays of the Nummulitic series begin to 
appear, and in the south of the District trap crops out. Con- 
glomerate and limestone are also found in this tract, but other- 
wise the plain of Broach contains no minerals. 

Except for a small tract of waste land 161 acres in extent, Botany, 
lately set apart for the growth of babul trees, the District is 
without forests ; and only in a few villages is the plain well 
covered with trees. The palmyra palm, the only liquor-yielding 
tree, is largely found south of the Narbada. The fruit trees 
are the mango, guava, and tamarind. On an island in the 
Narbada, about 12 miles above Broach, is a famous banyan or 
Dad tree, known as the Kabir vad, , because, as the story goes, it 
sprang from a twig which the sage Kabir once used for cleaning 
his teeth. About the year 1780 this tree is said to have had 
350 large and more than 3,000 small stems, the principal of 
which enclosed a space nearly 2,000 feet in circumference. 

x 


BO. 1* 



3°6 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Fauna. 

Climate 
and tem- 
perature. 

Rainfall. 

History. 


During the march of an army this tree had been known to 
shelter 7,000 men. Nearly fifty years later (April, 1825) Bishop 
Heber wrote of it : ‘ Though a considerable part of the tree 
has, within the last few years, been washed away, enough 
remains to make it one of the most notable groves in the 
world.’ Since then it has suffered much from age and floods, 
and, owing to the dense undergrowth which conceals the 
ramifications of its stems, it is no longer so notable an object 
as formerly. Hibiscus , Crotalari a ) Indigofera , JButea, Cassia , 
Vicoa, Leucas , and Tricholepis are the chief flowering plants. 

Cultivation is too general to allow much scope for wild 
animals. The hog, wolf, and antelope almost exhaust the list. 
The only indigenous game-birds are the grey partridge, the 
bush-quail, and the grey duck. The District is well supplied 
with fish — fresh-water, salt-water, and migratory. 

The District is as healthy as any part of Gujarat, and the 
climate is more pleasant than in those parts situated farther 
from the sea. The hottest months are March and April. In 
the cold season frost is not unknown, and is sometimes, as in 
1835 and 1903, sufficiently severe to destroy the crops. The 
temperature ranges from 46° in December to 112 0 in May. 
The annual rainfall over the whole District averages 35 inches, 
varying from 32 in the Hansot petha to 42 at head-quarters. 

"By tradition Broach District once formed part of the Mauryan 
empire, the famous ruler of which, Chandragupta, is said to 
have resided at Suklatirtha. It then passed into the hands of 
the princes known as the Sahas or Western Kshatrapas. Gurjar 
and Rajput rulers followed, subject to the overlordship of the 
Chalukyas of Kalyan and their successors the Rashtrakutas. 
It was subsequently included in the kingdom of Anhilvada 
until the Musalman conquest in 1298. For nearly five hundred 
years the District remained subject to the Musalmans, in four 
periods, the early Musalman governors of Gujarat (1298-1391) 
being succeeded by the Ahmadabad kings (1391-1572), who 
were replaced by the Delhi emperors (1572—1736), and finally 
by independent chiefs (1736-72). During the third period, 
Broach was visited by the English merchants Aldworth and 
Withington, and in 1616 a house was hired for an English 
factory. A Dutch factory followed about 1620. At the end 
of the seventeenth century the Marathas twice raided the city 
of Broach; But soon after the accession of the British to 
political power at Surat, certain questions of revenue gave rise 
to a dispute with the ruler of Broach, and in 1771 a force was 
sent from Surat against his capital. This expedition, which was 



BROACH DISTRICT 


307 


not begun till May, resulted in failure ; but during the ensuing 
rainy season the Nawab of Broach visited Bombay and agreed 
to pay to the English a sum of 4 lakhs. This, however, he 
failed to do, and in November, 1772, a second expedition was 
sent against Broach. The city was taken with little difficulty, 
though with the loss of General Wedderburn, the commander 
of the force. The territory acquired by the capture of the city 
comprised 162 villages. In 1783 the country under Broach, 
which by treaty and conquest had come to include the lands 
of Anklesvar, Hansot, Dehejbara, and Amod, was by the Treaty 
of Salbai handed over to the Marathas— the original conquest 
to MahadjI Sindhia, and the new acquisitions to the Peshwa. 

For nineteen years these territories remained under Maratha 
rule, till in 1803, in consequence of the Treaty of Bassein, 
Sindhia’s possessions in Gujarat were invaded by a British 
force, and the city of Broach was again taken. No further 
territorial changes took place till 1818, when, under the terms 
of the Treaty of Poona, three talukas were added to the 
District Since that date the history of Broach has been 
marked by three events — in 1823 an outbreak of Kolls took 
place; in 1857 a riot between theParsIs and Musalmans; and 
in 1886 a Tataora rising, leading to the murder of the District 
Superintendent of police. 

Jain, Hindu, and Muhammadan buildings of archaeological Archaeo- 
interest are to be met with in Broach city, the most noteworthy logy * 
being the Jama Masjid, profusely ornamented and sculptured 
in the Jain style. 

The earliest year for which an estimate of the population is The 
available is 1820, when the number of inhabitants was returned P eo P le * 
at 229,527, or 173 to the square mile. In 1851 the number 
was 290,984, or 200 to the square mile. At the last four 
enumerations, the population was: (1872) 350,322, (1881) 
326,930, (1891) 341,490, and (1901) 291,763. The Census of 
1901 shows that the population of the District, after consider- 
able fluctuations between 1872 and that date, is now 199 to 
the square mile. The decline in 1881 was due to failure of 
the crops in 1878 and to a severe outbreak of cholera, which 
reduced the population by 7 per cent. The decrease in 1901 
was due to famine and plague. The District comprises five 
talukas , with area and population as given on the next page. 

Of the whole population, about 20 per cent, live in towns 
containing more than 5,000 inhabitants. Originally the towns 
were walled, and each was provided with its own fort. Within 
the circuit of the walls lived the richest part of the people, 



3 o8 northern division 

dwelling in well-built houses : without were the poorer classes, 
lodged chiefly in hovels. Though the fortifications have now 
been allowed to fall into decay, a marked distinction still 
remains between the town proper and its suburbs. The 
villages have in general a thriving appearance, arising from 
the common use of tiles for the houses instead of thatch ; and 
the trees with which they are surrounded contribute to give a 
pleasing effect. The respectable inhabitants have their houses 
together in courts or ‘closes, 5 with a single entrance for each 
‘close, 5 which is shut at night for the protection of cattle. 
Formerly, many of the villages were surrounded by walls of 
mud or burnt brick as a shelter against the attacks of free- 
booters. The towns are Broach, the head-quarters, Amod, 
Anklesvar, Hansot, and Jambusar. Hindus number 195,922, 
or 67 per cent, of the total; Musalmans, 63,408, or 22 per 
cent.; Animists, 25,294, or 8 per cent.; Jains, 3,254; and 
Parsls, 3,127. Gujarati is spoken by 93 per cent, of the 
people. 


Taluka 

Area in square 
miles. 

Number of 

Population. 

Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation m 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
\\ rite 

cn 

fl 

1 

Villages. 

Jambusar . 

387 

I 

8r 

61,846 

l6o 

- 25 

7,699 

Amod 

I76 

1 

fii 

3 i j 9 11 

l8l 

- l l 

4,958 

Vagra 

308 


69 

26,686 

87 

- 27 

3,567 

Broach . 

302 

I 

105 

110,189 

364 

— 2 

19,894 

Anklesvar* 

294 

2 

99 

61,131 

208 

- 14 

8,730 

District total 

1,467 

5 

405 

291,763 

199 

~ 14 

44,748 


* Includes Hansot petha. 


Castes and The chief Hindu castes are : Kolls (62,000), Kunbis (19,000), 
don? 21 " ^ ers ( i 5> 000 )j Rajputs (13,000), and Brahmans (12,000). 
Bhils, returned partly as Hindus and partly as Animists at the 
Census, number 35,000. The Musalmans who claim a foreign 
origin comprise four classes— Saiyid, Mughal, Pathan, and 
Shaikh. Of those whose origin is traced to Hindu converts, 
the most important are the Bohras, who include two main 
classes, distinct from each other in occupation and in sect; 
one engaged in trade, who are mostly Ismaili Shiahs ; the 
other employed almost entirely in tilling the fields, belonging 
to the Sunni sect, and forming nearly half of the entire Musal- 
man population of the District. The latter do not marry with 
other Musalmans, The total number of Bohras is 31,000. The 
other classes of converted Hindus are Molesalams (formerly 




BROACH DISTRICT 


309 


Rajputs), Maliks, Momnas, and Shaikhs. The Shaikhs number 
altogether 12,000. With the exception of the trading Bohras, 
who are well-to-do, the Broach Musalmans are for the most part 
in a depressed condition. There is also a peculiar Musalman 
community called Nagoris, who have long been settled in the 
District. They are said to derive their name from their former 
home, Nagor, a town in Malwa, and are now carters and 
labourers. 

The chief agricultural classes of Broach District are Patidars 
(also called Kunbis), Girasias, Kachhias, Malls, and Kolis ; the 
trading classes are Vaishnava Banias, as well as Shrawaks or 
Jains, Bohras of the Shiah sect, and Parsis. The Patidars, as 
peaceable as they are industrious, form the most respectable 
part of the rural population ; they are well acquainted with the 
qualities and powers of all varieties of the soil. The Girasias 
afford an instance of a complete change from the fierceness and 
turbulence of a martial class to the quietness, obedience, and 
industry of tillers of the soil. The Kachhias are skilful market- 
gardeners. The Kolis, who stand lower in the social scale than 
the Kunbis, formerly bore a bad reputation as plunderers, but 
they are now a reformed race. In many villages they are as 
steady and hard-working cultivators as any in the District. A 
few Parsis are engaged in agriculture, and are said to be active 
and skilful husbandmen. Most of the members of this class 
deal in merchandise, and with the Shrawaks form the two most 
wealthy sections of the trading community. Agriculture sup- 
ports 60 per cent, of the population, 16 per cent, are supported 
by industries, and 2 per cent, by commerce. 

The number of Christians has increased during the last Christian 
decade from 128 to 719. Of these, 685 are native Christians, missionSt 
The Christian population is found mainly in Broach city and 
taluka. Two missions are at work in the District : the Irish 
Presbyterian at Broach city, which supports a hospital, two 
dispensaries, an industrial school, two orphanages, and two 
primary schools; and the German Baptist Mission at Anklesvar, 
which supports an orphanage and an agricultural settlement. 

The soil is chiefly black, but there are also tracts of brown Agricul- 
soil in Anklesvar, Amod, and Jambusar. Both kinds are rich, ^ n g 0n ‘ 
the chief black-soil crops being cotton, jowdr , sesamum, tur % 
wheat, and rice ; while bdjra, ) jowdr , and pulse are grown in 
the lighter soils. Tobacco is raised on the alluvial lands of 
the Narbada, The early crops are sown in June, and, except 
cotton, which is seldom ready for picking before February, are 
harvested in October and November. The late crops are 



3 10 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


sown in October and reaped in February. A field of black 
soil requires only one ploughing, and is seldom manured. 
Light soils, on the other hand, are ploughed three or four 
times, and are generally manured. The entire set of imple- 
ments used on a farm may be valued at from Rs. 15 to 
Rs. 20. 

Chief The chief statistics of cultivation are as shown below, in 
square miles:- 

tistics and 
principal 
crops. 


A considerable area of salt land has been taken up by 
private individuals for reclamation. The lands have been 
leased by Government on special conditions, rent free for the 
first ten years, and for the following twenty years at rents 
varying from 4 to 8 annas per acre, to be subject to the usual 
assessment after thirty years. The tenure of the District is 
mainly ryotwari , inam and jagir lands covering only about 
2 per cent. The holders of unalienated land belong to two 
classes— proprietors of large estates or thakurs , and peasant 
proprietors or ryots. Of the total assessed area, 60,760 acres, 
or about xo per cent., are in the possession of men belonging 
to the landlord class, who are the heirs of old Rajput families, 
A peasant proprietor is either a member of a cultivating com- 
munity, or an independent holder with an individual interest 
in the land he tills. Of the whole number of villages in the 
District, the lands of 244, or 59-5 per cent., were in 1862 held 
by corporations of shareholders, and the remaining 166, or 
40*5 per cent., by individual cultivators. In 1903-4, 209 were 
held under the former conditions, and 197 by individuals. 
Cotton and jowar are extensively grown in the District, 
occupying 365 and 180 square miles respectively. Wheat 
(118) is also largely grown, especially in the Vagra and 
Jambusar talukas . Next in importance come sesamum (31), 
rice (23), and bajra (16). Tobacco is one of the important 


Taluka. 

Total 

area. 

Cultivated. 

Irrigated. 

Cultivable 

waste 

Jambusar . 

387 

244 

009 

19.O 

Amod . 

176 

145 

0.02 

0.5 

Vagra . 

308 

204 

o.ol 

6.0 

Broach 

290* 

200 

0-22 

2.0 

Auklesvar . 

306* 

213 

0.50 

21.5 

Total 

1,467+ 

1,006 

00 

6 

49 


* The difference between these figures and those shown on p. 308 is due 
to the fact that since the Census certain villages have been transferred 
from Broach to Anklesvar. 

t The area for which statistics are not available is 20 square miles 




BROACH DISTRICT 


3 ” 


crops in the Broach taluka, and lang (Lathyrus sativus) is also 
largely grown (66 square miles). 

Since 1812 attempts have been made from time to time to Improve- 
improve the cultivation and preparation of cotton. So far the m 
result has been to show that foreign varieties will not thrive in tml 
the District. In the matter of ginning, considerable improve- P Tactice * 
ments have been made. By the introduction of the Platt- 
Macarthy roller-gin in 1864, the old native hand-gin (charkka) 
has been entirely supplanted. During the decade ending 
1903-4, 24 lakhs was advanced to the ryots under the Land 
Improvement and Agriculturists’ Loans Acts, of which 1 1 lakhs 
was lent in 1900-1 and 8-6 lakhs in 1899-1900. 

The domestic animals are cows, buffaloes, oxen, ponies, Cattle, 
asses, sheep, and goats. The cattle are of two breeds : the P onies > &c * 
small indigenous bullock, and the large bullock of Northern 
Gujarat. The smaller breed of bullocks, generally driven in 
trotting carts, are worth from Rs. 80 to Rs. 120 each. 
Prosperous cultivators pay much attention to the appearance 
and condition of their cattle. 

Only an infinitesimal portion of the District (533 acres in Irrigation. 
1903-4) is irrigated. The chief sources of supply are 39 
Government ‘minor’ works, 1,153 wells, and 100 tanks. Nine 
drainage channels were recently excavated by famine labour in 
the District at a cost of Rs. 42,000. 

There are no forests in the District ; but a tract of about Forests. 
10,000 acres in extent has recently been set apart for the 
rearing of babul and other trees. 

With the exception of a conglomerate stone and limestone Minerals, 
in the Anklesvar taluka , the plain of Broach is destitute of 
mineral resources. 

The English and the Dutch were tempted to establish Arts and 
factories at Broach, owing to its reputation for the manufacture ^ s ufac " 
of fine silk and cotton goods. Competition with the machine- 
made article has so reduced the number of weavers of hand- 
made fabrics that, at the Census of 1901, the weavers employed 
in the local mills were twice as numerous as the hand-workers. 

There are four cotton-spinning and weaving mills at Broach, 
with 62,000 spindles and 859 looms, giving employment to 
2,212 operatives, and producing annually 5,000,000 lb. of yarn 
and 3,000,000 lb. of cloth. Some roughly finished hardware, 
mainly knives and tools, is made at Amod. 

The trade guilds of Broach include the leading capitalists 
of the city, the bankers and money-changers, cotton-dealers, 
agents, and those engaged in the business of insurance ; other 



312 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


unions represent the smaller trades, and are conducted on the 
panchayat system common in some parts of India. Details of 
the constitution and objects of these associations are given in 
the article on Ahmadabad District, where the system is 
more fully developed than in Broach. One of the main 
sources of revenue of the chief guild of Broach city is a tax 
of from 4 to 8 annas per bale of cotton. Except in the case 
of cotton bills, there is also a charge of one anna on every bill 
of exchange negotiated. The receipts from these taxes are 
applied to objects of charity and religion. The chief institution 
maintained is the hospital ( panjrapoc ) for old and sick animals, 
supported at a yearly cost of about Rs. 5,300. In addition to 
fees and fines levied upon members for breaches of trade rules, 
some of the guilds adopt special means for collecting funds. 
Money-changers, grain-dealers, grocers, and tobacco merchants 
make the observance of their trade holidays— the 2nd, the nth, 
and the last day of each fortnight — a source of revenue to the 
general body. On the occasion of these holidays, only one 
shop is allowed to remain open in each market. The right to 
open this shop is put up to auction, and the amount bid is 
kept for caste purposes. Similarly, the bankers, cotton-dealers, 
insurers, and bricklayers have, for trade purposes, imposed 
a tax on the members of their craft or calling. In the case of 
other classes, the necessary sums are collected by subscription 
among the members of the caste. 

Com- Formerly the Gujarat and Malwa trade passed through the 

merce * ports of Broach and Tankari ; but since the opening of the 
railway, trade to the sea-coast has greatly diminished. Eighteen 
hundred years ago Broach was one of the chief seats of trade 
between India and Western Asia. Gold and silver, slaves, 
pearls, Italian and Persian wines, and dates were largely im- 
ported; and rice, ghi, cotton, oil, and sugar were exported, 
besides sandal-wood, ebony, and muslins. This trade con- 
tinued until the seventeenth century, when it began to centre 
in Surat, and subsequently moved to Bombay. Only a small 
coasting trade now remains. Cotton, wheat, and piece-goods 
are the chief exports, while yarn, metals, sugar, piece-goods, 
and timber are imported. In 1903-4 the port of Broach had 
an import trade of 18 lakhs and an export trade of 13 lakhs, 
while Tankari on the Dhadhar river had a total import and 
export trade combined of 5 lakhs. 

Commmu- External communication is now effected by the Bombay, 

Railways Baroda > and Central India Railway, which passes through the 

and roads. Anklesvar and Broach ialukas , crossing the Narbada by a fine 



BROACH DISTRICT 


3*3 

bridge of 25 spans. A branch of the Rajpipla State Railway 
connects Anklesvar with Nandod. The former traveises the 
District for 27 miles and the latter for 6J miles. Passengers 
from Kathiawar can also arrive by sea. The District possesses 
37 miles of metalled roads and 138 miles of unmetalled 
roads. About 28 miles of the former class are maintained by 
the Public Works department. Avenues of trees are planted 
along 52 miles. The estuaries of the Narbada and Dhadhar 
rivers afford shelter to coasting vessels during the stormy 
months of the monsoon. There were in 1820 five seaports, of 
which only two, Broach and Tankari, are still seats of trade. 

The years 1630, 1631, and 1755 are said to have been Famine, 
seasons of scarcity, in which, owing to the failure of crops, 
remissions of revenue were granted. In 1760-1, 1773, and 
1786-7 portions of the District verged so closely upon famine 
that the revenue had to be very largely remitted. The great 
famine of 1790 was caused by the entire failure of the mon- 
soon. The year 1819 was marked by excessive rainfall, and 
1838, 1840, and 1868 by total or partial failure of ram. In 
1812 the District suffered from the ravages of locusts, and in 
1835 from frost. Years of partial drought have also been 
numerous. In 1878 the autumnal crops failed in two of the 
western talukas> on account of excessive rainfall • all the fields 
sown after a certain period were attacked by swarms of grubs. 

Between 1899 and 1902 the District suffered from severe 
famine due to insufficient rain. Relief works, opened in 
September, 1899, were continued till October, 1902. The 
highest daily average on works was 106,215 in February, 1900, 
and on gratuitous relief 72,473 in August, 1900. The mortality 
rose to 87 per 1,000. Nearly 30 lakhs of revenue was re- 
mitted and over 22 lakhs 1 was advanced to cultivators. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into five District 
talukas : namely, Amod, Broach, Anklesvar, Jambusar, and 
Vagra, the petty subdivision (petha) of Hansot being in- an 
eluded in Anklesvar. The administration in revenue matters 
is entrusted to a Collector and two Assistants, of whom one is 
a Covenanted Civilian, 

For judicial purposes the District was formerly included Civil and 
within the jurisdiction of the Judge of Surat, It now contains ? nn ? inal 
one District Judge with full powers, and 4 Subordinate Judges. 

Criminal justice is administered by 8 Magistrates. The Dis- 
trict is not remarkable for serious offences against property; 

1 This figure is for the whole famine period from Sept. 1, 1899, to 
Oct. 31, 1902. 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


Land 

revenue 

adminis- 

tration. 


Munici- 

palities 


3*4 

but among the cultivating Bohras and the Bhils outbursts of 
violence are not uncommon. 

At the time of the introduction of British rule (1803), there 
was in many villages an association of members of the pro- 
prietary body, by which the amount of the state demand was 
distributed according to a fixed proportion among the members. 
The peculiarities of this joint tenure ( bhagdari ) have, to some 
extent, disappeared before the system of collecting the revenue 
direct from the several shareholders. 

At first the land revenue demand was fixed after an inspection 
of the crops by revenue superintendents or desais. This system 
led to numerous abuses. In 1811 the territory forming the 
original Broach District-— namely, the tdlukas of Broach, 
Anklesvar, and Hansot— was surveyed. Later, the survey was- 
extended to the remaining tdlukas received under the Tieaty 
of Poona in 1818. The first settlement in simple Government 
villages was made with the village headmen, and aimed at 
ascertaining the value of the crop in each holding. But in 
1837 a new settlement was attempted, egulated by the 
character of the soil and the range of local prices. The year 
1848 saw the settlement revised owing to the fall in prices, 
and in 1870-1 a fresh settlement on the lines adopted else- 
where in the Presidency was introduced. Under this settle- 
ment the realizations were about 19J lakhs. The revision 
survey, completed since 1901, shows a decrease in cultivation 
of over 4,000 acres, and, in assessment, of 4 per cent. The 
average rates of assessment are : e dry ’ land, Rs. 4-0 (maximum 
Rs. 6-8, minimum Rs. 3-0) ; rice land, Rs. 5-14 (maximum 
scale Rs. 5-4, minimum Rs. 3-0) ; and garden land, Rs. 8-1 r 
(maximum Rs. 10-0, minimum Rs. 7-0). 

Collections of revenue, in thousands of rupees, have been 
as follows : — 



1880- 1. 

1890-1, 

1900-1. 

1903-4 

Land revenue . 

Total revenue . 

28,58 

34,42 

28,88 

36,87 

I2 >99 

' 9,76 

30,05 

37,78 


A small aristocracy of Rajput pedigree still occupies a 
position of some importance in the District ; but being heavily 
burdened with debt, their estates would have been attached 
and sold if Government had not interfered and assumed the 
administration of their property under Act XV of 1871. 

The District contains five municipalities : Broach, Ankles- 
var, Jambusar, Hansot, and Amod. The District board 




BROACH DISTRICT 


3i5 

and five taluka boards, which are in charge of local affairs and local 
elsewhere, have an average revenue of more than z\ lakhs, fc, ° Ards * 
chiefly derived from the land cess, and spent Rs. 61,000 on 
roads and buildings in 1903-4. 

The police of the District are controlled by a Superintendent, Police and 
assisted by two inspectors. The total strength of the force is l ails * 

454 persons, including 7 chief constables, 89 head constables, 
and 358 men. A body of 6 mounted police under one daffadar 
is also maintained. There are 7 police stations. The District 
contains 6 subsidiary jails and 12 lock-ups, with accommoda- 
tion for 255 prisoners. The daily average prison population 
in 1904 was 48, of whom 8 were females. 

Broach stands first as regards literacy among the twenty-four Education. 
Districts of the Presidency, and 15-3 percent, of the population 
(28*3 males and i-8 females) could read and write in 1901. 

In 1880-1 there were 218 schools attended by 12,724 pupils, 
who had increased to 17,276 in 1890-1, and numbered 16,888 
in 1901. In 1903-4, 328 public and private schools were 
attended by 17,424 pupils, including 2,967 girls. Out of 299 
public institutions, 252 are managed by local boards, 32 by 
municipalities, one by Government, 9 are aided and 5 unaided. 

The public schools include one high school, 5 middle and 
293 primary schools. The expenditure in 1903-4 was nearly 
ij lakhs, of which Rs. 16,000 was derived from fees, and 
83 pen cent, was devoted to primary education. 

Besides a hospital at Broach the District contains 8 dispen- Hospitals 
saries, with accommodation for 74 in-patients. Including 538 ancl dis " 
in-patients, 51,500 persons were treated in 1904, and 1,699 pensarles ' 
operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, 
of which Rs. 9,000 was met from Local and municipal funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 Vaccina- 
was 7,186, representing a proportion of 25 per 1,000, which tl0n * 
is slightly below the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer , vol. ii, Surat and 
Broach (1877).] 

Jambusar Taluka.— Northern taluka of Broach District, 

Bombay, lying between 21 0 54' and 22 0 15' N. and 72 0 31' 
and 72 0 56' E., with an area of 387 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 61,846, compared with 82,396 in 1891, 

The density, 160 persons per square mile, is below the District 
average. The taluka contains one town, Jambusar (population, 

10, 1 8 1), the head-quarters ; and 8 1 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 5-3 lakhs. The country 
consists of two tracts of level land. Towards the west lies 



316 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


a barren plain, and in the east is a well-wooded stretch of light 
soil. In the latter tract are large and sweet springs, but in 
the former the water-supply is defective. The staple crops are 
jowar> bajra , and wheat; while miscellaneous crops include 
pulses, peas, tobacco, cotton, and indigo. 

Amod Taluka. — North-eastern tdluka of Broach District, 
Bombay, lying between 21 0 51' and 22 0 3' N. and 72 0 41' and 
73 0 4' E., with an area of 176 square miles. The population 
m 1901 was 31,911, compared with 38,546 in 1891. The 
density, 18 1 persons per square mile, is below the District 
average. The tdluka contains one town, Amod (population, 
4,375), the head-quarters ; and 51 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 3-2 lakhs. In the neigh- 
bourhood of the Dhadhar river, which forms the northern 
boundary, the country is wooded. The tdluka is chiefly black 
cotton soil, shading off towards the west into a grey soil too 
salt for cultivation. The water-supply is deficient. Of the 
cultivated area, grain crops occupy a third, and cotton 
a half. 

Vagra. — Central tdluka of Broach District, Bombay, lying 
between 21 0 39' and 21 0 57' N. and 72 0 32' and 72 0 55' E., 
with an area of 308 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 26,686, compared with 36,939 in 1891. There are 69 
villages but no town. The head-quarters are at the village of 
Vagra. It is the most thinly-populated tdluka in the District, 
and the density, 87 persons per square mile, is much below 
the average. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 exceeded 
3 lakhs. The eastern part of the tdluka is a flat rich surface 
of black soil ; but the west, with the exception of a small fertile 
tract of light soil, forms an unfruitful salt plain. The water- 
supply is deficient in quantity and of inferior quality, a large 
proportion of the wells being brackish. 

Broach Taluka. — Central tdluka of Broach District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 21 0 38' and 21 0 56' N. and 72 0 45' and 
73 0 1 o' E., with an area of 303 square miles. The population 
in 1901 was 1x0,189, compared with 112,906 in 1891. The 
density, 364 persons per square mile, is the highest in the 
District, and greatly exceeds the average. It contains one 
town, Broach (population, 42,896), the head-quarters; and 
105 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to nearly 6 lakhs. Almost the whole of the tdluka is a flat 
rich plain of black soil stretching towards the north bank of 
the Narbada, 43 miles of whose course lie within its limits. 
The remainder consists of a few islands in the bed of the 



BROACH DISTRICT 


3i7 


river, and a narrow strip of land on the southern bank, nearly 
opposite the city of Broach. The supply of tank and well 
water is defective. 

Anklesvar Taluka.— Southern taluka of Broach District, 
Bombay (including the petha or petty subdivision of Hansot), 
lying between 21 0 25' and 21 0 43' E. and 72 0 35' and 73°8'E., 
with an area of 294 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
61,131, compared with 70,703 in 1891, the average density 
being 208 persons per square mile. It contains 99 villages 
and two towns, Anklesvar (population, 10,225), the head- 
quarters, being the larger. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 5-9 lakhs. Seven square miles are 
occupied by the lands of alienated villages. The water-supply 
is good. About 3 miles from the Bombay, Baroda, and Cen- 
tral India Railway on the east lies an elevated ridge, from 
which the country slopes gradually down towards the Narbada. 
In seasons of heavy rainfall many villages are flooded. The 
tract on the north of the Narbada is the most fertile in the 
taluka , , while the lands in the peninsula between the Kim 
and Narbada, which produce only wheat and jowar ■ require 
heavy rain. 

Amod Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Broach District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 o' N. and 
72 0 52' E., about a mile south of the Dhadhar river, 24 miles 
north of Broach city, and 30 miles south-west of Baroda. 
Population (1901), 4,375. It is the residence of a thakur , , 
who owns about 21,200 acres of land, with an income of 
Rs. 72,000. Workers in iron make good edged tools, such 
as knives and razors. Amod has a small trade, chiefly in 
cotton. A municipality was established in 1890, its average 
income during the ten years ending 1901 being Rs. 6,100. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,046. The town contains a dis- 
pensary and three schools — two for boys, including an English 
school, and one for girls, attended by 251 and 86 pupils 
respectively. 

Anklesvar Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the 
same name in Broach District, Bombay, situated in 21 0 38' N. 
and 72 0 59' E., on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway, 6 miles south of Broach city and 3 miles from the 
left bank of the Narbada. It is connected by road with 
Hansot (in the Anklesvar taluka ), 12 miles to the west, and 
by rail with Nandod in the State of Rajplpla (Rewa Kantha 
Agency). Population (1901), 10,225. Cotton is the staple 
article of commerce, and there are a few ginning factories. 



3 i8 NORTHERN DIVISION 

There are also a trade in rafters and bamboos, brought from 
the RajpTpla forests, and a small manufacture of country soap 
and stone handmills. The old paper-manufacturing industry 
has now ceased. The municipality was established in 1876^ 
and had an average revenue during the decade ending 1901 
of Rs. 20,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 23,600, derived 
chiefly from octroi (Rs. 8,000) and house and land tax (Rs.5j6oo). 
The town contains a Sub-Judge’s court, a dispensary, a library, 
and eight schools, including an English school for boys and 
one for girls, attended respectively by 576 and 98 pupils. 

Broach City ( Bharukachha , or BkarucA). — Head-quarters 
of the District of the same name in Gujarat, Bombay, situated 
in 21 0 42' N. and 72 0 59' E., on the right bank of the Narbada 
river, about 30 miles from its mouth, and on the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway. The area, including 
suburbs, is 2J square miles. In 1777 the city is said to have 
contained 50,000 inhabitants; in 1812,37,71 6. The Census 
of 1872 returned 36,932 ; that of 1881, 37,281 ; that of 1891, 
40,168; and that of 1901, 42,896, comprising 26,852 Hindus, 
12,022 Muhammadans, and 2,153 Parsls. The only classes 
calling for special notice are, among Hindus, the Bhargav 
Brahmans, who claim to be descendants of the sage Bhrigu. 
The Parsls, from the number and antiquity of their ( towers 
of silence,’ are supposed to have settled at Broach as far back 
as the eleventh century. Formerly ship-builders and skilled 
weavers, they have suffered from the decay of both trades. 
Many of them migrated to Bombay to improve their circum- 
stances ; and the frugality of those that are left enables them 
to keep out of pauperism. The Musalmans are for the most 
part in a condition of poverty. 

Seen from the southern bank of the Narbada, or approached 
by the railway bridge from the south, the massive stone 
wall, rising from the water’s edge and lining the river bank for 
about a mile, and the buildings standing out from the high 
ground behind, give the city a picturesque appearance. The 
fortifications, though by local tradition ascribed to Siddha Raja 
Jayasingha of Anhilvada' (twelfth century), were, according 
to the author of the Mirat-i-Sikandari } built in 1526 under 
the orders of Sultan Bahadur, king of Ahmadabad. In the 
middle of the seventeenth century (1660) the walls are said 
to have been destroyed by the emperor Aurangzeb, and about 
twenty-five years later to have been rebuilt by the same monarch' 
as a protection against the attacks of the Marathas. . Of late 
years the fortifications on the land side have been allowed to 



BROACH DISTRICT 


S I 9 


fall into disrepair, and in some places almost every trace of 
them has disappeared. On the southern side, where protection 
is required against the floods of the river, the city wall is kept 
in good order. Built of large blocks of stone, the river face of 
the wall, raised from 30 to 40 feet high, stretches along the 
bank for about a mile. It is provided with five gates, and the 
top forms a broad pathway. The circuit of the wall includes 
an area of three-eighths of a square mile, which in the centre 
rises to a height of from 60 to 80 feet above the surrounding 
country. This mound, from the broken bricks and other debris 
dug out of it, shows signs of being, in part at least, of artificial 
construction. At the same time the presence of one or two 
small hillocks to the north of the city favours the opinion that 
it may have been the rising ground on the river bank which 
led the early settlers to choose Broach as the site for a city. 
Within the walls the streets are narrow, and in some places 
steep. The houses are generally two storeys high, with walls 
of brick and tiled roofs. In the eastern part of the city are 
some large family mansions, said to have been built in 1 790. 
In the suburbs the houses have a meaner appearance, many 
of them being not more than one storey high, with walls of 
wattle and daub. 

With the exception of a stone mosque constructed out of 
an older Hindu temple, the city contains no buildings of in- 
terest. To the west are the groves of the well-wooded suburbs 
of Vejalpur, and northwards two lofty mounds with Muham- 
madan tombs relieve the line of the level plain, while on the 
north-east rows of tamarind-trees mark where a hundred years 
ago was the Nawab’s garden with f summer pavilions, fountains, 
and canals.’ To the east are the spots that, to a Hindu, give 
Broach a special interest, the site of king Bali’s sacrifice and 
the temple of Bhrigu Rishi. About 200 yards from the bastion, 
at the north-west corner of the fort, is the tomb of Brigadier 
David Wedderburn, who was killed at the siege of Broach on 
November 14, 1772. Two miles west of the fort are a few 
large and massive tombs, raised to members of the Dutch 
factory. Beyond the Dutch tombs are the five ParsI ‘ towers 
of silence ’ : four being old and disused, and the fifth built 
lately by a rich merchant of Bombay. 

The city of Broach was, according to local legend, originally 
founded by the sage Bhrigu, and called Bhrigupur or Bhrigu’s 
city. In the first century of the Christian era the sage’s settle- 
ment had given its name Barugaza to a large province, and had 
itself become one of the chief ports in Western India. In the 



320 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


early part of the seventh century, according to the Chinese 
pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang, it contained ten Buddhist convents, 
with 300 monks and 10 temples. Half a century later Broach 
was a place of sufficient importance to attract some of the 
earliest Musalman expeditions against Western India. Under 
the Rajput dynasties of Anhilvada (a.d. 750-1300) Broach was 
a flourishing seaport. During the troubles that followed the 
overthrow of the Anhilvada kings, the city would seem to have 
changed hands on more than one occasion. But with the 
exception of two years (1534-6), during which it was held by 
the officers of the emperor Humayun, Broach remained (1391 
to 1572) under the Musalman dynasty of Ahmadabad. About 
this time the city was twice (1536 and 1546) plundered by the 
Portuguese, who, except for its streets c so narrow most of them 
that two horsemen could not pass at the same time/ admired 
the city 4 with its magnificent and lofty houses, with their costly 
lattices, the famous ivory and black-wood workshops, and its 
townsmen well skilled in mechanics — chiefly weavers, who 
make the finest doth in the world ’ (. Decadas de Couto , v. 325). 
In 1573 Broach was surrendered to Akbar by Muzaffar Shah III, 
the last of the line of Ahmadabad kings. Ten years later 
Muzaffar Shah recovered the city, but held it only for a few 
months, when it again fell into the hands of the emperor of 
Delhi. In 1616 a British factory, and about 1620 a Dutch 
factory, were established at Broach. In 1660 some of the 
fortifications of the city were razed to the ground by the order 
of Aurangzeb. In this defenceless state it was twice, in 1675 
and 1686, plundered by the Marathas. After the second 
attack Aurangzeb ordered that the walls should be rebuilt and 
the city named Sukhabad. In 1736 the Musalman comman- 
dant of the port was raised by Nizam-ul-mulk to the rank of 
Nawab. In April, 177 r, an attempt on the part of the English 
to take Broach failed ; but in November, 1772, a second force 
was sent against the city, and this time it was stormed and 
captured. In 1783 it was handed over to Sindhia, but was 
retaken in 1803 by the British, and since that time it has 
remained in their possession. 

Broach has a high school with an attendance of 212, a 
middle school with 186 pupils, and 19 vernacular schools, 
11 for boys with 1,636 pupils and 8 for girls with 761. The 
municipality, established in 1852, had an average income of a 
lakh during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 91,000, chiefly derived from octroi (Rs. 50,000). 
Besides the ordinary Government revenue offices, the city con- 



BROACH DISTRICT 


321 


tains a Sub- Judge’s court, a civil hospital, a library, and a 
railway dispensary. 

The city has been surveyed, with a view to protect the rights 
of both the Government and the public. The drinking-water 
used by the inhabitants of the intramural quarters comes in 
part from the Narbada. There are also many good wells in 
the city; and, unlike Surat and Ahmadabad, the custom of 
having cisterns in dwelling-houses for the storage of rain-water 
is not general. 

Broach is one of the oldest seaports in India. Eighteen 
hundred years ago it was a chief seat of the commerce then 
carried on between India and the ports of Western Asia. 
In more recent times, though the trade of Gujarat has never 
again centred in the harbours of this District, Broach so far 
maintained its position that in the seventeenth century it sent 
ships eastward to Java and Sumatra, and westward to Aden 
and the Red Sea. Later on the foreign trade of Gujarat 
collected in Surat, until from Surat it was transferred to Bom- 
bay. The cotton formerly exported from Broach to China and 
Bengal was sent through Surat and Bombay ; and as far back 
as 1815 the Broach ports ceased to have any foreign commerce. 
They now possess only a coasting trade south to Bombay and 
the intermediate ports, and north as far as Mandvi in Cutch. 
The total value of the sea-borne trade of Broach in 1903-4 
was 31 lakhs, of which 18 lakhs represented imports and 
13 lakhs exports. The chief articles of trade with the south 
are, exports — flowers of the mahua tree, wheat, and cotton ; 
imports — molasses, rice, betel-nuts, timber, coal, iron, and 
coco-nuts. To the west and north the exports are grain, cotton 
seed, mahua flowers, tiles, and firewood ; the imports, chiefly 
stone for building. 

In ancient times cloth is mentioned as one of the chief 
articles of export from Broach ; and in the seventeenth century, 
when the English and Dutch first settled in Gujarat, it was the 
fame of its cloth manufactures that led them to establish 
factories at Broach. The kinds of cloth for which Broach was 
specially known at that time would seem to have been baftas , 
broad and narrow dimities, and other fine calicoes. The gain 
to the European trader of having a factory at Broach was that 
he might * oversee the weavers, buying up the cotton yarn to 
employ them all the rains, when he sets on foot his investments, 
that they may be ready against the season for the ships.’ 
About the middle of the seventeenth century the District is 
said to have produced more manufactures, and those of the 

bo. i. y 



322 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


finest fabrics, than the same extent of country in any other 
part of the world, not excepting Bengal. In consequence of 
the increasing competition of the produce of steam factories in 
Bombay, Ahmadabad, and Broach itself, hand-loom weaving 
in Broach has greatly declined. There are four cotton-spinning 
and weaving mills, with a nominal capital (in 1904) of 14 lakhs, 
and containing 859 looms and 62,000 spindles. The out-turn 
of yarn and cloth is 5*4 and 3-1 million pounds, and 2,212 
persons are employed. 

Hansot. — Town in the Anklesvar tdluka of Broach District, 
Bombay, situated in 21 0 35' N. and 72 0 48' E., on the left 
bank of the Narbada, about 15 miles south-west of Broach 
city. Population (1901), 3,925. Hansot was formerly the 
head-quarters of a tdluka of the same name, acquired by the 
British in 1775, restored to the Peshwa in 1783, and again 
acquired m 1803. The municipality, established in 1889, had 
an average income of about Rs. 5,000 during the decade end- 
ing 1901. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,377* The town 
contains a dispensary and four schools, three (including an 
English school) for boys and one for girls, attended respectively 
by 245 and 35 pupils. 

Jambusar Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the 
same name in Broach District, Bombay, situated in 22 0 3' N. 
and 7 2 0 48' E., 5 miles north of the Dhadhar river, and 27 
miles from Broach city. Population (1901), 10,181. The town 
was first occupied by the British in 1775 and remained in their 
possession until 1783, when it was restored to the Marathas. 
Under the Treaty of Poona (1817) it was finally surrendered to 
the British. To the north of the town is a lake of considerable 
size sacred to Nageshwar, the snake-god, with richly wooded 
banks, and in the centre of the water rises a small island about 
40 feet in diameter, overgrown with mango and other trees. 
The water-supply is chiefly derived from this tank. In the 
town is a strong fort, erected by Mr. Callender when Jambusar 
was held by the British from 1775 to r 7 ^ 3 * This fort furnishes 
accommodation for the treasury, the civil courts, and other 
Government offices. The town contains a Sub-Judge’s court, 
a dispensary, and seven schools— six (including an English 
school) for boys and one for girls— attended respectively by 
553 and 106 pupils. 

The municipality, established in 1856, had an average 
income of about Rs. 12,000 during the decade ending 1901. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 13,900, including a grant of 
Rs. 2,000 from Government for education. In former times. 



BROACH DISTRICT 


323 


"when Tankari, 10 miles south-west of Jambusar, was a port of 
little less consequence than Broach, Jambusar itself enjoyed a 
considerable trade. Indigo was then the chief export. With 
the opening of the railway (1861), the traffic by sea at Tankari 
fell off considerably. On the other hand, Jambusar is only 18 
miles distant from the Palej station on the Bombay, Baroda, 
.and Central India Railway; and, as roads have been made 
•connecting Jambusar with both Palej and’ Broach, a traffic by 
land has to some extent taken the place of the old sea-borne 
trade. It is in contemplation to connect Broach and Jambusar 
by rail. There are six cotton-ginning factories. Tanning, the 
manufacture of leather, and calico-printing are carried on to a 
small extent, and there are also manufactures of ivory armlets 
and toys. 

Kadod. — Place of Hindu pilgrimage in the Broach tdluka 
of Broach District, Bombay, situated in 2i°44'N. and 73 0 
8' E., on the right bank of the Narbada, about half-way between 
the city of Broach and Suklatlrtha. The site of the fair is 
a very small hamlet with only twelve houses and a population 
(1901) of 53. The ceremonies, which occur once in every 
nineteen years when Vaishakh (April-May) happens to be the 
intercalary month, are in honour of Mahadeo, under the name 
of Koteshwar or Kotilingeshwar, and last for a whole month. 
Mr. Williams in his Memoir on Broach mentions that one of 
the periodical gatherings took place in 1812. In that year the 
total number of visitors was estimated at 200,000, and the most 
perfect order and good conduct are said to have been main- 
tained by the crowd. In 1869 people began to collect on 
April 13, and all was not over till May 11 ; the greatest atten- 
dance at any one time was estimated at 100,000, and the total 
throughout the whole month at 500,000. The last fair was 
held in 1888, when the bed of the river was crowded with 
lingams , which the people in many cases carried away to their 
homes. During the time of the fair the pilgrims live in sheds 
and temporary huts. The Narbada flows close by the site of 
the fair; but as the gathering takes place in the hot season, 
and below the limit of the tide, fresh water is hard to obtain. 
There is a temple at Kadod consisting of one chamber about 
1 1 feet square, and entered by a door 5 feet 2 inches high and 
3 feet 3 inches wide. 

Suklatlrtha (or Shukla Tlrth). — Village in the Broach 
tdluka of Broach District, Bombay, situated in 21 0 45' N. and 
73 0 *f E., on the northern bank of the Narbada, 10 miles from 
Broach city. Population (1901), 2,348. The most important 

y 2 



3 2 4 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


fair in the District is held here every year, about November, on 
the occasion of the full moon of the month Kartik. It lasts 
for five days, and on an average 25,000 people attend. Within 
a short distance of each other are three sacred ghats, or tirthas 
— the Kavitirtha, the Hunkareshwartlrtha, and the Suklatlrtha. 
There is a temple at Hunkareshwartlrtha. The name of 
Hunkareshwar is said to have been given to the god because 
with a cry of ‘ hun ’ the image came up from the water of the 
Narbada. 

The following is the legendary account of the discovery of 
Suklatlrtha. In former times men were aware that somewhere 
on earth was a spot holy enough to purify from all sin ; but 
none, even the wisest, knew where it lay. A certain king of 
Ujjain, Chanakya, growing old and thinking over the evil of 
his life, longed to find out this Suklatlrtha, or purifying spot. 
He therefore told the crows, whose feathers were at that time 
white, and who alone of birds had leave to enter the realms of 
the gods, to fly to Yama, the ruler of the infernal regions, and 
to tell him that king Chanakya was dead. The crows were to 
listen to the plans of the god Yama for the treatment of the 
king’s soul, and were to discover from his words the locality of 
Suklatlrtha. They were able, on their return, to tell the king 
to start down the stream of the Narbada, in a black-sailed boat, 
and when the blackness left his sail and it became white, he 
might know that he had reached his goal. The king obeyed ; 
and after passing down-stream for several days, looking in vain 
for a change in the colour of his sail, he suddenly saw it flash 
white and knew that his journey was over. Leaving his boat 
he went on shore, bathed, and was purified. Yama, however, 
hearing of the deception practised upon him, was angry, and, 
forbidding the crows to appear again in the realms of the 
gods, tarnished their plumage with stains, from which till this 
day they have failed to free themselves. There is more than 
one instance in legend or ancient history of men in high 
position coming to Suklatlrtha for purification. Perhaps the 
best known is that of Chandragupta and his minister Cha- 
nakya, coming to be cleansed from the guilt of the murder of 
Chandragupta’s eight brothers. So, also, in the beginning of 
the eleventh century, Chamund, king of Anhilvada, heart- 
broken at the loss of his eldest son, came as a patient to 
Suklatlrtha and remained there till he died. The ceremony 
of launching a boat with black sails in the hope of absolu- 
tion from sin was, as noticed by Mr. Forbes, once practised 
at Suklatlrtha. But the pilgrims of these days use instead 



SURAT DISTRICT 


3 2 5 


of a boat a common earthen jar containing a lighted lamp, 
which, as it drifts down the stream, carries away with it their 
guilt 

Surat District.— District in the Northern Division of the Bonn- 
Bombay Presidency, lying between 20° 17' and 21 0 28' N. and ^nes, con- 
72 0 35' and 73 0 29' E., with an area of 1,653 square miles, anSl 0 ^ 
It is bounded on the north by Broach District and the andnver 
State of Baroda ; on the east by the States of Baroda, Rajpfpla, systems * 
Bansda, and Dharampur ; on the south by Thana District and 
the Portuguese territory of Daman ; and on the west by the 
Arabian Sea. A broad strip of Baroda (Gaikwar’s) territory 
separates the north-western from the south-eastern portion of 
the District. 

Surat District consists of a wide alluvial plain, stretching 
between the Dang hills and the coast, from the Kim river 
on the north to the Damanganga on the south, a distance of 
about 80 miles. The coast-line runs along the Arabian Sea 
where it begins to narrow into the Gulf of Cambay. Small 
hillocks of drifted sand fringe the greater part of the shore, in 
some parts dry and barren, but in others watered by springs, 
enclosed by hedges, and covered with a thick growth of 
creepers and date-palms. Through the openings of the river 
mouths, however, the tide runs up behind the barrier of sand- 
hills, and floods either permanently or temporarily a large area 
(estimated at 100,000 acres in 1876 and at 12,019 acres in 
1904) of salt marshes. Beyond spreads a central alluvial belt 
of highly cultivated land, with a width of about 60 miles in the 
north, where the river Tapti, carrying down a deposit of loam, 
forms a deep and fertile tract; but as the coast-line trends 
towards the south, the hills at the same time draw nearer to the 
coast, and restrict the alluvial country to a breadth of little 
more than 15 miles on the Daman border. The deep loam 
brought down by the Tapti gives a level aspect to the northern 
tract; but farther south, a number of small and rapid rivers 
have cut themselves ravine-like beds, between which lie rougher 
uplands with a scantier soil and poorer vegetation. In the 
hollows, and often on the open plain, rich deposits of black 
cotton soil overlie the alluvium. The eastern border of the 
District consists of less fruitful lands, cut up by small torrents, 
and interspersed with mounds of rising ground. Here the huts 
of an ill-fed and almost unsettled peasantry replace the rich 
villages of skilled cultivators in the central lowland. On the 
border, this wild region passes gradually into the hills and 
forests of the Dangs, an unhealthy jungle which none but the 



326 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


aboriginal tribes can inhabit save at special periods of the year. 
The Dangs are leased from Bhll chiefs. 

The average elevation of the District is not much more than 
150 feet above sea-level. In the north are chains of flat- 
topped hills which reach a height of between 200 and 300 feet; 
south of the Tapti a series of high lands separate the plains of 
Surat from those of Khandesh. Five miles from the ruined 
fort of Pardi is the hill of Parnera, with an estimated elevation 
of 500 feet above the sea. Except the Kim and the Tapti in 
the north, the District has no large rivers ; but in the south are 
deep and navigable creeks, which form admirable outlets for 
produce, and provide a secure shelter to the smaller coasting 
craft. The Kim rises in the Rajplpla hills and, after a course 
of 70 miles, falls into the Gulf of Cambay. Its waters are 
useful for neither navigation nor irrigation. The Tapti gives- 
rise to the largest alluvial lowland in the District; but its* 
frequent floods have caused great loss of life and damage to- 
property. The course of this river through Surat District is 
50 miles in a direct line, but 70 miles including windings. For 
32 miles it is tidal, and passes through a highly cultivated plain, 
but it is navigable only as far as Surat, 20 miles from its mouth. 
The Warli is a considerable tributary. Of creeks, the northern- 
most formed by the Sma river has on its right bank, about 
4 miles from the coast, the harbour of Bhagva. Farther south,, 
about 8 miles north of the Tapti mouth, the Tena creek runs 
inland for about 8 miles. Four miles north of the Ambika in 
the west of Jalalpur is the large inlet known as the Kanar 
creek. The District contains no natural lakes, but reservoirs 
or tanks cover a total area of r6 square miles. With one 
exception they consist of small ponds, formed by throwing 
horseshoe embankments across the natural lines of drainage, 
and are used for irrigation. The reservoir at Palan has an area 
of 153 acres. 

Geology. Three geological formations occur in the lands of Surat 
District. Of these, the lowest is the Deccan trap ; the middle 
is the Tertiary, represented by gravel, conglomerates, sand- 
stone, and limestone, with and without Nummulites; the 
highest is the recent, represented by cotton soil, alluvium, and 
river-beds. The Deccan trap extends from the hilly county 
on the east as far west as Tadkesar, about 22 miles north-east 
of the city of Surat. From Tadkesar, though its limit is 
concealed by the alluvium of the plains, the trap appears to- 
strike south-by-west, coming out upon the sea-shore near 
Bulsar. The formation consists mostly of basalt flows with 



SURAT DISTRICT 


327 


some intercalations of laterite, intersected by numerous dikes, 
most of them porphyritic. Intervening between the trap and 
the Tertiary is laterite, which is also interbedded with the 
lower beds of the Tertiary. The Tertiary includes representa- 
tives of the groups known in Sind as Upper Klrthar (Splntangi 
of Baluchistan), Gaj, and Manchhar (Siwaliks of the sub- 
Himalayas). The Tertiary beds spread in gentle undulations 
under a large portion of the District. In every case they form 
a fringe to the rocky trap country and border the alluvium of 
Gujarat, by which on the west they are concealed. The lower 
beds of the series, those which correspond with the upper part 
of the Klrthar group in Sind, are of middle eocene age 
(Lutetian). They contain bands of limestone, usually sandy 
and impure, abounding in Nummulites and other fossils, resting 
on laterite and containing numerous intercalations, towards 
their base, of ferruginous lateritic clays. The Nummulitic 
series includes beds of agate conglomerate, apparently of con- 
siderable thickness. The upper beds, including representatives 
of the Gaj and Manchhar, are principally of miocene age. 

They consist of gravel with a large proportion of agate pebbles, 
sandy clays, and calcareous sandstone, frequently nodular. 

The gravels are often cemented into a conglomerate. Fossils 
of both marine and terrestrial origin occur in some of the beds. 
Alluvium extends over a considerable portion of the District, 
concealing and covering up the rocks in the low ground, and 
forming the high banks which overhang all the larger streams 
at a little distance from the sea. Throughout almost the entire 
District the surface of the ground consists of ‘black soil/ 
resulting from the decomposition of the basalt or of an alluvium 
largely made up of basaltic materials. In Surat, as in nearly 
all the lands surrounding the Gulf of Cambay, the wells often 
yield brackish water, owing to the presence of salt in the 
Tertiary sediments, principally in those of the upper division 1 . 

The common toddy-yielding wild date-tree grows more or less Botany 
freely over the whole District. Near village sites and on garden 
lands, groves of mango, tamarind, banyan, linibdo ( Melia Azadi- 
rachta :), pipal ( Ficus rehgiosa ), and other fruit and shade trees 
are commonly found. The mangoes of some Surat gardens 
approach the Bombay ‘ Alphonso' and £ PairT in flavour and 
sweetness. There are no good timber trees. The babul is 

1 A. B. Wynne, ‘ Geological Notes on the Surat Collectorate/ Records , 
Geological Survey of India , vol. i, pp. 27-32 ; W, T, Blanford , 1 Geology 
of the Taptee and Lower Nerbudda/ Memoirs , Geological Survey of India , 

■vol. vi, pt. iii. 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


Fauna. 


Climate 
and tem- 
perature. 


Rainfall. 


History. 


328 

found in small bushes in most parts of the District, springing up 
freely in fields set apart for the cultivation of grass. Wild 
flowering-plants are not numerous, the commonest being 
Hibiscus , Abutilon , Sida } Clerodendron , Phlomis , Salvador a, 
Celosia> and Leucas. 

The fauna of Surat includes a few tigers, stragglers from the 
jungles of Bansda and Dharampur, besides leopards (which are 
found throughout the District), bears, wild hog, wolves, hyenas, 
spotted deer, and antelope. Otters and grey foxes are also met 
with. Duck, wild geese, teal, and other wild-fowl abound 
during the cold season on the ponds and reservoirs ; and hares, 
partridges, and quail are common. 

The climate varies greatly with the distance from the sea. 
In the neighbourhood of the coast, under the influence of the 
sea-breeze, which is carried up the creeks, an equable tempera- 
ture prevails ; but from 8 to 10 miles inland the breeze ceases to 
blow. The temperature rises in places to 109° in April, the 
minimum being 44 0 in December. The mean temperature at 
Surat city is 82°. 

The coast possesses a much lighter rainfall than the interior, 
the annual average ranging from 35 inches in Chorasi to 72 
inches in Pardi. The average at Surat city for the twenty-five 
years ending 1903 amounted to 39-5 inches. In the District it 
varies from 38 to 80 inches. Pardi in the south and Mandvi 
in the north-east have a bad reputation for unhealthiness, as 
shown by the proverb, ‘ Bagvada is half death; Mandvi is whole 
death.’ 

Surat was one of the earliest portions of India brought into 
close relations with European countries, and its history merges 
almost entirely into that of its capital, long the greatest maritime 
city of the peninsula. Ptolemy, the Greek geographer (a.d. 
150), speaks of the trade centre of Pulipula, perhaps Phulpada, 
the sacred part of Surat city. The city itself appears to be com- 
paratively modern, though the Musalman historians assert that 
at the commencement of the thirteenth century Kutb-ud-dln, 
after defeating Bhim Deo, Rajput king of Anhilvada, penetrated 
as far south as Rander and Surat. The District then formed 
part of the dominions ruled over by a Hindu chief, who fled 
from his fortress at Kanrej, 13 miles east of Surat city, and 
submitted to the Musalman conqueror, so obtaining leave to 
retain his principality. In 1347, during the Gujarat rebellion 
in the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlak, Surat was plundered 
by the troops of the king. In 1373 Firoz Tughlak built a fort 
at Surat to protect the place against the Bhlls. During the 



SURAT DISTRICT 


329 


fifteenth century no notice of Surat occurs in the chronicles 
of the Musalman kings of Ahmadabad. Tradition generally 
assigns the foundation of the modern city to the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, when a rich Hindu trader, GopI by name, 
settled here, and made many improvements. As early as 1514 
the Portuguese traveller Barbosa describes Surat as a very im- 
portant seaport, 4 frequented by many ships from Malabar and 
all other parts/ Two years before the Portuguese had burnt 
the town, an outrage which they repeated in 1530 and 1531. 
Thereupon the Ahmadabad king gave orders for building a 
stronger fort, completed about 1546. In 1572 Surat fell into 
the hands of the Mirzas, then in rebellion against the emperor 
Akbar. Early in the succeeding year Akbar arrived in person 
before the town, which he captured after a vigorous siege. For 
160 years the city and District remained under the administra- 
tion of officers appointed by the Mughal court. During the 
reigns of Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan, Surat enjoyed 
unbroken peace, and rose to be one of the first mercantile cities 
of India. In Akbar’s great revenue survey the city is mentioned 
as a first-class port, ruled by two distinct officers. 

After 1573 the Portuguese remained undisputed masters of 
the Surat seas. But in 1608 an English ship arrived at the 
mouth of the Tapti, bringing letters from James I to the 
emperor Jahangir. Mukarrab Khan, the Mughal governor, 
allowed the captain to bring his merchandise into the town. 
Next year a second English ship arrived off Gujarat, but was 
wrecked on the Surat coast. The Portuguese endeavoured to 
prevent the shipwrecked crew from settling in the town, and 
they accordingly went up to Agra with their captain. In 1609 
the son of the last Musalman king of Ahmadabad attempted 
unsuccessfully to recover Surat from the Mughals. Two years 
later a small fleet of three English ships arrived in the Tapti ; 
but as the Portuguese occupied the coast and entrance, the 
English admiral, Sir H. Middleton, was compelled to anchor 
outside. Small skirmishes took place between the rival traders, 
until in the end the English withdrew. In 1612, however, the 
governor of Gujarat concluded a treaty, by which the English 
were permitted to trade at Surat, Cambay, Ahmadabad, and 
Gogha. After a fierce fight with the Portuguese, they made 
good their position, established their first factory in India, and 
shortly afterwards obtained a charter ( farman ) from the 
emperor. Surat thus became the seat of a presidency of the 
East India Company. The Company’s ships usually anchored 
in a roadstead north of the mouth of the Tapti, called in old 



330 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


books 4 Swally ’ or 4 Swally Hole/ but correctly Suvali. Con- 
tinued intrigues between the Portuguese and the Mughals made 
the position of the English traders long uncertain, till Sir 
Thomas Roe arrived in 1615, and went on to Ajmer, where 
Jahangir then held his court. After three years’ residence there, 
Roe returned to the coast m 1618, bringing important privileges* 
for the English. Meanwhile the Dutch also had made a settle- 
ment in Surat, and obtained leave to establish a factory. 

Early travellers describe the city as populous and wealthy, 
with handsome houses and a busy trade. The fifty years* 
between the establishment of the English and Dutch and the 
accession of Aurangzeb were remarkable for increasing pros- 
perity. With the access of wealth the city improved greatly in 
appearance. During the busy winter months lodgings could 
hardly be obtained owing to the influx of people. Caravans* 
passed between Surat and Golconda, Agra, Delhi, and Lahore. 
Ships arrived from the Konkan and the Malabar coast ; while 
from the outer world, besides the flourishing European trade,- 
merchants came from Arabia, the Persian Gulf, Ceylon, and 
Acheen in Sumatra. Silk and cotton cloth formed the chief 
articles of export. European ships did not complete the lading 
and unlading of their cargoes at Surat ; but having disposed of 
a part of their goods, and laid in a stock of indigo for the home 
market, they took on board a supply of Gujarat manufactures 
for the eastern trade, and sailed to Acheen and Bantam, where 
they exchanged the remainder of their European and Indian 
merchandise for spices. The Dutch in particular made Surat 
their principal factory in India, while the French also had a 
small settlement here. 

Under Aurangzeb the District suffered from frequent Maratha 
raids, which, however, did little to impair its mercantile position. 
The silting up of the head of the Cambay Gulf, the disturbed 
state of Northern Gujarat, and the destruction of Diu by the 
Maskat Arabs in 1670, combined to concentrate the trade of 
the province upon Surat. Its position as 4 the gate of Mecca ’ 
or the 4 blessed port ’ ( Bandar Mubarak ) was further increased 
in importance by the religious zeal of Aurangzeb. But the rise 
of the predatory Maratha power put a temporary check on its 
prosperity. The first considerable Maratha raid took place in 
1664, when Sivaji suddenly appeared before Surat, and pillaged 
the city unopposed for three days. He collected in that short 
time a booty estimated at a million sterling. The English and 
Dutch factories were bravely defended by their inmates, who* 
succeeded in saving a portion of the city. Encouraged by this* 



SURAT DISTRICT 


33 * 


success, the Maratha leader returned in the year 1669, and once 
more plundered Surat Thenceforward for several years a 
Maratha raid was almost an annual certainty. The Europeans 
usually retired to their factories on these occasions, and 
endeavoured, by conciliating the Marathas, to save their own 
interests. Nevertheless the city probably reached its highest 
pitch of wealth during this troublous period at the end of the 
seventeenth century. It contained a population estimated at 
200,000 persons, and its buildings, especially two handsome 
mosques, were not unworthy of its commercial greatness. In 
1695 it is described as ‘the prime mart of India, — all nations 
of the world trading there ; no ship trading in the Indian Ocean 
but what puts into Surat to buy, sell, or load.’ 

But the importance of Surat to the English East India* Com- 
pany declined considerably during the latter part of Aurangzeb’s 
reign, owing partly to the growing value of Bombay, and partly 
to disorders in the city itself. In 1678 the settlement was 
reduced to an agency, though three years later it once more 
became a presidency. In 1684 orders were received to transfer 
the chief seat of the Company’s trade to Bombay — a transfer 
actually effected in 1687. During the greater part of this period 
the Dutch were the most successful traders in Surat. 

From the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the authority of the 
Delhi court gradually declined, and the Marathas established 
their power up to the very walls of Surat. The governors 
nominally appointed by the Mughals employed themselves 
chiefly in fighting with the Hindu intruders for the country 
just beyond the gates. At length, in 1733, Teg Bakht Khan, 
governor of the city, declared himself independent; and for 
twenty-seven years Surat remained under a native dynasty. 
For the first thirteen years of this period Teg Bakht Khan 
maintained unbroken control over the city ; but after his death 
in 1746 complete anarchy for a time prevailed. The English 
and Dutch took an active part in the struggles for the succes- 
sion, sometimes in concert and sometimes as partisans of the 
rival competitors. In 1759 internal faction had rendered trade 
so insecure that the authorities at Bombay determined to make 
an attack upon Surat, with the sanction of the Marathas, now 
practically masters of Western India. After a slight resistance 
the governor capitulated, and the English became supreme in 
Surat. For forty-one years the government of the new depen- 
dency was practically carried on by the conquerors, but the 
governors or Nawabs still retained a show of independence 
until 1800. The earlier years of English rule brought pros- 



332 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Archaeo- 

logy. 


perity again to the city, which increased in size, owing partly 
to the security of British protection and partly to the sudden 
development of a great export trade in raw cotton with China. 
The population of the city was estimated at 800,000 persons, 
though this figure is doubtless excessive. Towards the close of 
the century, however, the general disorder of all Central and 
Western India, and the repeated wars in Europe, combined to 
weaken its prosperity. Two local events, the storm of 1782 
and the famine of 1790, also contributed to drive away trade, 
the greater part of which now centred in Bombay. 

In 1799 the last nominally independent Nawab died, and an 
arrangement was effected with his brother by which the govern- 
ment became wholly vested in the British, the new Nawab 
retaining only the title and a considerable pension. The poli- 
tical management of Surat, up to May 14, 1800, had first been 
under an officer styled ‘Chief for the Affairs of the British 
Nation, and Governor of the Mughal Castle and Fleet of Surat/ 
and subsequently under a lieutenant-governor. The last of 
these was Mr. Daniel Seton, whose monument is in the cathe- 
dral at Bombay. By the proclamation of Jonathan Duncan, 
dated May 15, 1800, Surat District was placed under a Collec- 
tor, Mr. E. Galley, and a Judge and Magistrate, Mr. Alexander 
Ramsay, one of whom, generally the Judge, was also in political 
charge of the titular Nawab and the small chiefs in the neigh- 
bourhood as Agent to the Governor of Bombay. The arrange- 
ments of 1800 put the English in possession of Surat and 
Rander. Subsequent cessions under the Treaties of Bassein 
(1802) and Poona (1817), together with the lapse of the Mandvi 
State in 1839, brought the District into its present shape. The 
title of Nawab became extinct in 1842. Since the introduction 
of British rule Surat has remained free from external attacks 
and from internal anarchy, the only considerable breach of the 
public peace having been occasioned by a Musalman distur- 
bance in 1810. During the Mutiny of 1857 Surat enjoyed 
unbroken tranquillity, due in great measure to the steadfast 
loyalty of its leading Muhammadan family, that of the late 
Saiyid Edroos. 

The District contains many buildings upwards of three cen- 
turies old. Some of the mosques have been constructed out 
of Jain temples, as, for example, the Jama Masjid, the Mian, 
Kharwa, and Munshi’s mosque at Rander. Specimens of ex- 
cellent wood-carving are to be found on many of the older 
houses in Surat city. There are famous Dutch and English 
cemeteries outside the city. Vaux’s tomb at the mouth of the 



SURAT DISTRICT 


333 


Tapti deserves mention. The tomb bears no inscription, but 
in the upper part is a chamber used by the English in former 
times as a meeting-place for parties of pleasure. Vaux was 
a book-keeper to Sir Josia Child, and finally rose to be 
Deputy-Governor of Bombay. He was drowned in the Tapti 
in 1697. 

The Census of 1851 returned the total number of inhabi- The 
tants at 492,684. The population at each of the last four P eo P le ’ 
enumerations was: (1872) 607,087, (1881) 614,198, (1891) 
649,989, and (1901) 637,017. The decline in the last decade 
was due to the famine of 1899-1900. The area, population, 

&c., of the eight talukas in 1901 are given in the following 
table . — 


Taluka. 

Area in square 
miles 

Number of 

Population. 

Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write. 

Towns. 

Villages 

Olpad . 

3 2 3 

1 

Il 8 

58,74s 

182 

- 12 

10,328 

Mandvi . 

279 

I 

I36 

42,450 

152 

- 21 

2,768 

Chorasi . 

102 

2 

6.6 

169,100 

1,658 

+ 6 

35 »”i 

Bardoli . 

222 

I 

I23 

80,678 

363 

- 4 

8,841 

Jalalpnr 

I8S 

.. 

91 

8l,l82 

432 

+ 3 

10,362 

Chikhli . . 

l68 

I 

6l 

59,692 

355 

- 8 

4 > 9 n 

Bulsar . 

208 

I 

95 

83.476 

401 

- 5 

7,808 

Pardi . 

163 

1 

81 

61,691 

378 

- 6 

5,554 

District total 

1,653 

8 

770 

637,017 

385 

— 2 

85,693 


The District contains 770 villages and 8 towns, the largest 
being Surat City, the head-quarters and chief commercial 
centre, Bulsar, Rander, Bardoli, and Pardi. The density 
of population is 385*persons per square mile, and it thus stands 
second for density among the 24 Districts of the Presidency. 

The Mandvi taluka is sparsely peopled, on account of the 
unhealthiness of the climate. The language in ordinary use is 
Gujarati, spoken by 95 per cent, of the population. Hindus 
form 86 per cent, of the total ; Musalmans, 8 per cent. ; Parsls 
and Jains, 2 per-cent. each. 

The chief cultivating castes are the Anavla Brahmans (2 5,000), Castes and 
Kunbls (38,000), and Kolls (100,000). Rajputs (9,000), Musal- 
man Bohras (15,000), and a few Parsls are also to be found 
among agriculturists. Of the aboriginal races, Dublas (78,000) 
with their numerous sections, Dhodias (51,000), and Chodhras 
(30,000) are the most important. The leading artisan classes 
are Ghanchis (oilmen, 12,000), Golas (rice-huskers, 8,000), 




334 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Khattris (weavers, 11,000), and Kumbhars (potters, ix,ooo). 
The Vanis or traders number 12,000. Among depressed 
classes, the Dhers (30,000) are numerically important. The 
Dhers of Surat are active and intelligent, and are largely 
employed by Europeans as domestic servants. Surat, in spite 
of the commercial importance of its chief town, is still essen- 
tially a rural District. Nearly 60 per cent, of the population 
are supported by agriculture, while the industrial class forms 
35 per cent. 

Christian The Christian population of Surat District in 1901 was 1,092. 

missions. Qf these, about 600 are native Christians. A branch of the 
Irish Presbyterian Mission has been established in Surat city 
since 1846, and maintains 2 high schools, 18 primary schools, 
an orphanage with 125 inmates, and a printing-press, estab- 
lished by the London Missionary Society in 1820, which pub- 
lished thirty-six English and vernacular books in 1904. In 
1894 the Dunker Brethren, an American mission, was estab- 
lished at Bulsar, and now maintains an orphanage, a technical 
school, and several village schools. 

General The soils, all more or less alluvial in character, belong 

toalton- ^ or a 8 r ^ cu ^ tura ^ P ur P oses t0 three chief classes : black, light, 

ditions. and the besar or medium. Apart from the Olpad tdluka , 
where black soil is most common, two broad belts of black 
soil run through the District. Of these, one passes along 
the sea-coast, the other through the Pardi and Chikhli tdlukas 
near the foot of the eastern hills. Light soil is commonest 
near the banks of the Tapti, Ambika, and Auranga rivers. 
This is the richest soil of the District, producing in rapid 
succession the most luxuriant crops. Patches of besar are 
to be found in almost every part of the District. The most 
striking feature in agriculture is the difference between the 
tillage of the ujli or fair races, and that of the kdla or dark 
aboriginal cultivators. The dark races ordinarily use only the 
rudest processes ; grow little save the coarser kinds of grain, 
seldom attempting to raise wheat or millet; and have no 
implements for weeding or cleaning the fields. After sowing 
their crops they leave the land, and only return some months 
later for the harvest. As soon as they have gathered in their 
crops, they barter the surplus grab for liquor. In the more 
settled parts of the District, however, the dark races are 
now improving their mode of tillage. The fair cultivators, 
on the other hand, who own the rich alluvial soil of the 
lowlands, are among the most industrious and intelligent in 
Western India. 



SURAT DISTRICT 


335 


The District is almost entirely ryotwari, with some inam Chief agri- 
lands. The chief statistics of cultivation in 1003-4 are shown 

s * statistics 

below, in square miles and princi- 

pal crops. 


Taluka 

Total 

area 

Cultivated 

Irrigated. 

Cultivable 

waste 

Forests. 

Olpad 

312 

190 

5 

9 


Mandvi . 

280 

150 

, 

31 

63 

Chorasi . 

114 

83 

1 

2 


Bardoli . 

222 

195 

2 

2 

1 

Jalalpur , 

186 

120 

4 

5 

... 

Chikhli . 

168 

133 

4 

13 

1 

Bulsar 

208 

162 

4 

10 

4 

Pardi 

163 

141 

2 

1 

3 

Total 

>> 6 53 * 

'.174 

22 

73 

72 


* The area for which statistics are not available is 36 square miles. The figures of 
area are based upon the latest information. 


Rice and jowar are the staple crops, with an area of 157 
and 172 square miles respectively. Rice is grown chiefly on 
the black or red soil in the neighbourhood of tanks or ponds, 
with ml or castor as a second crop. Jowar is largely grown 
in the northern part of the District. Cotton covers 1 54 square 
miles, chiefly in the Tapti valley ; it is also spreading south. 

Kodra forms the food of the poorest classes. Among pulses 
the most important is tur (37 square miles); ml occupies 
74 square miles. Wheat and bajra occupy 56 and 14 square 
miles respectively. In the south of the District castor is 
extensively cultivated. 

Efforts have from time to time been made to improve the Improve- 
staple of the local cotton, and an improved variety of sugar- ments in 
cane from Mauritius was introduced in 1836. It is now the tml 
favourite crop in irrigated land in the Jalalpur and Bulsar P ractice - 
talukas . There is an experimental farm in the District, but the 
results so far attained are not sufficiently important to claim 
notice. During the decade ending 1903-4, nearly 9 lakhs was 
advanced to cultivators for land improvements and the purchase 
of seed and cattle, of which 4*1 lakhs was lent in 1899-1900 
and 2-5 lakhs in the two succeeding years. 

The indigenous or talabda bullock is generally of medium Cattle and 
size, and is used chiefly for agricultural purposes. The large goats * 
muscular bullocks or hedia are brought from Northern Gujarat. 

A third class of bullock, small but hardy and a quick mover, 
is much used in harness. The cows and buffaloes of the 
District are greatly esteemed— the Cows for their appearance 
and the buffaloes for their yield of milk. The Bulsar tdluka 




33 6 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


is famous for its breed of patiri goats, which are good milkers, 
and are highly prized in Bombay. 

Irrigation. Of the total cultivated area, 22 square miles, or 3 per cent., 
were irrigated in 1903-4 : 13 from tanks and 9 from wells. 
The chief sources are: Government works, 301 in number; 
wells, 7,147 ; tanks, 1,114 ■ ‘ others,’ 42. Of the total irrigated 
area, about 3,200 acres are under sugar-cane. 

There are no fresh-water fisheries, but the rivers contain fish 
of large size. The sea fisheries employ a fleet of many hundred 
boats. 

Forests. Though on the whole well clothed with trees, the District 
does not possess many revenue-yielding trees, except toddy- 
palms, which are tapped for liquor. In the Chikhli taluka 
a small area under teak has been set apart as a forest Reserve. 
A rough hilly tract in the east and north-east of Mandvi is 
the only area suitable for forest. The total area of forests is 
72 square miles, which is almost entirely in the charge of the 
Forest department, represented by a divisional Forest officer 
assisted by an Extra- Assistant Conservator. The forest revenue 
in 1 903--4, including the revenue from the Dangs, was Rs. 37,500. 
Mines and Surat is well supplied with building stone. Good material 
minerals. f or r0 ad-metal, though scarce, can be obtained at from Rs. 3 
to Rs. 3^ per 100 cubic feet from Pardi and Bulsar. Iron- 
stone is common, but iron is not worked. Metallic sand 
accumulates at the mouths of rivers, and is used instead of 
blotting-paper by the writing classes. Agate or carnelian, 
locally known as hakik^ is obtained from the trap and sold to 
the lapidaries of Cambay. 

Arts and The brocades of Surat, worked with gold and silver flowers 
mannfac- on a s dk ground, had a reputation in former times. Surat 
city was also famed for its coarse and coloured cottons, while 
Broach had a name for muslins. From Surat likewise came 
elegant targets of rhinoceros hide, which was brought over 
from Africa, and polished in Surat until it glistened like 
tortoise-shell. The shield was studded with silver nails and 
then sold at a price varying from Rs. 30 to Rs. 50. Ship- 
building was at one time an important industry, to a great 
extent in the hands of the Parsls. The largest vessels were 
engaged in the China trade, and were from 500 to 1,000 tons 
burden. Many of the ships were built on European lines. 
They were mostly manned by English crews and flew the 
English flag. The sea-borne trade from the ports has greatly 
fallen off of late years. The industries of Surat city suffered 
from the damage done to the houses and workshops in the 



SURAT DISTRICT 


337 


great fire of 1889, when property valued at 25 lakhs was de- 
stroyed. At the present time the weaving of cotton and silk 
goods is the chief industry of the District. There are three 
steam mills in Surat city, containing 34,290 spindles and 
180 looms, which spin and weave annually nearly 3 million 
pounds of cotton yam and about half a million pounds of 
cotton cloth. They employ 1,288 persons. Except among 
the aboriginal tribes, hand-weaving is everywhere common. 

Silk brocades and embroideries are still manufactured in Surat 
city. They have a widespread reputation, and exhibit skill 
of a high order. Nowhere in the Presidency are finer fabrics 
woven on hand-looms. There is one salt-work in the District, 
which yields annually 300,000 maunds, valued at 6 \ lakhs. 

Trade centres chiefly in the towns of Surat and Bulsar, as Commerce, 
well as in the seaport of Bilimora (Baroda territory). The 
total value of the exports from the seven seaports which 
afforded an outlet for the produce of the District in 1874 
amounted to nearly 44^ lakhs, and that of the imports to 
7 lakhs. These figures include the value of commodities 
shipped and received at Baroda ports. The two principal 
seaports are Surat city and Bulsar. In 1903-4 the value of 
the exports from these taken together was 13 lakhs ; and of the 
imports about 18 lakhs. The exports include grain, cotton, 
pulse, mahua fruit, timber, and bamboos ; the imports include 
tobacco, cotton-seed, iron, coco-nuts, and European goods. 

There are 462 miles of road, of which 100 miles are metalled, Communi- 
connecting the principal towns with the railway. Of the R^lways 
metalled roads, 2\ miles of Provincial and 70^ of Local roads and roads, 
are maintained by the Public Works department. Avenues of 
trees are maintained along 190 miles. The only important 
bridges for cart traffic are those over the Tapti at Surat, and 
over the Tena creek near Olpad. The Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway runs through the District parallel to the 
coast for about 60 miles, crossing the Tapti at Surat city on 
a fine iron-girder bridge. The Tapti Valley Railway, 155 miles 
in length, which joins Surat to the Great Indian Peninsula 
system at Amalner in Khandesh District, was opened in 1900. 

It traverses the District for 1 1 miles. 

History records severe famine in the years 1623, 1717, 1747, Famine, 
and 1803. From the commencement of British rule, however, 
until 1899 no famine was sufficiently intense to cause suffering 
to the people. Owing to the failure of the late rains in 1899 
distress rapidly developed; and, in December of that year, 

-there were 4,700 persons on relief works. By March, 1900, 

BO. I. z 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


District 
subdivi- 
sions and 
staff. 


Civil and 

criminal 

justice* 


Land 

revenue 

adminis- 

tration. 


338 

the number had increased to 15,000. In July, 1900, there 
were 35,000 on the works, including 29,000 in receipt of gra- 
tuitous relief. Surat, however, escaped the severity of the 
famine in the adjoining Districts. The total increase in the 
number of deaths from all causes during the famine was 30,000, 
and the population decreased 2 per cent, between 1891 and 
1901. The total expenditure in connexion with famine relief 
in this and the adjacent District of Broach exceeded 48^ lakhs, 
and 4 lakhs of land revenue was remitted in Surat District. 
It is calculated that over 50,000 cattle perished in the drought. 
Floods on the Tapti river have frequently caused great damage 
to Surat City, in the article on which some particulars of the 
most disastrous floods are given. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions, in charge of 
an Assistant Collector and two Deputy-Collectors. It contains 
8 talukas ; namely, Bardoli, Bulsar, Chikhli, Chorasi, 
Jalalpur, Mandvi, Olfad, and Pardi. Bardoli includes 
the petty subdivision (petha) of Valod. The Collector is 
Political Agent for Sachin State, which is administered by 
the Assistant Collector, subject to his control. The States of 
Bansda and Dharampur and the Dangs estate are also under 
his political control, the Assistant Political Agent for the latter 
estate being the divisional Forest officer. 

The District and Sessions Judge, with whom is associated 
a Judge of a Small Cause Court, is assisted by one Assistant 
Judge and four Subordinate Judges, sitting one at Olpad, two 
at Surat, and one at Bulsar. There are twelve officers to 
administer criminal justice. The city of Surat forms a separate 
magisterial charge under a City Magistrate. The District is 
remarkably free from crime, offences against the excise law 
being the most numerous. 

At the time of annexation, the girasias , or large landowners 
of Surat, claimed, as the representatives of the original Hindu 
proprietors, a share of the land revenue, and levied their dues 
at the head of an armed force. In 1813 Government under- 
took to collect the amount of these claims by its own officers. 
In addition to the girasias , there were numerous desais ot 
middlemen to whom the land revenue was farmed under the 
old regime. To decrease the power and influence of these 
desais , the British Government (1814) appointed accountants 
to each village, who collected the revenue direct from the 
cultivators, thus rendering the practice of farming unnecessary. 
No change was made in the old rates until 1833, when, in 
.consequence 0/ the fall in prices, they were revised and con- 



SURAT DISTRICT 


339 


siderably reduced. In 1836 committees were appointed to 
divide the soil into classes and fix equitable rates ; and be- 
tween 1863 and 1882 the survey settlement was introduced, 
which raised the total revenue demand from i8f to 2 if lakhs. 
A revision was made between 1897 and 1905. The new 
survey found an excess in the cultivated area of 4 per cent, 
over the amount shown in the accounts, and the settlement 
enhanced the total revenue by nearly one lakh, or 4 per cent. 
The average rates of assessment are: ‘dry’ land, Rs. 2-1 1 
(maximum scale, Rs. 7-8 ; minimum scale, R. 1) ; rice land, 
Rs. 8-1 (maximum scale, Rs. 7-8 ; minimum scale, Rs. 1-4) ; 
and garden land, Rs. 8-1 1 (maximum scale, Rs. 12, minimum 
scale, Rs. 5). 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all 
sources have been, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880-1. 

1890-1. 

1900-1. 

1903-4. 

Land revenue * 

Total revenue . 

30.63 

41,29 

27,62 

49.65 

32,55 

42,74 

30,80 

55,26 


There are four municipalities in the District: namely, Surat, Munici- 
Rander, Bulsar, and Mandvi. Outside of these, local 
affairs are managed by the District board and eight tdluka boards, 
boards. The receipts of the local boards amounted in 1903-4 
to about 3 lakhs, and the expenditure to i\ lakhs, including 
one lakh spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by 2 Police and 
inspectors. There are altogether 11 police stations. The J * ails ' 
total number of policemen is 881, under ir chief constables, 
besides 14 mounted police under 2 daffaddrs. There are 9 
subsidiary jails and 9 lock-ups in the District, with accom- 
modation for 208 prisoners. The daily average number of 
prisoners in 1904 was 69, of whom 5 were females. 

Surat stands second among the twenty-four Districts of the Education. 
Presidency for the literacy of its inhabitants, of whom 13*3 per 
cent. (24*5 males and 2*4 females) could read and write in 1901. 

In 1880-1 the District contained 293 schools with 19,363 
pupils. The latter had increased to 28,658 in 1890--1, and 
to 31,902 in 1 900-1. In 1903-4 the District possessed 480 
schools, attended by 31,719 pupils, including 6,363 girls. Of 
these institutions, 6 are high schools, 26 middle, 341 primary, 
and one a special industrial school. Of the 374 public institu- 
tions, 2 are managed by Government, 312 by local or municipal 
hoards, 36 are aided, and 24 unaided. The total expenditure 




340 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Hospitals 
and dis- 
pensaries. 


Vaccina- 

tion. 


on education in 1903-4 amounted to nearly i\ lakhs, of which 
64 per cent, was devoted to primary education. 

In 1904 the District possessed one hospital and twelve 
dispensaries, including one for women at Surat. These institu- 
tions contain accommodation for 120 in-patients. Including 
1,541 in-patients, the number of persons treated in 1904 was 
86,000, and the number of operations performed was 2,721. 
The expenditure on medical relief was Rs. 39,000, of which 
Rs. 17,000 was met from Local and municipal funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 
was 16,091, representing a proportion of 25-3 per 1,000 of 
the population, which is slightly above the average for the 
Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer , vol. ii (Surat and 
Broach) (1877).] 

Olpad. — North-western taluka of Surat District, Bombay, 
lying between 21 0 and 21 0 28' N. and 72 0 35' and 72 0 57' E., 
with an area of 323 square miles. The taluka contains 118 
villages and one town, Olpad (population, 3,275), the head- 
quarters. The population in 1901 was 58,748, compared with 
66,668 in 1891. The density, 182 persons per square mile, is 
much below the District average. Land revenue and cesses in 
1903-4 amounted to nearly 5-6 lakhs. Olpad forms an almost 
unbroken plain, and the fields are generally unenclosed owing 
to the low level and the inroads of the sea. Well-irrigation is 
possible only in a few of the eastern villages. The climate is 
generally healthy. The rainfall (39 inches) is less than in the 
rest of the District. 

Mandvi Taluka. — North-eastern taluka of Surat District, 
Bombay, lying between 21 0 12' and 21 0 27' N. and 72 0 59' and 
73 0 29' E., with an area of 279 square miles. The Tapti river 
forms the southern boundary. There are 136 villages and one 
town, Mandvi (population, 4,142), the head-quarters. The 
population in 1901 was 42,450, compared with 53,942 in 1891. 
This is the most thinly populated taluka in the District, and 
the density, 152 persons per square mile, is much below the 
average. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to over 
i*8 lakhs. The western part of the taluka is the most fertile 
and prosperous ; in the east the population gradually becomes 
scanty and unsettled, and cultivation disappears. The climate 
is' the worst in Surat District. In both ponds and wells the 
water-supply is defective and its quality bad. The staple crops 
are rice, cotton, m&jowar. 

Chorasi.— Central taluka of Surat District, Bombay, lying 



SURAT DISTRICT 


34i 


between 21 0 2' and 21 0 17' N. and 72 0 42' and 72 0 59' E., 
with an area of 102 square miles. Chorasi contains two towns, 
Surat (population, 119,306), the District head-quarters, and 
Rander (10,478); and 65 villages. The population in 1901 
was 169,100, compared with 159,170 in 1891. Owing to the 
inclusion of the city, the density is as high as 1,658 persons per 
square mile. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to 2.8 lakhs. The tdluka forms a richly wooded plain, with 
highly cultivated fields enclosed with hedges. With the excep- 
tion of the Tapti, which forms the northern boundary for about 
1 8 miles, there is no river of importance, and the water-supply 
is defective, owing to the smallness of the village reservoirs 
and the brackishness of the well water. 

Bardoli Taluka. — Tdluka of Surat District, Bombay, lying 
between 20° 56' and 21 0 14' N. and 73 0 o' and 73 0 21' E., 
with an area of 222 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
80,678, compared with 84,111 in 1891. The tdluka contains 
one town, Bardoli (population, 5,172), the head-quarters; and 
123 villages. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
more than 5 lakhs. There are no alienated villages in Bardoli, 
which forms a richly wooded plain, with stretches of grass land 
covered with date-palms and babul-trzzs. Towards the west the 
tdluka has the benefit of the sea-breeze, and is well supplied 
with water. The climate of the eastern part is hotter and 
somewhat feverish. 

Jalalpur Taluka. — Central taluka of Surat District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 20° 45' and 21 0 o' N. and 72 0 47' and 73 0 
8' E., with an area of 188 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 81,182, compared with 78,649 in 1891, the average 
density being 432 persons per square mile. The tdluka 
contains 91 villages, Jalalpur being the head-quarters. Land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to over 3-6 lakhs. 
Jalalpur is a level plain of deep alluvial soil, sloping towards 
the sea, where it ends in a salt marsh. Along the coast-line 
low sandhills appear at intervals. With the exception of the 
salt lands near the coast, the country is rich, highly cultivated, 
and well supplied with water, groves of fruit trees, and valuable 
timber. The villages are large and prosperous. Besides the 
tract on the coast, there are extensive salt marshes along the 
banks of the Puma and Ambika rivers. The reclaimed land 
has been made to yield a small return of rice. Jawdr , , bdjra . , 
and rice are the staple crops. Miscellaneous crops are pulses, 
-gram, oilseeds, sugar-cane, and plantains. The climate is mild 
and healthy throughout the year. 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


34*2 

Chikhll.-- Eastern tdluka of Surat District, Bombay, lying 
between 20° 37' and 20° 54' N. and 72° 59 ' and 73 0 17' E., 
with an area of 168 square miles. The population in 1901 
was $9,692, compared with 61,315 in 1891. The tdluka 
contains 61 villages and one town, Chikhll (population, 4,440), 
the head-quarters. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to 2*3 lakhs. Chikhll consists of raised plateaux 
with intervening belts of low-lying land. The elevated tracts 
are seamed by rocky watercourses ; the soil, being poor and 
shallow, is cultivated only in patches, and yields little but 
grass and brushwood. The low-lying lands between these 
elevations contain a very fertile soil, bearing superior crops of 
grain, sugar-cane, and fruit. The tdluka is watered by the 
Ambika, Kaveri, Kharera, and Auranga rivers, which flow 
through it from east to west. 

Bulsar Taluka. — Southern tdluka of Surat District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 20° 28' and 20° 46' N. and 72 0 52' and 73 0 
8' E., with an area of 208 square miles. It contains one town, 
Bulsar (population, 12,857), the head-quarters; and 95 
villages. The population in 1901 was 83,476, compared with 
87,889 in 1901. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to nearly 2-8 lakhs. There are no alienated villages in the 
tdluka. The whole surface is irregular, seamed with river-beds, 
and rising into rocky uplands. Situated on the sea-coast, the 
climate is considered healthy at all times of the year, but the 
eastern parts are malarious at certain seasons. Tithal, a village 
on the coast, is resorted to as a sanitarium by visitors from 
Bombay. The tdluka is abundantly watered by rivers and 
streams. 

Pardi Taluka. — Southernmost tdluka of Surat District, 
Bombay, lying between 20° 17' and 20° 32' N. and 72 0 50' 
and 73 0 7' E., with an area of 163 square miles. It contains 
one town, Pardi (population, 5,483), the head-quarters ; and 
81 villages. The population in 1901 was 61,691, compared 
with 58,245 in 1891. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to nearly i-| lakhs. The tdluka adjoins the Portu- 
guese territory of Daman, and is for the most part an undulating 
plain sloping westwards to the sea. The fields are, as a rule, 
unenclosed. Pardi is divided into an infertile and a fertile 
region by the Kolak river. Its climate has a bad reputation. 
The annual rainfall, averaging 72 inches, is the heaviest in 
the District. 

Bardoli Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same 
name in Surat District, Bombay, situated in 21 0 f N. and 73 0 



SURAT DISTRICT 


343 

f E., on the Tapti Valley Railway, 19 miles from Surat city. 
Population (1901), 5,172. It has a temple of Kedareshwar 
about four centuries old, on the site of a previously existing 
shrine of great antiquity. A fair, held annually, is attended by 
over 5,000 pilgrims. The town contains a dispensary and three 
schools, two for boys and one for girls, attended by 241 and 86 
pupils respectively. 

- Bulsar Town ( Walsad , Valsad ). — Port and head-quarters 
of the taluka of the same name in Surat District, Bombay, 
situated in 20° 37' N. and 72 0 56' E., about 40 miles south of 
Surat and 115 north of Bombay, on the estuary of the navigable 
though small river Auranga, and on the railway between Surat 
and Bombay. Population (1901), 12,857. Of the Musalmans, 
the greater number are Tais, or converted Hindus, who are 
engaged chiefly in cloth-weaving, and are, as a rule, well-to-do* 
The municipality dates from 1855. The income during the 
decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 29,000; in 1903-4 it was 
Rs. 25,000. Bulsar is well placed for trade, both by sea and 
by land. The total value of its coast trade, exclusive of Gov- 
ernment stores, in 1903-4 was 12 lakhs, of which 7-| lakhs 
represented the value of exports and 4^ lakhs that of imports* 
The chief imports are piece-goods, tobacco, wheat, fish, and 
sugar; the chief exports are timber, grain, molasses, oil, firewood, 
and tiles. The export of timber is the staple of Bulsar trade. 
The wood brought from the Dang forests is exported by sea to 
Dholera, Bhaunagar, and other ports of Kathiawar. There 
are manufactures of cloth for wearing apparel, silk for women’s 
robes, and of bricks, tiles, and pottery. The town contains a 
Sub- Judge’s court, a dispensary, and two English schools, of 
which one is a high school, attended by 101 and 159 pupils*. 
It has also nine vernacular schools, six for boys and three for 
girls, attended respectively by 412 and 219 pupils. 

Mandvi Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Surat District, Bombay, situated in 21 0 18' N. 
and 73 0 22' E. Population (1901), 4,142. The municipality 
was established in 1868. During the decade ending 1901 
the income averaged Rs. 6,000 ; in 1903-4 it was Rs. 6,273. 
The town contains a dispensary and four schools, three (in- 
cluding an English school) for boys and one for girls, attended 
respectively by 302 and 58 pupils. 

Pardi Town.— Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Surat District, Bombay, situated in 20° 31' N. and 72 0 57' E., 
on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. Population 
(1901), 5,483. The town contains a dispensary and three 



344 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


schools, two (including an English school) for boys and one for 
girls, attended respectively by 230 and 94 pupils. 

Parnera Hill. — Hill in Surat District, Bombay, situated in 
20 0 34' N. and 72 0 57' E., 4 miles south-east of Bulsar, and 120 
miles north of Bombay, rising to a height of about 500 feet 
above the plain. From its commanding position the fortified 
summit has long been considered a place of consequence. 
Originally a Hindu fort, it remained under the Raja of Dharam- 
pur, till, about the end of the fifteenth century, it was taken 
by Mahmud Begara, Sultan of Gujarat (1459-1511). The fort 
remained for some time under the charge of Musalman com- 
manders, but in the disorders that marked the close of the 
power of the Ahmadabad kings it fell into the hands of a chief of 
banditti. According to a Portuguese writer, Parnera was twice 
(m 1558 and 1568) taken by expeditions from Daman, and on 
the second occasion the fortifications were destroyed. After it 
had been in ruins for more than a hundred years, the fort was, 
in April, 1676, taken and rebuilt by Moro Pandit, one of 
Sivajfs generals. For about a century Parnera remained under 
the Marathas. It was then (1780) captured by a detachment 
of English troops under Lieutenant Welsh. At first, as a pro- 
tection against the raids of Pindaris, the fort was occupied by 
a military detachment; but early in the nineteenth century 
the garrison was removed, and during the Mutiny of 1857 
the fort was dismantled. 

Rander. — Town in the Chorasi tlluka of Surat District; 
Bombay, situated in 21 0 13' N. and 72 0 48' E., on the right 
bank of the Tapti, 2 miles above Surat city. Population (1901), 
10,478, including suburb. Rander is supposed to be one of 
the oldest places in Southern Gujarat. It is said to have been 
a place of importance about the beginning of the Christian 
era, when Broach was the chief seat of commerce in Western 
India. Albirunl (1031) gives Rander (Rahanjhour) and Broach 
as dual capitals of South Gujarat. In the early part of the 
thirteenth century a colony of Arab merchants and sailors is 
stated to have attacked and expelled the Jains, at that time 
ruling at Rander, and to have converted their temples into 
mosques. Under the name of Nayatas, the Rander Arabs 
traded to distant countries. In 1514 the traveller Barbosa 
described Rander as a rich and agreeable place of the Moors 
(Nayatas), possessing very large and fine ships, and trading with 
Malacca, Bengal, Tawasery (Tennasserim), Pegu, Martaban, and 
Sumatra, in all sorts of spices, drugs, silk, musk, benzoin, and 
porcelain. .In 1530 the Portuguese, after sacking Surat, 'took 



SURAT DISTRICT 


345 


Binder. With the growing importance of Surat, Rander de- 
clined in prosperity, and, by the close of the sixteenth century, 
became a port dependent on Surat. At present, Bohras of the 
Sunni sect carry on trade westwards with Mauritius, and east- 
wards with Rangoon, Moulmein, Siam, and Singapore. By the 
opening of the Tapti bridge in 1877 Rander was closely con- 
nected with Surat city. The municipality, established in 1868, 
had an average income of about Rs. 20,000 during the decade 
ending 1901 ; in 1903-4 the income was Rs. 23,000. The 
town contains a dispensary, an English school with 47 pupils, 
and six vernacular schools, five for boys with 517 pupils and 
one for girls with 95. 

Surat City. — Head-quarters of Surat District, Bombay, and 
the former seat of a Presidency under the East India Company, 
situated in 21 0 12' N. and 72 0 50' E., on the southern bank of 
the Tapti river; distant from the sea 14 miles by water, 10 miles 
by land. It was once the chief commercial city of India, and 
is still an important mercantile place, though the greater portion 
of its export and import trade has long since been transferred 
to Bombay. Surat is a station on the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway, 167 miles from Bombay. 

During the eighteenth century Surat probably ranked as the 
most populous city of India. As late as 1797 its inhabitants 
were estimated at 800,000 persons ; and though this calculation 
is doubtless excessive, the real numbers must have been very 
high. With the transfer of its trade to Bombay the numbers 
rapidly fell off. In 1811 an official report returned the popu- 
lation at 250,000 persons, and in 1816 at 124,406. In 1847, 
when the fortunes of Surat reached their lowest ebb, the number 
of inhabitants amounted to only 80,000. Thenceforward the 
city began to retrieve its position. By 1851 the total had risen 
to 89,505 ; in 1872 it stood at 107,855 ; in 1881 at 109,844; in 
1891 at 109,229 ; and in 1901 at 119,306. It is now the third 
largest city in the Presidency. The population in 1901 in- 
cluded 85,577 Hindus, 22,821 Muhammadans, 5,754 Parsis, 
and 4,671 Jains. The Parsis and high-caste Hindus form the 
wealthy classes ; the Musalmans are in depressed circumstances, 
except the Bohras, many of whom are prosperous traders, and 
whose head, called ‘the Mulla of the Bohras,* resides here. 
Fondness for pleasure and ostentation characterize all classes 
and creeds in Surat alike. Caste feasts and processions are 
more common and more costly than elsewhere. Fairs, held 
a few miles away in the country, attract large crowds of gaily 
dressed men and children in bright bullock-carts. The Parsis 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


346 

join largely in these entertainments, besides holding their own 
old-fashioned feasts in their public hall. The Bohras are 
famous for their hospitality and good living* The extravagant 
habits engendered by former commercial prosperity have sur- 
vived the wealth on which they were founded. 

Position Surat lies on a bend of the Tapti, where the river suddenly 

and aspect. swee p S westward towards its mouth. In the centre of its river- 
front rises the castle, a mass of irregular fortifications, flanked 
at each corner by large round towers, and presenting a 
picturesque appearance when viewed from the water. Planned 
and built in 1540 by Khudawand Khan, a Turkish soldier in 
the service of the Gujarat kings, it remained a military fortress 
under both Mughal and British rule till 1862, when the troops 
were withdrawn and the buildings utilized as public offices. 
With the castle as its centre, the city stretches in the arc of a 
circle for about a mile and a quarter along the river bank. 
Southward, the public park with its tall trees hides the houses 
in its rear ; while on the opposite bank, about a mile up the rivet 
on the right shore, lies the ancient town of JEUnder, now almost 
a suburb of Surat. Two lines of fortification, the inner and 
the outer, once enclosed Surat ; and though the interior wall has 
nearly disappeared, the moat which marks its former course still 
preserves distinct the city and the suburbs. Within the city 
proper the space is on the whole thickly peopled; and the 
narrow but clean and well-watered streets wind between rows 
of handsome houses, the residences of high-caste Hindus and 
wealthy Parsis. The suburbs, on the other hand, lie scattered 
among wide open spaces, once villa gardens, but now cultivated 
as fields. The unmetalled lanes, hollowed many feet deep, form 
watercourses in the rainy season, and stand thick in dust during 
the rest of the year. The dwellings consist of huts of low-caste 
Hindus or weavers’ cottages. West of the city, the site of the 
old military cantonment is now occupied by the police, whose 
parade ground stretches along the river bank. Suburban villas, 
the property of wealthy residents of the city, are springing up 
along the Dumas and Varachha toads. 

History. The annals of Surat city, under native rule, have been briefly 
given in the article on Surat District. During the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries Surat ranked as the chief export 
and import centre of India. After the assumption of the entire 
government by the British in 1800, prosperity, which had de- 
serted the city towards the close of the eighteenth century, for 
a time reappeared. But the steady transfer of trade to Bombay, 
combined with the famine of 1813 in Northern Gujarat, conr 



SURAT DISTRICT 


347 


tinued to undermine its commercial importance; and by 1825 
the trade had sunk to the export of a little raw cotton to 
the rising capital of the Presidency. In 1837 two calamities 
occurred in close succession, which destroyed the greater part 
of the city and reduced almost all its inhabitants to a state 
of poverty. For three days in the month of April a fire raged 
through the very heart of Surat, laying 9,373 houses in ruins, 
and extending over nearly 10 miles of thoroughfare, in both 
the city and the suburbs. No estimate can be given of the 
total loss to property, but the houses alone represented an 
approximate value of 45 lakhs. Towards the close of the rainy 
season in the same year, the Tapti rose to the greatest height 
ever known, flooded almost the whole city, and covered the 
surrounding country for miles like a sea, entailing a further 
loss of about 27 lakhs. This second calamity left the people 
almost helpless. Already, after the fire, many of the most 
intelligent merchants, both Hindu and Pars!, no longer bound 
to home by the ties of an establishment, had deserted Surat 
for Bombay. In 1838 it remained ‘but the shadow of what it 
had been, two-thirds to three-fourths of the city having been 
annihilated.' From 1840 onward, however, affairs began to 
change for the better. Trade improved and increased steadily, 
till in 1858 its position as the centre of railway operations 
in Gujarat brought a new influx of wealth and importance. 

The high prices which ruled during the American Civil War 
again made Surat a wealthy city. The financial disasters of 
1865-6 in Bombay somewhat affected all Western India, but 
Surat nevertheless preserved the greater part of its wealth. In 
1869 the municipality undertook a series of works to protect 
the city against floods. In 1883 Surat was again inundated, 
and damage caused to the extent of 20 lakhs. The loss of 
human life, however, was small. The city suffered from 
another extensive fire in 1889. At the present day, though 
the fall of prices has reduced the value of property, the well- 
kept streets, the public buildings, and large private expenditure, 

Stamp the city, which has benefited by the construction of the 
Tapti Valley Railway, with an unmistakable air of steady order 
and prosperity. 

The English church, built in 1820 and consecrated by Buildings 
Bishop Heber on April 17, 1825, stands upon the river bank, of interest, 
between the castle and the custom-house, and has seats for 
about 100 persons. The Portuguese or Roman Catholic chapel 
occupies a site near the old Dutch factory. The Armenians 
once had a large church, now in ruins. The Musalmans have 



Tombs. 


348 NORTHERN DIVISION 

several mosques, of which four are handsome buildings. The 
Nav Saiyid Sahib’s mosque stands on the bank of the Gopi 
lake, an old dry tank, once reckoned among the finest works 
in Gujarat. Beside the mosque rise nine tombs in honour 
of nine warriors, whose graves were miraculously discovered by 
a local Muhammadan saint. The Saiyid Edroos mosque, with 
a minaret, which forms one of the most conspicuous buildings 
in Surat, was built in 1639 by a rich merchant, in honour of an 
ancestor of Shaikh Saiyid Husain Edroos, C.S.I., who died in 
1882. The Mirza Sami mosque and tomb, ornamented with 
carving and tracery, was built about 1540 by Khudawand Khan. 
The Parsis have two chief fire-temples for their two subdivisions. 
The principal Hindu shrines perished in the fire of 1837, but 
have since been rebuilt by pious inhabitants. Gosavi Maha- 
raja’s temple, built in 1695, was renewed after the fire at a cost 
of Rs. 1,50,000. Two shrines of Hanuman, the monkey-god, 
are much respected by the people. Specimens of excellent 
wood-carving are to be found on many of the older houses. 

The tombs of early European residents, including those 
of the Dutch, and the more modern ones of the Mullas of 
the Bohras, form some of the most interesting objects in Surat. 
Among the first named are those of many of the English 
4 Chiefs of Surat.’ On the right of the entrance to the English 
cemetery is the handsome mausoleum of Sir George Oxenden 
and his brother Christopher. It is a large two-storeyed square 
building with columns at each angle ; in the two eastern ones 
are staircases to the upper storey, over which is a skeleton 
dome of masonry in the form of a Maltese cross rendered 
convex. Christopher died on April *8, 1659 ; and Sir George, 
who in a long Latin epitaph is styled 4 Anglorum in India, 
Persia, Arabia, Praeses, Insulae Bombayensis Gubernator,’ 
died on July 14, 1669, aged 50. The earliest tomb is that 
of Francis Breton, President of Surat, who died on July 21, 
1649. Among the many tombs with curious inscriptions is 
one to ‘Mary, the wife of Will. Andrew Price, chief of the 
Affairs of Surat, &c.,’ who, it is said, 4 through the spotted veil 
of the small-pox, rendered a pure and unspotted soul to God,’ 
April 13, 1761, aetat, 23. The tombs have been carefully looked 
after of late years, In the Dutch cemetery, which adjoins 
the English, there are also some curious and handsome tombs. 
One in particular to Baron Van Reede, Commissary-General 
of the United Netherlands East India Company for India, 
who died on December 15, 1691, once cost the Dutch Com- 
pany Rs. 9,000 for repairs, Other buildings of historic interest 



SURAT DISTRICT 


349 


in Surat are the English and Portuguese factories, and the house 
occupied by the Sadr Adalat before its transfer to Bombay. 

The sea-borne trade of Surat has declined from a total esti- Trade and 
mated value of 156 lakhs in 1801 to 30 lakhs in 1903-4; commerce 
namely, imports 17! lakhs and exports 12J. The export trade 
is markedly decreasing. The principal articles of export are 
agricultural produce and cotton. The land-borne trade, how- 
ever, since the opening of railway communication with Bombay 
and the interior, has increased considerably. The port of Surat 
used to be at Suvali, 12 miles west of the city; but the sea- 
borne trade is now carried in small country craft which pass up 
the river to Surat. The station of the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway is outside the city, surrounded by a 
rising suburb. 

The organization of trade-guilds is highly developed in Surat. 

The chief of these guilds, composed of the leading bankers 
and merchants, is called the Mahajan or banker-guild. Its 
funds, derived from fees on cotton and on bills of exchange, are 
spent partly on animal hospitals and partly on the temples of 
the Vallabhacharya sect. The title and office of Nagarseth, 
or chief merchant of the city, hereditary in a Srawak or Jain 
family, has for long been little more than a name. Though 
including men of different castes and races, each class of crafts- 
men has its trade-guild or panchayat, with a headman or referee 
in petty trade disputes. They have also a common purse, 
spending their funds partly in charity and partly in entertain- 
ments. A favourite device for raising money is for the men of 
the craft or trade to agree to shut all their shops but one on 
a certain day. The right to keep open this one shop is then 
put up to auction, and the amount bid is credited to the guild 
fund. There is a considerable hand industry in the spinning 
and weaving of cotton cloth, some of the very finest textures in 
Gujarat being made here. Three steam mills have also been 
opened in the city, one of these having commenced work as 
early as 1866. The nominal capital of the mills in 1904 was 
nearly 20 lakhs, and there were 180 looms and 34,290 spindles 
at work, employing 1,288 persons daily. 

The municipality was established in 1852, The receipts Munici- 
during the ten years ending 1901 averaged 5 lakhs. In pality * 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,85,900, chiefly derived from 
octroi (1 J lakhs), tax on houses and land (nearly \ lakh), and 
other taxes (if lakhs). The expenditure was 4% lakhs, includ- 
ing general administration and collection of taxes (Rs. 31,000), 
public safety (Rs. 23,000), water and public health and con- 



35 ° 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


servancy (2 lakhs), and public institutions (Rs. 25,000). The 
municipality has opened a number of excellent roads, well 
lighted, paved, and watered. It has constructed works for the 
protection of the city from floods, and for lessening the risk 
of fire. Systems of drainage, conservancy, and public markets 
have also been undertaken. 

Two hospitals provide for the indigent poor; and there is 
one such institution for sick or worn-out animals. The clock- 
tower on the Delhi road, 80 feet in height, was erected in 1871 
at the expense of Khan Bahadur Barjorjl Merwanji Frazer. 
The Andrews Library is well patronized. In 1903-4 there were 
four high schools with 1,315 boys, and a mission high school 
with 56 girls. Of these, one is a Government high school 
with accommodation for 500 pupils, established in 1842. There 
were also four middle schools and an industrial school, with 
412 and 88 pupils, respectively; 25 vernacular schools for boys 
with 4,693 pupils, and 16 for girls with 1,659 pupils. There 
are 5 printing presses and 5 weekly newspapers. Besides the 
Collector’s and Judge’s courts, the town contains a Small 
Cause court, two Subordinate Judges’ courts, a civil hospital, a 
hospital for women and children, and a dispensary, The 
hospital is a handsome building of two storeys with a clock- 
tower. In the municipal gardens stands the Winchester 
Museum, which contains specimens of Surat silks and em- 
broidery, and a few samples of forest produce. 

Suv&li (the 1 Swally ’ of the old records). — Seaport of Surat, 
in the Olpad taluka of Surat District, Bombay, situated in 21 0 
io' N. and 72 0 39' E., about 12 miles west of Surat city, out- 
side the mouth of the Tapti, with a good roadstead and deep 
water. Population (190T), 1,692. The channel, about i-| 
miles in breadth and 7 miles in length, lies between the shore 
and a long strip of land dry at low water ; 4 Suvali hole ’ is a 
cove which cuts into the land about the middle of this channel. 
With the arrival of large European ships, which had often to 
remain in the Tapti for several months, Suvali became the 
seaport of Surat. In 1626 it was already a place of importance. 
In the fair season (September to March) the Vanls pitched 
their booths and tents and huts of straw in great numbers, 
resembling a country fair or market. Here they sold calicoes, 
China satin, porcelain, mother-of-pearl and ebony cabinets, 
agates, turquoises, carnelians, and also rice, sugar, plantains, 
and native liquor. For some years all ships visiting the Tapti 
were allowed to anchor at Suvali, but so great were the facilities 
for smuggling that, before many years had passed (1666), th^ 



THANA DISTRICT 


35 * 


privilege was limited to English, French, and Dutch. About 
half a mile from the sea * the factors of each of these nations 
built a convenient lodging of timber, with a flagstaff in front, 
flying the colours of its nation/ On the sea-shore was a 
European burial-ground, where, according to one account, was 
laid Tom Coryat, the eccentric traveller and author, who, says 
Terry, ‘overtook death by drinking too freely of sack* in 
December, 1618, and was buried under a little monument like 
one of those usually made in our churchyards. The more 
authentic version affirms that Coryat was buried near Surat. 
Towards the end of the eighteenth century Suvali was no 
longer a place of anchorage, its place being taken by the roads, 
a league south of the river mouth. 

Thana District. — District in the Northern Division of the Boun- 
Bombay Presidency, lying between i8° 53' and 20° 22' N. and 
72 0 39' and 73 0 48' E., with an area of 3,573 square miles, and hill 
It is bounded on the north by the Portuguese territory of an<illver 
Daman and by Surat District; on the east by the Western systems * 
Ghats ; on the south by Kolaba District ; and on the west 
by the Arabian Sea. 

Thana consists of a distinct strip of low land intersected 
by hilly tracts, rising to elevations varying from 100 to 2,500 
feet. Towards the east and north-east the country is elevated, 
covered with trees, and but scantily cultivated. Near the coast 
the land is low, and, where free from inundation, fertile. North 
of the Vaitarna river, whose broad waters open a scene of 
exquisite loveliness, the shores are flat, with long, sandy spits 
running into muddy shallows, while the hills also recede ; so that, 
a little north of the great marsh of Dahanu, the general aspect 
resembles Gujarat rather than the Konkan, while the language 
also begins to change from Marathi to Gujarati Along the 
whole line of coast the soil is fertile, and the villages are 
exceedingly populous. In the north-east the hills are covered 
with forest, and the valleys but partially cultivated ; the villages 
are seldom more than scattered hamlets of huts; and the 
population consists mainly of uncivilized aboriginal tribes, many 
of whom still wander from place to place as they find land or 
water to suit their fancy. Inland, the District is well watered 
and well wooded. Except in the north-east, where much of it 
rises in large plateaux, the country is a series of flat, low-lying 
rice tracts broken by well-marked ranges of hills. Salt marshes 
are an important feature of this part of the District ; and in 
them the reclamation of land for cultivation is going on 
steadily though slowly. The Vaitarna, rising in the Trimba^ 



35 2 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


hills in Nasik District opposite the source of the Godavari, is 
-the only considerable river. The sacredness of its source, so 
near the spring of the Godavari, the importance of its valley, 
one of the earliest trade routes between the sea and the North 
Deccan, and the beauty of the lower reaches of the river, 
brought to the banks of the Vaitarna some of the first Aryan 
settlers. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata as one of the 
four holy streams. The river is navigable for small craft from 
Agashi to Manor, though deep and rapid in the rains. The 
Ulhas, rising in the ravines north of the Borghat, flows into 
-the Bassein creek, after a north-westerly course of about 80 
miles. The other rivers are of little consequence — shallow 
during the cold season, and in the hot months almost dry. 
Except the Bassein creek, which separates the island of Salsette 
from the mainland and is navigable throughout its whole 
length, most of the inlets of the sea, though broad and deep at 
their mouths, become shallow watercourses within io miles of 
the coast 

There are no natural lakes ; but the Vehar, TulsI, and Tansa 
reservoirs, formed artificially, supply Bombay City with water. 
The Vehar reservoir, about 15 miles from Bombay, between 
Kurla and Thana, covers an area of about 1,400 acres. It is 
formed by three dams, two of which are built to keep the water 
from flowing over ridges on the margin of the basin that were 
lower than the top of the main dam. The quantity of the water 
supplied by the reservoir is about 8,000,000 gallons a day, 
or a little more than 10 gallons per head for the population 
of Bombay. Within the watershed of the reservoir, tillage or 
the practice of any handicraft is forbidden, and the wildness of 
the surrounding country keeps the water free from the risk of 
contamination. The water is excellent, and bacteriological 
examination shows that the growth of weeds has exercised no 
appreciable effect upon its quality. The cost of the Vehar 
reservoir, and of laying the pipes into Bombay, was over 37 
lakhs. As apprehension was felt that the quantity of water 
drawn from the gathering ground of Vehar (2,550 acres) might 
prove too small for the wants of Bombay, the neighbouring 
TulsI reservoir was excavated at a cost of 4% lakhs and its 
water kept ready to be drained into Vehar. In 1877 a new 
scheme was undertaken for bringing an independent main from 
TulsI to the top of Malabar Hill in Bombay, which was carried 
out at a cost of 33 lakhs. This source of supply gives an 
additional daily allowance of 6 gallons per head for the whole 
population of the city, and provides for the higher parts of 



THANA DISTRICT 


353 


Bombay which are not reached by the Vehar main. The 
Pokama reservoir, about 2 miles north-west of Thana town, 
was constructed to supply drinking-water to Thana in 1 880-1. 

The Varala tank at Bhiwandi and the water-works at Murbad 
are important artificial reservoirs. The Tansa reservoir is 
elsewhere described. 

From the Thalghat to the extreme south the Western Ghats 
form an unbroken natural boundary. Besides the main range 
and its western spurs, ranges of hills are found all over the 
District. Among the most considerable are those running 
through Salsette from north to south, the Daman range, in 
which is Tungar, and the range running from north to south 
between the Vaitarna and the Bassein creek. There are also 
several more or less isolated hills, many of them in former 
times forts of strength and celebrity. The two most striking in 
appearance are Mahuli and Malanggarh. 

There are a number of islands along the sea margin of Islands. 
Thana District. The largest of these is Salsette, whose 
western belt is formed of what was formerly a string of small 
islets. Historians speak of the island of Bassein; and a 
narrow creek, the Supari Khadi, still runs between the island 
and the mainland, crossed by the railway and the bridges at 
Bolinj and Gokhirve. In the Bassein taluka is the island of 
Arnala, containing a well-preserved fort— Sindhudrug or the 
‘ocean fort’ — with Musalman remains, Sanskrit and Marathi 
inscriptions above the east gate, and an old Hindu temple 
inside. 

Except in alluvial valleys, Thana District consists entirely of Geology, 
the Deccan trap and its associates. The special geological 
features from Bassein northwards are the traces of extensive 
denudation and partial reproduction of land. Of the line of 
hot springs that occur along the west coast, Thana has four 
representatives in Mahlm, Vada, Bhiwandi, and Bassein. 

Except those in Mahlm, almost all are either in the bed of, or 
near, the Tansa river. 

The vegetation of the District is essentially Konkan in Botany, 
character. The toddy palm is very common in the coast 
tdlukas . Thana has a great variety of forest trees, and among 
its fruit trees the grafted mangoes of the coast orchards reach 
a high pitch of excellence. They are of three known varieties : 
Alphonso , , Pairi, and Raimi ; the first two are believed to have 
been brought from Goa. The garden trees of Bassein yield 
about ten varieties of plantains. The District is rich in fine 
flowering plants, such as Capparis> Imp aliens > Vitis discolor^ 

bo. 1 . a a 



Faama. 


Climate 
and tem- 
perature. 


Rainfall. 


History. 


354 NORTHERN DIVISION 

Crotalaria , Smithia , Erythrina , Blumea , , Senecio , , Sopubia, , and 
Ipomaea . 

In the beginning of the fourteenth century there were, 
according to Friar Oderic, a number of 4 black lions ’ in the 
District. Tigers and leopards are found in decreasing numbers 
in the forests on the slopes and in the valleys of the Ghats. 
Hyenas, jackals, and porcupines are common, and bison and 
chital are seen occasionally. Crocodiles are found in the 
estuaries, such as the mouth of the Kalyan creek, and in the 
deeper fresh-water pools, and are numerous in the Vehar lake. 
The District is infested with snakes, both venomous and 
harmless. 

For fully half the year the climate is exceedingly moist, and 
the District is generally unhealthy. There are no great varia- 
tions in temperature during the different seasons of the year, 
the air being cooled by sea winds during the hot months and in 
the south-west monsoon. The mean annual temperature is 
83°, ranging from 58° in January to 103° in April, Except on 
the coast, October and November are malarious months, owing 
to the drying of the monsoon moisture. The cold season is 
short and mild. Two shocks of earthquake have been noted 
in the District, one in 1849 and the other in 1877, The latter 
was preceded by a noise 4 like cannon being trotted along the 
road.’ 

The rainfall is heavy and is entirely derived from the south-west 
monsoon. Along the coast north of Bassein it averages from 
62 to 69 inches, and at Bassein 83 inches. Frequently con- 
tinuous rain causes damage to the embankments of the fields 
and the seed-beds of rice, washing away transplanted crops, and 
otherwise doing much mischief. The Shahapur taluka has the 
heaviest fall (hi inches), and the minimum is in Umbar-, 
gaon petha (62 inches). The rainfall over the whole District 
averages 92 inches. 

In the third century b.c. Asoka’s edicts were engraved at 
Sopara in this District. After Asoka, the Andhrabhrityas ruled 
the Konkan, including Thana. To them succeeded the Sah 
dynasty, or Western Kshatrapas, and a revival of the former 
Mauryan dominion was subsequently overthrown by the 
Chalukyas of Kalyan. From 810 to 1260 the District was part 
of the possessions of the Silaharas, who made their capital at 
Purl (Elephanta), the former seat of the Mauryas in the Konkan. 
The Silaharas were probably of Dravidian origin, In their time 
{c. 1300) the Musalmans overran the coast j but their supre- 
macy was hardly more than nominal until about 1500, when. 



THANA DISTRICT 


555 


the Ahmadnagar kings established themselves firmly. They 
soon came into collision with the Portuguese, who at this time 
appeared upon the scene, and after a struggle established them- 
selves at Bassein in 1533 and built a fort. Their acquisitions 
spread along the coast and brought them into hostility with 
the Ahmadnagar king who held Kalyan and the interior, and 
the Koli chiefs of Jawhar. The possessions of the Ahmadnagar 
kings passed to the Mughals. In 1666 Sivaji seized the south- 
east of Thana and attacked the Portuguese in Salsette, and by 
1675 he was the undisputed ruler of the interior as far as Kalyan; 
but a little later the Mughals regained a footing, and in 1694 
they attacked the Portuguese. The Sidls of Janjlra commanded 
the Musalman fleet ; and the naval wars between them and the 
Marathas often imperilled the safety of the island of Bombay. 
Arab pirates devastated the Portuguese possessions, and after 
Aurangzeb’s death Angria subdued the country from the Borghat 
to Bhiwandi. About 1731 the power of both Angria and the 
Sidi appears to have declined through internal dissensions, on 
which the Peshwa’s central government came to the front. By 
1739 he had deprived the Portuguese of all their possessions, 
including the ports of Thana and Bassein. The expense of 
maintaining Bombay induced the English to make an effort to 
obtain Salsette by treaty, and, this failing, they took it by force 
in 1774. In 1775 Raghunath Rao Peshwa ceded Bassein and 
its dependencies to the British. Jealousy of the French, who 
had entered into negotiations with the Peshwa, induced the 
Bombay Government to attack the Marathas; but being obliged 
to oppose Haidar All in Madras, they restored their conquest, 
Bassein and its dependencies, on the mainland of Thana, by 
the Treaty of Salbai, in 1782. In 1817 the Peshwa ceded the 
northern parts of the present District in return for British 
support, and, war breaking out almost immediately, the rest 
was annexed. Since then, operations to put down the Koli 
robbers, which extended over several years, and police measures 
to punish occasional gang robberies by the same tribe have 
been the only interruptions to the peace of the District. 

The archaeological remains in Thana District are mainly^ 
Hindu. The most interesting Portuguese remains are the forts 1( 
and churches at Bassein and at Mandapeshvar, Ghodbandar, 
and other places in Salsette, The chief Musalman remains are 
mosques, tombs, and reservoirs at Bhiwandi and Kalyan. The 
principal Buddhist remains are caves at Kanheri, Kondivati, 
and Magathan in Salsette, and at Lonad in Bhiwandi, the Kan- 
heri caves being of special interest, Brahmanic remains include! 

A a 2 



The 

people. 


Castes and 
occupa- 
tions. 


356 NORTHERN DIVISION 

caves at Jogeshvari and Mandapeshvar in Salsette; temples at 
Ambarnath in Kalyan, Lonad in Bhiwandi, and Atgaon in 
Shahapur; and caves at Palu Sonala in Murbad. Other 
remains, either Buddhist or Brahmanic, are a rock-cut temple 
at Vashali in Shahapur; caves or cells at Indragath inDahanu, 
and at Jivdhan in Bassein. 

In 1846 the population of the District is said to have been 
593,192; in 1872 it was 847,424; in 1881, 908,548; in 1891, 
904,860; and in 1901, 811,433. The recent enumerations 
show an apparent decrease, which is due to the transfer to 
Kolaba District of the Panvel taluka between 1881 and 1891 
and of the Karjat taluka before 1901. The adjusted popula- 
tion for the present area was in 1872, 673,560; in 1881, 725,305; 
in 1891, 819,580; and in 1901, 811,433, the actual decrease 
during the last decade being one per cent. The District is 
divided into nine talukas , with area and population as follows: — 


Taluka . 

Area in square 
miles 

Number of 

Population. 

Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write. 

Towns. 

Villages 

Dahanu * 
Mahlm . 
Vadaf . . 

Shahapur 
Bassein . 
Bhiwandi 
Kalyan . 
Murbad . 
Salsette . 

District total 

644 

4O9 

566 

6lO 

223 

249 

276 

350 

246 

I 

I 

I 

I 

3 

212 

187 

221 

197 

9 ° 

196 

224 

171 

128 

129,815 

82,562 

70,895 

83,881 

80,251 

77,440 

77,° s 7 

62,569 

* 46,933 

202 

202 

125 

138 

360 

311 

279 

179 

597 

- 3 

- 4 

- 1 

- 9 
+ 5 

- 11 

- 4 

- 5 
+ 16 

5,536 

3,712 

1,609 

2,206 

4>258 

2,852 

3,103 

1,833 

18,009 

3.573 

LL 

1,626 

81 r , 433 

227 

+ 1 

43,108 


* Including Umbargaon pet ha. 

Sha£pSffi kh ^ a Pdha ' Which ’ Since I90, » has been transferred to it from the 


There are seven towns-BANDRA, Bassein, Bhiwandi, 
Kalyan, Kelve-MahIm, Kurla, and Thana, the head- 
quarters— and 1,696 villages. The density is 227 persons per 
square mile, Salsette containing the maximum, 597. MarJthI 
is spoken by 88 per cent, of the population. According to 
religion, Hindus form 90 per cent, of the total, Musalmans and 
Christians 5 per cent. each. 

The population of Thana consists very largely of primitive 
tnbes, such as theVarlis (89,000), Thakurs (51,000), Kathkaris 
(22,000), and Kathodis (13*000), and the more progressive 
aborigines the Agrls (84,000) and Kolls (86,000). The first 
four for the most part lead a wandering life in the jungle, sub. 




THANA DISTRICT 


357 


sisting by the collection and sale of forest produce or raising 
a scanty crop by rude methods of cultivation. The Agris are 
salt-makers and cultivators, while the Kolls living on the coast 
are sailors and fishermen. These castes and tribes are animistic, 
and worship non-Brahmanic spirits and deities. Even Parsls, 

Jews, Musalmans, and Christians make offerings to these local 
deities. Except a few who proceed to Bombay during the dry 
season, chiefly as labourers and cartmen, the people seldom 
leave their homes in search of work. Their labour seems not 
to be in much demand outside the District, probably be- 
cause their fever-stricken constitutions prevent them from com- 
peting with the able-bodied labouring classes of Poona, Satara, 
and Ratnagiri. Much of this want of strength is due to the 
weakening climate, malarious forests, the strain and exposure 
in planting rice, and the immoderate use of spirituous liquors. 

Of outside labourers who come to Thana for work, the most 
important class are Deccan Kunbis (108,000) and Mahars 

(44.000) , of whom the former are known in the District as 
ghdtis or 1 highlanders.' They generally arrive in the begin- 
ning of the fair season, trooping in hundreds down the Borghat 
and other passes. Many find employment as grass-cutters in 
Salsette, Kalyan, and Mahim. The chief palm-tapping caste is 
the Bhandari (14,000), common throughout the Konkan. In 
the higher ranks, the chief Brahman caste is the Konkan- 
asth (6,000), and Prabhus or writers are numerous (5,000). 

Traders come from Gujarat and Marwar, and are chiefly Vanls 

(10.000) , including Bhatias (780), and Parsls (5,000). Agri- 
culture supports 65 per cent, of the total population ; of the 
rest, 4 per cent, are supported by industry and 2 per cent, 
by general labour. Fishermen and fish-curers number 14,000* 

The cultivators are mainly Kunbis and Agris. 

In 1901 the Christian population comprised 601 Europeans Christian 
and Eurasians and 42,000 native Christians, of whom 29,000 misslons * 
were Roman Catholics. The unusually large number of native 
Christians is a relic of Portuguese dominion. As the original 
converts were not obliged to give up caste distinctions, their 
descendants have retained many of them, and a Thana Christian 
can still tell to what caste his family belonged before conversion. 

The Christians of several villages in the Bassein taluka claim 
descent from Brahmans. Indeed, Christians of some castes 
commonly call themselves Christian Bhandaris, Kunbis, or 
Kolls, as the case may be ; and members of different castes do 
not, as a rule, intermarry, though the restriction in this respect' 
is not so rigid as among Hindus. All of them have Portuguese 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


Geneial 
agricul- 
tural con- 
ditions. 


358 

frames ; and they show their attachment to their faith by con- 
tributing very largely to their churches and to the support 
of their priests. All Christian villages on the coast, and a good 
number inland, have their churches ; and where a congregation 
is not large enough to keep a resident priest, one priest serves 
two or three churches. At many of the Salsette churches 
annual fairs or festivals are held, to which the Christians flock 
in great numbers. Numerous Hindus and Parsls also attend, 
as some of the shrines have a reputation for working cures, 
which is not confined to Christians, and obtains for them many 
heathen offerings. The upper classes dress as Europeans, the 
lower generally with jacket and short drawers of coloured 
cotton, and a red cloth cap ; the women of the lower classes 
dress like the Marathas, and, when they appear at church, 
wear a voluminous white shawl or mantle. Their houses 
are generally tiled, and often two-storeyed, and frequently 
washed in colours outside. Many of these Christians are 
employed as clerks and shopmen in Bombay ; but they pride 
themselves on differing from their brethren of Goa in refus- 
ing to enter domestic service. They live by cultivation, fish- 
ing, toddy-drawing, and every other employment open to 
similar classes of Hindus. A few members of the best fami- 
lies enter the priesthood. In Salsette very many, and in 
Bassein a few, of the state grants to village headmen are 
held by Christians. In religious matters the Thana Christians 
belong to two bodies, those under the jurisdiction of the Arch- 
bishop of Goa and those under the jurisdiction of the Vicar 
Apostolic of Bombay. The latter are a small body, not 
numbering more than 5,000 souls. Their spiritual matters 
are managed chiefly by members of the Society of Jesus. 
Besides Bandra, where they have a church of St. Peter and 
two native orphanages, they have churches and vicars at the 
villages of Man, Kanchavli, Gorai, Juhu, Wadoli, and Nirmal. 
There are nine churches and one chapel with a resident priest 
in Bassein under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Daman. At 
Malyan is a branch of the German Baptist Brethren Mission of 
Surat, and at Sanjan is a small boarding-school belonging to 
another mission, which has done good work with children of 
both sexes. The American Methodist Episcopalian Mission 
maintains a small branch at Kasara in the Shahapur tdluka, 
as also does the Pentecostal Mission at Vasind. 

The main division of soil is into * sweet ’ and * salt.’ ‘ Sweet * 
land is either black or red ; the black is known as shet ; mean- 
ing the level rice lands, and the red as maharkas , that is, the 



THANA DISTRICT 


359 


flat tops and slopes of trap hills. Rice lands belong to two 
classes, bandhni and mdlkhandu Bandhni lands are either 
banked fields which can be flooded, or low-lying fields without 
embankments, in which water lies during the rains. The low- 
lying fields are the most productive, as the rain-water leaves a 
rich deposit. Malkhandi lands are open fields in which no water 
gathers and which have no embankments. In many places 
along the coast, especially in the garden lands of Bassein and 
Mahlm, the black soil is lighter and more sandy than in the 
interior. 

The District is almost entirely ryatwari, only about 6 per Chief agri- 
cent. being inam or jagir. About one per cent, is owned 
by izafatdars and \ per cent, by khots. The chief statistics of and princi- 
cultivation are as follows, in square miles : — P al crops * 


Taluka. 

Total 

area. 

Cultivated. 

Irrigated. 

Cultivable 

waste. 

Forests. 

Dahanu . 

641 

294 

i 

38 

194 

Mahlm . 

409 

137 

2 

36 

121 

Vada . 

5 6 7 

229 

... 

21 

202 

Shahapur 

6lO 

220 

... 

26 

210 

Bassein . 

219 

88 

4 

13 

79 

Bhiwandi 

249 

123 


5 

76 

Kalyan . 

276 

148 

... 

6 

53 

Murbad . 

350 

i 161 

... 

6 

83 

Salsette . 

249 

128 

2 

25 

24 

Total 

3 . 57 o* 

1,528 

00 

176 

1,042 


* The area for which statistics are not available is 102 square miles-. The total 
area is based upon the latest information and differs by three miles from tThat given 
in the Census Report of 1901 . 


Among the crops, rice holds the first place with an area 
of 493 square miles; next come ragi and mri with 81 and 
25 respectively, mostly sown in the Shahapur and Murbad 
tdlukas and in the Mokhada petha of the Vada tafoka. The 
cultivation of rice is carried on extensively in embanked fields. 

Inferior cereals, oilseeds, pulses, and san-htmp are grown on 
the uplands and in the north of the District; gram or ml 
occasionally follows sweet rice as a catch-crop. There is 
a valuable trade in forage with Bombay. The gardens and 
orchards of the coast also contribute largely in vegetables 
and fruits to the same market, to which they supply excel- 
lent mangoes and plantains. 

Two influences, sea encroachment and land reclamations, Improye- 
have for centuries been changing the lands along the coast. 

Of the encroachments, the most remarkable are at Dahanu, tural 
where the sea has advanced about 1,500 feet; and at the P ractice * 
mouth of the Vaitarna, where since 1724 four villages have 




NORTHERN DIVISION 


360 

been submerged. Of the land reclamations, most have been 
made in small plots, which, after yielding crops of ‘salt’ rice 
for some years, gradually become freed from their saltness, 
and merge into the area of 1 sweet ’ rice land. Most of the 
embankments built to keep back the sea are believed to 
be the work of the Portuguese, having been constructed partly 
by the Government and partly by the European settlers to 
whom the Government granted large estates. In this, as 
in other respects, the Portuguese did much to improve the 
coast districts. The supply of rah manure is now much im- 
proved, owing to the action of the local authorities in pressing 
a more economical system of tree and shrub-lopping upon the 
cultivators. Efforts have recently been made in the Mahim 
- taluka to introduce oil engines and long channels for garden 
cultivation. From the beginning of British rule, salt waste's 
have been granted for reclamation on specially favourable 
terms. During the decade ending 1903-4 the cultivators 
found it necessary to borrow only 2-5 lakhs under the Land 
Improvement and Agriculturists’ Loans Acts. Of this sum, 
Rs. 89,000 was advanced in 1899-1900. 

Cattle, ’ Except in Mokhada, the east of Vada, and Shahapur, little 

pomes. attention is paid to the breeding of cattle. In Mokhada care 
is taken in the selection of bulls, which are bought from Nasik 
graziers, the'Kanadas cattle from the hills or the Nasik border 
being considered the best. The ponies bred locally are chiefly 
undersized. There are no special varieties of sheep or goats. 

Irrigation. Along the coast the water-supply is abundant, and the water, 
though brackish, is not unwholesome. Inland, water can be 
» had for the digging, but the people are so poor that wells are 
few and the supply of water scanty. The chief irrigation 
consists of flooding the rice lands during the rains by means 
of the small streams that drain the neighbouring uplands. In 
the dry season some irrigation is carried on from rivers and 
unbricked wells. About 8£ square miles were irrigated in 
1903-4, chiefly from wells; and there were 5,057 wells and 
22 tanks used for irrigation. 

Fisheries. The sea fisheries of Thana are important and very pro- 
ductive. The supply of fresh fish for the market of Bombay 
and of dried fish for the Deccan supports a large section of the 
population, chiefly Kolis. The oysters of Kalu in the north of 
the District bear an excellent reputation. Of the pearls, which 
are mentioned by Pliny (a.d. 77) and by A 1 Idrlsi (a.d. 1135); 
specimens are still found in the Thana creek. 

Forests. . Forest administration is under the control of three divisional 



THANA DISTRICT 


361 


Forest officers, assisted by three subdi visional Forest officers. 

The forests of Thana, which supply Bombay with a large 
quantity of firewood, yielded a revenue of Rs. 64,700 in 1870- 
1, and about 3*7 lakhs in 1901. In 1903-4 the income was 
3-8 lakhs. Together with those of Kanara and Khandesh, they 
are the largest and most valuable in the Presidency. About 
1,028 square miles have been provisionally gazetted as Reserved’ 
and 2x3 square miles as ‘protected’ forest. The timber trade 
is chiefly in the hands of Christians of Bassein, Musalmans, 
and Parsls. The District has a great variety of forest trees. 

The forest products are timber, firewood, charcoal, bamboos, 

&dm\ ain and other barks, apta and temburni leaves. Much 
of the forest is chiefly valuable as supplying grazing, the income 
derived from fodder and grazing in 1903-4 being Rs. 11,000. 

Thana is destitute of workable minerals. The laterite which Minerals, 
caps many of the highest hills, such as Prabal and Mahuli, 
bears traces of iron, and where charcoal has been burnt lumps 
of clay resembling iron slag may be found. The water in 
many springs also shows signs of iron. But iron ore is 
nowhere found in paying quantities. The only other mineral 
of which there are traces is sulphur, found in the hot springs at 
Vajrabai in Bhiwandi. 

Next to agriculture, the making of salt is the most important Arts and 
industry of the District. There are 99 salt-works with an out- 
turn in 1903-4 of 2,300,000 maunds, yielding a revenue of 53 
lakhs. The salt-workers are chiefly Agrls. Thana salt is made 
by the solar evaporation of sea-water. Ordinary brass-work 
and pottery are important industries. Hand-loom weaving by 
Portuguese or native Christians, who made cotton-cloth, in- 
cluding the particular striped variety known as Thana cloth, 
is now practically extinct. The Musalmans of Thana and 
Bhiwandi weave silk and cotton goods, but the industry suffers 
from proximity to the Bombay mills. There are at Kurla two 
spinning and weaving mills, owned by public companies, with 
8r,ooo spindles and 1,715 looms, which produce 11,000,000 lb. 
of yarn and nearly 5,000,000 lb. of cloth for the Indian and 
foreign markets. During 1904 the average number of daily 
workers was 4,502. There is also a bone-mill which employs 
100 hands and manufactures bone manure. Of other industries 
the cleaning of agave fibre and the manufacture of paint may 
be mentioned, while a large number of people are employed in 
lime-buming and brick-making. 

From the earliest historical times there has always been Commerce, 
an ocean trade to the coast of Thana and caravan .traffic 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


362 


through the Ghat passes. Since the establishment of railway 
communication with the interior, the roads and tracks of the 
District have carried only local traffic, which is still con- 
siderable. The chief articles of export are rice, salt, wood, 
lime, and dried fish. Cotton cloth, grain, tobacco, coco-nuts, 
sugar, and molasses are the chief articles of import. The 
annual value of the sea-borne trade of the ports in 1903-4 was : 
imports 55 lakhs, and exports 57 lakhs. The leading traders 
are Konkani Musalmans, Gujarati and local Yanis, and Bhatias. 


Communi- 
cations. 
Railways 
and roads. 


Causeways. 


Numerous fairs are held in the District. 

Along the sea-coast, and up the creeks, sailing vessels and 
canoes form a ready means of communication. In three 
directions the District is crossed by railways. To the north, 
the line of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway 
skirts the coast for a total distance of 95 miles. East and west, 
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway runs for 24 miles, and 
then dividing, goes north-east by the Thalghat to Nasik and 
south-east by the Borghat to Poona. Two main lines of road 
run eastward, the Agra road across the Thalghat to Nasik and 
the Poona road by way of the Borghat. Since the establish- 
ment of Local funds, many new lines of roads have been made ; 
and in 1903-4 there were 708 miles of roads in the District, 
of which 327 miles were metalled. Of the latter, 133 miles 
of Provincial and 139 miles of Local roads are maintained by 
the Public Works department. Avenues of trees have been 
planted along 357 miles. 

During the nineteenth century three causeways were made 
between the islands in the neighbourhood of Bombay City. 
The first joined Sion in Bombay with Kurla in Salsette, the 
second joined Mahlm in Bombay with Bandra in Salsette, and 
the third joined Kurla in Salsette with Chembur in Trombay. 
The Sion causeway was begun in 1798 and finished in 1805 at 
a cost of Rs. 50,000. In 1826 its breadth was doubled, and it 
was otherwise improved at a further outlay of Rs. 40,000. The 
Sion causeway is 935 yards long and 24 feet wide. In 1841 
Lady Jamsetjl Jijlbhoy offered Rs. 45,000 towards making a 
causeway between Mahlm and Bandra. The work was begun 
in 1843, an ^ before it was finished Lady Jamsetjl increased 
her first gift to Rs. 1,55,800. The causeway was completed 
at a total cost of Rs. 2,04,000, and was opened in 1845. 
It is 3,600 feet long and 30 feet wide, and in the centre 
has a bridge of 4 arches, each 29 feet wide. The Chembur 
causeway was built about 1846, and is 3,105 feet long and 
from 22 to 24 feet wide. 



THANA DISTRICT 


3^5 

Thana, like the rest of the Konkan, is practically free from Famine, 
the effects of drought. The earliest famine of which informa- 
tion is available took place in 1618. In that year at Bassein 
the famine was so severe that children were openly sold by 
their parents to Musalman brokers, until the practice was 
stopped by the Jesuits. The great famine of 1790 interrupted 
the progress of Salsette. The exodus caused by Maratha raids 
in the Deccan led to scarcity in the Konkan in 1802. Of 
seasons marked by more or less general dearth, the chief are : 

1839, when remissions of about 3 lakhs had to be granted; 

1848, when most of the ‘salt 5 rice crop failed owing to high 
spring-tides. In 1899 the rainfall was unfavourable and caused 
distress in some parts of the District, but the area affected was 
only one-tenth of the total. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions, in charge District 
of two Assistant Collectors and one Deputy-Collector. It si^m^and 
comprises the talukas of Bassein, Bhiwandi, Dahanu, staff. 
Kalyan, MahIm, Murbad, Salsette, Shahapur, and Vada, 
the petty subdivisions ( pethas ) of Umbargaon and Mokhada 
being included in the Dahanu and Vada talukas . The 
Collector is ex-officio Political Agent of the Jawhar State. 

The administration of justice is under the District and Ses- Civil and 
sions Judge, whose jurisdiction, except during the monsoon pnmmal 
months, includes Kolaba District. He is assisted by one J 
Assistant and six Subordinate Judges. There are altogether 
31 officers to administer criminal justice. The commonest 
offences are theft and housebreaking. Offences under the 
Railway Act, which are tolerably frequent, are tried by the 
Assistant Collector in charge of Bassein, Dahanu, and Salsette, 
as railway magistrate. 

Besides the regular survey tenure common to the Presidency, Land 
a considerable number of villages, chiefly in the Salsette tdluka , 
are held on the khoti tenure. The khots, who are leaseholders tration, 
of a certain number of villages, obtained their land from the 
British Government at an early period of its rule. Another 
kind of leasehold tenure, known as izafat, which is found in 
most parts of the District, is a variety of the service tenure of 
hereditary officials. The lands are now held on the survey 
tenure, the iznfatdar having a position analogous to that of 
superior holders. Other lands, lying either on the coast or 
along the larger creeks, are held on the shilotri tenure. Shilo- 
iri lands are those which have been reclaimed from the sea 
and embanked, and of which the permanence is dependent on 
the embankments being kept .up. These reclamations are- 



364 NORTHERN DIVISION 

known as khars. The tenure is of three sorts. First, shilatri 
proper, under which the khdr belongs to the person by whom 
it was reclaimed. The shilotriddrs are considered to have 
a proprietary right; they let out their lands at will, and, ac- 
cording to old custom, levy a maund of rice per bigha, in 
addition to the assessment for the repair of the outer embank- 
ments. The second class of skilotri lands are those in which 
Government either reclaimed the khars in the first instance, or 
subsequently became possessed of them by lapse. Except 
that they pay an extra rate, which is spent in repairing' the 
embankments, the cultivators of these khars hold their lands 
on the same condition as survey occupants. The third class 
of shiloiri lands comprises those in which reclamations were 
made by associations of cultivators on special terms arranged 
with Government. Many forms of assessment were in force 
when Thana was ceded to the British, and continue in use in 
groups of villages. They can usually be traced to the Hindu 
chiefs who held the country before the arrival of the Musal- 
mans. Bice lands were, without measurement, divided into 
parcels or blocks which were estimated to require a certain 
amount of seed, or to yield a certain quantity of grain. The 
system has several names, dhep^ hundabandi , mudabandi , kas- 
bandi \ takbandi , and tokabandi , though the leading principle of 
all is the same. The levy of a plough cess, a sickle cess, or 
a pickaxe cess, which, till the introduction of the revenue 
survey, was the form of assessment almost universal in hill and 
forest tracts, seems also to date from early Hindu times; 
and the practice of measuring palm and other garden lands 
into bighas seems to belong to the pre-Musalman rulers. 
Finally, the Kanarese term shilotar shows that from early times 
special rules have been in force to encourage the reclamation 
of salt wastes. During the sixteenth century the officers of the 1 
Ahmadnagar kingdom are said to have measured the rice land 
and reduced the state share to one-sixth, and in the uplands to 
have continued the levy of a plough cess. The husbandmen 
were treated as proprietary holders. Early in the seventeenth 
century Malik Ambar, the Ahmadnagar minister, introduced 
a new system based on that of Todar Mai. According to 
Major Jervis, Malik Ambar’s chief innovation was to make the 
settlement direct with the village instead of with the hereditary 
revenue superintendents and accountants. His next step was 
to find out the yield of the land. With this object he arranged 
the rice lands into four classes. Later in the seventeenth 
century SivajI, by his minister Annaji Dattu (1668-81), divided 



THANA DISTRICT - 365 

the lands into twelve classes. The Portuguese, in Bassein and 
Salsette, leased the land to fazendeiros , or hereditary farmers 
of land, at a foro or quit-rent ; but the payment by tenants to 
proprietors was regulated on the ancient system. The eighty- 
seven years (1730-1817) of Maratha management form three 
periods : thirty years during which no change was introduced ; 
thirty years when fresh surveys were made, new cesses were 
levied, and revenue farming became general ; and twenty-seven 
years when revenue farming was universal. In 1774, when 
Salsette and Karanja were acquired by the British, the people 
were in great misery and revenue was largely in arrears. In 
1798-9 a new system was introduced. All the petty taxes 
levied by the Portuguese and Marathas were abolished, and the 
Government demand was fixed at one-third of the average 
produce of all lands except shilotri lands, which were charged 
with one-fifth. From the cession of the Peshwa’s territory 
in 1817 to the completion of the original survey settlement in 
1886 the revenue history likewise belongs to three periods; 
eighteen years (1817-35) in which the establishment of a sys- 
tem of village accounts was substituted for one of revenue 
farmers, and rates were revised; seventeen years (1835-52) of 
further reductions ; and since then, the revenue survey. 

In 1895 a resettlement was undertaken which was completed 
in 1904. The survey found that the cultivated area had in- 
creased by 10,000 acres, and the settlement enhanced the total 
revenue by nearly 4 lakhs of rupees to 14 lakhs. The average 
rates are : 4 dry 5 land, 5 annas (maximum Rs. 2-2, minimum 
2 annas) ; rice land, Rs. 3-1 1 (maximum Rs. 8-10, minimum 
Rs. 1-6); and garden lands, Rs. i-io (maximum Rs. 5-8, 
minimum n annas). 

The collections on account of land revenue and total revenue 
have been as follows, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880-1* 

1890-1. 

1900-1. 

1903-4. 

Land revenue . 

Total revenue . 

15.” 

27,80 

13.36 

28,87 

12,94 

29,89 

15,68 

33.36 


* In 1880-1 the District included two ialukas since transferred to Kolaba. 


The District contains seven municipal towns : namely, Munici- 
Thana, Kurla, Bandra, Bassein, Kelve-Mahim, Bhiwandi, parties; ^ 
and Kalyan. Outside these, local affairs are under the Dis- ^ ar( ^ a 
trict board and nine taluka boards. The expenditure of these 
boards in 1903-4 was lakhs, of which nearly half was spent 
on roads and buildings. The income amounted to 3 lakhs, the 
land cess being the chief item. 




366 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Police and The District Superintendent, with the aid of one Assistant 
jails* Superintendent, 2 inspectors, and 12 chief constables, controls 
the police of the District. There are 14 police stations. The 
force in 1904 numbered 610 men, working under 152 head 
constables. Besides the District jail, called a ‘ special J jail as 
it accommodates long-term convicts to the number of 730, 
there are n subsidiary jails and one lock-up in the District, 
with accommodation for 102 prisoners. The daily average 
prison population in 1904 was 681, of whom 38 were females. 
Education. Thana stands ninth among the Districts of the Presidency in 
the literacy of its population, of whom 5*2 per cent. (9-1 males 
and i*3 females) could read and write in 1901. In 1855-6 
there were only 17 schools in the District, attended by 1,321 
pupils. By 1881 the number of schools had risen to 178, 
attended by 8,872 pupils, who in 1891 had increased to 17,984. 
In 1901 the number was 13,191, but the decrease was due to 
changes in the District area. In 1903-4 the District had 
301 schools, of which 48 were private, attended by 15,843 
pupils, of whom 2,653 were girls. The public institutions 
included 3 high, 9 middle, and 241 primary schools. Of the 
253 public institutions, one is managed by the Educational 
department, 186 by the local boards, 42 by municipalities, 
while 23 are aided and one is unaided. The total expenditure 
on education in 1903-4 was nearly i| lakhs, of which 54 per 
cent, was devoted to primary education. 

Hospitals In 1904 the District possessed one hospital, 14 dispensaries, 
pensaries anc * a le P er k° me - The Thana civil hospital was established in 
1836, and the first dispensary was opened at Bandra in 1851, 
These institutions contain accommodation for 126 in-patients, 
35 being in the leper home. Including 652 in-patients, the 
total number treated was 115,000, and the operations performed 
numbered 2,137. The expenditure on medical relief was 
Rs. 51,000, of which Rs. 16,000 was contributed by Local and 
municipal funds. A lunatic asylum at Navapada had 310 
inmates in 1904, and is overcrowded. 

Vaccina- The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 
tIon * was 19,120, representing the proportion of 23-6 per r,ooo, which 
is slightly below the average for the Presidency. Since 1900 
vaccination has been compulsory in Bandra and Kurla towns. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer , vol. xiii (Parts i and 
ii) and vol. xiv (1882).] 

Dabanu Taluka.— Northernmost taluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, lying between 19 0 49' and 20° 22' N. and 72 0 39' 
and 73 0 9' E., with an area of 644 square miles, including the 



THANA DISTRICT 


36 7 


petty subdivision (j>etha) of Umbargaon. The population 
in 1901 was 129,815, compared with 134,395 in 1891. The 
density, 202 persons per square mile, is slightly below the 
District average. There are 212 villages but no town, Dahanu 
being the head-quarters. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to 1*9 lakhs. The taluka has a picturesque aspect, 
most of the interior being occupied by forest-clad hills in small 
detached ranges of varying height. Towards the coast are 
broad flats, hardly above sea-level, and seamed by tidal creeks. 
The climate of the interior is unhealthy, and though that of 
the coast is generally pleasant and equable, after the rains it 
becomes malarious. 

Mahim Taluka. — Western taluka of Thana District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 19 0 29' and 19 0 52' N. and 72 0 39' and 
73 0 1' E., with an area of 409 square miles. It contains one 
town, Kelve-MahIm (population, 5,699), the head-quarters; 
and 187 villages. The population in 1901 was 82,562, com- 
pared with 85,841 in 1 89 1. The density, 202 persons per square 
mile, is slightly below the District average. Land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to more than 1-9 lakhs. A range of 
forest-clad hills divides the taluka from north to south; and 
in the north-east corner are high hills with jagged peaks, of 
which Asheri is the chief. In the south-east, Takmak peak 
rises to 2,000 feet above sea-level. The land to the -west 
of the central range is low, flat, and broken by swamps and 
tidal creeks. The climate is pleasant on the coast during 
the hot season; but during the rest of the year both the 
coast and the interior are notoriously malarious. The rain- 
fall (63 inches) is much below the District average. The 
water-supply is fair. The Vaitarna river, which flows through 
the taluka, is navigable by native craft of about 25 tons. 
Hot springs, similar to those at Vajrabai in Bhiwandi, are 
found at Sativli and are supposed to flow from the same 
source. 

Vada. — Eastern Dluka of Thana District, Bombay, lying 
between 19 0 28' and 20° S' N. and 72 0 56' and 73 0 30' E., 
with an area of 566 square miles. It contains 221 villages, 
Vada being the head-quarters. The population in 1901 was 
70,895, compared with 71,385 in 1891. The density, 125 per- 
sons per square mile, is much below the District average. Land 
revenue and cesses m 1903-4 amounted to nearly Rs. 93,000. 
Until 1866 Vada was a petty subdivision (fetka ) of the old 
Kolvan, the present Shahapur taluka . Along the valley of 
the Vaitarna river, which divides the taluka from north to 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


368 

south, the land is well cultivated, and the villages are fairly 
numerous. The rest of the country, especially in the north- 
west and the east, is very hilly, and the population extremely 
scanty. There are three made roads, namely the Vada-Bhi- 
wandi, the Vada-Shirghat, and the Vada-Mahim roads; but 
during the rains the country tracks are impassable. In the 
interior the supply of water from the Vaitarna, the Deherja, and 
the Pinjal is constant and fair. In other parts, where it is 
obtained from wells, the supply is doubtful and the quality 
bad. The whole tdluka is wooded, the forests in some parts 
stretching for miles. The chief trees are teak, ain, matiud, and 
khair . Since 1901 Vada has included the petty subdivision 
(petha) of Mokhada, which formerly was a part of Shahapur. 
Mokhada, which contains 69 villages and has an area of 
259 square miles, consists of a thin strip of undulating plateau, 
lying for the most part between the Jawhar State on the west 
and the Western Ghats in the north and east. The mountain 
of Utwad (4,081 feet) is a conspicuous feature of the hilly 
portion, over the summit of which passes the boundary line 
between Thana and Nasik Districts. 

Shahapur Taluka. — Eastern tdluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, lying between 19 0 18' and i9°44 / N. and 73 0 io' and 
73 0 43' E., with an area of 610 square miles. It contains 197 
villages, Shahapur being the head-quarters. The population 
in 1901 was 83,881, compared with 92,029 in 1891. It is the 
most thinly populated tdluka in the District, and the density, 
138 persons per square mile, is much below the District average. 
Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 1-4 lakhs. 
The country, which was formerly known as Kolvan, is for the 
most part wild, broken by hills, and covered with large forests. 
In the south there are wide tracts of rice lands. The soil is 
mostly red and stony, and the climate unhealthy, except in the 
rains. There are five factories for husking rice in Shahapur. 

Bassein Taluka. — Western tdluka of Thana District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 19 0 16' and 19 0 35' N. and 72 0 44' and 
73 0 i' E., with an area of 223 square miles. It contains one 
town, Bassein (population, 10,702), the head-quarters; and 
90 villages, including Agashi (8,506). The population in 
1901 was 80,251, compared with 76,110 in 1891. The den- 
sity, 360 persons per square mile, largely exceeds the District 
average. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 
i*8 lakhs. The tdluka is formed of a portion of the main- 
land and of territory which was once the island of Bassein, 
bntis now no longer an island, the narrow creek which divided 



THlNA DISTRICT 


369 


it from the mainland having silted up. With the exception of 
two small hills, about 200 feet high, the surface of the island 
portion is flat, with a rich soil, yielding crops of rice, plan- 
tain, sugar-cane, and pan. On the mainland portion are the 
Tungar and Kaman hills, both over 2,000 feet in height, the 
last named, known as Bassein Peak or Kamandrug, being 
2,160 feet above sea-level. On the coast the climate is gener- 
ally pleasant and equable ; inland the heat is great, and in the 
rains much fever prevails. 

Bhiwandi Taluka. — Central tdluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, lying between 19 0 12' and 19 0 32' N. and 72 0 58' 
and 7 3 0 15' E., with an area of 249 square miles. It contains 
one town, Bhiwandi (population, 10,354), the head-quarters ; 
and 196 villages. The population in 1901 was 77,440, com- 
pared with 87,490 in 1891. The density, 311 persons per 
square mile, exceeds the District average. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2*1 lakhs. The centre 
of the tdluka is well peopled and richly tilled, but in the west 
the country is hilly. Except in the south it is surrounded by 
the hills which form the watershed of the Kamvadi river, which 
runs through the tdluka from north to south. In the west, after 
the rains, the climate is malarious, but in the other parts it is 
generally healthy. The water-supply is fairly abundant, but far 
from wholesome. Rice is the chief product. 

Kalyan Taluka. — Southern tdluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, lying between 19 0 4' and 19 0 24' N. and 73 0 i / and 
73 0 24' E., with an area of 276 square miles. It contains one 
town, Kalyan (population, 10,749), the head-quarters; and 
224 villages. The population in 1901 was 77,087, compared 
with 80,171 in 1891. The density is 279 persons per square 
mile, or rather more than the District average. Land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2*2 lakhs. The tdluka is 
triangular in form, and in its western part a rich open plain. 
In the south and east, ranges of hills running parallel with the 
boundary line throw out spurs into the heart of the plain. 
The transport of produce is facilitated by the tidal creek of 
the Ulhas river and by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 
The Kalu river is navigable by boats of 10 tons for 9 miles 
above Kalyan town. There are disagreeable east winds in April 
and May ; but although fever is prevalent in the cold season, 
the climate is on the whole temperate and healthy. 

Murbad. — South-eastern tdluka of Thana District, Bombay, 
lying between 19 0 7' and 19 0 27' N. and 73 0 23' and73°48'E., 
with an area of 350 square miles. It contains 171 villages, 

bo. r. B b 



37o 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


Murbad being the head-quarters. The population in 1901 was 
62,569, compared with 65,641 in 1891. The density, 179 
persons per square mile, is below the District average. Land 
revenue and cesses in 1903—4 amounted to more than 1*3 lakhs. 
The people are mostly Thakurs, Kolis, and Marathas. Most 
of the taluka is very hilly and fairly wooded. The soil is poor 
and the uplands of little value, except as supplying brushwood 
for manure. It suffers from the want of means of exporting 
its produce, but a good high road now bisects it. The water 
supplied by wells is fairly good but scanty. The climate is 
oppressive, though not unhealthy ; after the rains, however, it 
is malarious. 

Salsette. — Large island forming the Salsette taluka of 
Thana District, Bombay, lying between 18 0 53' and 19 0 19' N. 
and 72 0 47' and 73 0 3' E., extending 16 miles from Bandra 
northwards to the Bassein inlet, and connected with Bombay 
Island by bridge and causeway. The area is 246 square miles , 
and the island contains three towns, Bandra (population, 
22,075), Thana (16,011), the head-quarters of the District 
and taluka , , and Kurla (14,831); and 128 villages, ineluding 
Vesava (5,426). The population in 1901 was 146,933, com- 
pared with 126,518 in 1891. It is the most densely populated 
taluka in the District, with an average of 597 persons per 
square mile. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to about 2 »6 lakhs. Along the centre of the island, from north 
to south, runs a broad range of hills, which, after subsiding 
into the plain near Kurla, crops up again in the southernmost 
point of the island at Trombay. The central and highest hill, 
Thana peak, is 1,530 feet above sea-level ; and on the north 
is a detached sharp peak 1,500 feet high. Spurs from the main 
range run west towards the sea, while the low lands are much 
intersected by tidal creeks, which, especially on the north-west, 
split the sea-face of the taluka into small islands. There are 
no large fresh-water streams; but the supply of water from 
wells is of fair quality and pretty constant. The staple crop is 
rice ; and most of the uplands are reserved for grass for the 
Bombay market. The coast abounds in coco-nut groves, and 
the palmyra palm grows plentifully in most parts. This beauti- 
ful island is rich in rice-fields, diversified by jungles, and 
studded with hills. The rums of Portuguese churches, con- 
vents, and villas attest its former importance, and its antiquities 
at Kanheri still form a subject of interest. Eighteen estates, 
consisting of 53 villages, were granted in Salsette by the East 
India Company, some freehold, and others on payment of 



THANA DISTRICT 


37i 


rent, and liable to assessment. The lines of the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway and of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central 
India Railway traverse the taluka . Since the first outbreak of 
plague in Bombay, a large number of villa residences have 
been built by the wealthier merchants of Bombay near the 
latter railway. An additional Assistant Collector was appointed 
in 1902 to plan new roads and control building operations. 
Seized by the Portuguese early in the sixteenth century, Salsette 
should have passed to the English Crown, together with 
Bombay Island, as part of the dowry of the queen of Charles II. 
The Portuguese in 1662, however, contested its transfer under 
the marriage treaty, and it was not till more than a century 
afterwards that possession was obtained. The Marathas took it 
from the declining Portuguese in 1739. The English captured 
it from the Marathas in December, 1774, and it was formally 
annexed to the East India Company’s dominions in 1782 by 
the Treaty of Salbai. 

Agashi. — Port in the Bassein taluk of Thana District, 
Bombay, situated in 19 0 28' N. and 72 0 47' E., 10 miles north 
of Bassein and 3^ miles west by a metalled road from Virar on 
the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. Population 
(1901), 8,506. The town contains a school with 217 pupils. 
In the early part of the sixteenth century Agashi was a place 
of some importance, with a considerable timber and ship- 
building trade. It was twice sacked by the Portuguese — in 
1530 and again in 1531. In 1530 as many as 300 Gujarat 
vessels are said to have been taken ; and in 1540 the Portu- 
guese captured a ship on the stocks at Agashi in which they 
afterwards made several voyages to Europe. Agashi carries on 
a trade with Bombay, worth about Rs. 4,000 annually, in 
plantains, its dried plantains being the best in the District. 
There is a Portuguese school here, and a large temple of 
Bhavanlshankar, built in 1691. The bathing-place close to the 
temple has the reputation of effecting the cure of skin diseases. 

Amarnath (or Ambarnath, literally ‘ Lord of the Skies,’ a 
name of Siva). — Village in the Kalyan taluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, situated in 19 0 12' N. and 73 0 io' E., about a mile 
west of Ambarnath station on the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, and 38 miles from Bombay. Population (1901), 485. 
The old temple, situated in a pretty valley less than a 
mile east of the village, is interesting as a specimen of ancient 
Hindu architecture. An inscription found in it is dated Saka 
982 (a. d. ro6o). It was probably erected by Mamvaniraja, the 
son of Chittarajadeva, a Mahamandaleswara, or feudatory king 

Bb 2 



372 


NORTHERN DIVISION 


of the Konkan, under the Chalukyas of Kalyan in the Deccan. 
The temple itself faces the west, but the mandapa or antarala, 
the entrance hall, has doors to the north and south. Each of 
the three doors has a porch, approached by four or five steps, 
and supported by four nearly square pillars, two of them 
attached to the wall. The mandapa is 22 feet 9 inches square. 
The roof of the hall is supported by four elaborately carved 
columns. In their details no two of them are exactly alike ; 
but, like the pillars in the cave-temples of Ajanta, they have been 
wrought in pairs, the pair next the shrine being if possible the 
richer. The gdbhara or shrine, which is also square, measures 
13 feet 8 inches each way. It appears to have been stripped of 
its ornamentation, and now contains only the remains of a 
small lingam sunk in the floor. The outside of the building is 
beautifully carved. The principal sculptures are a three-headed 
figure with a female on his knee, probably intended to represent 
Mahadeo and Parvatl ; and on the south-east side of the vimana , 
Kali. The sculpture, both on the pillars of the hall and round 
the outside, shows a skill not surpassed by any temple in the 
Presidency. A fair is held here on the Sivaratri in Maglia 
(February-March). 

[For a more detailed account, see Indian Antiquary , vol. iii, 
p. 316 ff . ; and Bombay Gazetteer , vol. xiv, pp. 2-8.] 

Bandra (Wandren } Bandora , , Vandra). — Town in the Sal- 
sette tdluka of Thana District, Bombay, situated in 19 0 3' N. 
and 7 2 0 50' E., on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway, at the southern extremity of Salsette island, at the 
point where that island is connected with the Island of Bombay 
by a causeway and arched stone bridge, 9 miles north of 
Bombay City. Population (1901), 22,075, including 11,358 
Hindus, 3,189 Musalmans, 1,307 Parsls, and 6,117 Christians. 
With a few exceptions, the Christians are descended from local 
converts made by the Portuguese during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. There are numerous Roman Catholic 
churches in Salsette, many of which were destroyed by the 
Marathas after conquering the island in 1738. The buildings 
of special interest are the English Church and the Chapel of 
Our Lady of the Mount. Bandra was constituted a municipality 
in 1876. The municipal receipts during the decade ending 
1901 averaged Rs. 71,000. In 1903-4 the income was a lakh, 
derived chiefly from water-rate (Rs. 32,000) and house and land 
tax (Rs. 22,000). In the municipal limits are included Bandra 
hill, 150 feet in height, with a flat, wooded crest, Bandra town, 
and the villages of Naupada, Khar, Pali, Varoda, Chimbai, 



THANA DISTRICT 


373 


Katwadi, Mala Sherli, Rajan, and Danda. The local industries 
are the tapping of palm-trees and fishing. The Bombay muni- 
cipal slaughter-house is situated at the north end of the cause- 
way. Since the opening of railway communication, Bandra has 
become a favourite place of resort for the citizens of Bombay. 
It possesses an orphanage and a convent known as St. Joseph’s. 
The town contains a dispensary, a high school, a middle school 
for girls with 602 pupils, and two middle schools for boys with 
575 pupils. There are also five vernacular schools, four for 
boys with 267 pupils and one for girls with 119. Public con- 
veyances ply between the station and Bandra and Pall hills, 
where the European and Pars! residents chiefly live. 

Bassein Town ( Vasai, that is, 4 The Settlement ’). — Head- 
quarters of the taluka of the same name in Thana District, 
Bombay, situated in 19 0 20' N. and 72 0 49' E., about 5 miles 
from the Bassein Road station of the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway, and 28 miles north of Bombay. Popu- 
lation (1901), 10,702. The town was constituted a municipality 
in 1864, the income in 1903-4 being Rs. 17,000. In that year 
the total value of the seaborne trade of Bassein was 13 lakhs, 
of which 5 lakhs represented imports and 8 lakhs exports. The 
town contains a dispensary, a Sub-Judge’s court, an English 
middle school with 53 pupils, eight vernacular schools for boys 
with 395 pupils, and one for girls with 71 pupils. 

Bassein early attracted the notice of the Portuguese, as the 
river or strait separating the island from the mainland was a 
convenient rendezvous for shipping. In 1534 Bassein with the 
land in its neighbourhood was ceded to them by Bahadur Shah, 
king of Gujarat, and two years later the fort was built. For 
more than two centuries Bassein remained in the hands of the 
Portuguese, and during this time it rose to such prosperity that 
it came to be called the Court of the North, and its nobles were 
proverbial for their wealth and magnificence. With plentiful 
supplies of both timber and stone, Bassein was adorned with 
many noble buildings, including a cathedral, five convents, 
thirteen churches, and an asylum for orphans. The dwellings 
of the Hidalgos, or aristocracy, who alone were allowed to live 
within the city walls, are described (1675) as stately buildings, 
two storeys high, graced with covered balconies and large 
windows. Towards the end of the seventeenth century Bassein 
suffered severely from outbreaks of the plague, so deadly that 
in 1695 one-third of the population was swept away. Notwith- 
standing the decay of Portuguese power in the seventeenth 
century, Bassein, as late as 1720, would seem to have retained 



NORTHERN DIVISION 


374 

much of its prosperity. In that year the population was returned 
at 60,499, and the revenue a few years later (1729) at as much 
as 4$ lakhs (Xer. 914,125). But the wealth of one city was 
unable to stay the advance of the Maratha power. In 1739 
ChimnajT Appa, a distinguished Maratha general, at the head 
of a powerful army, appeared before Bassein. After a siege of 
three months, conducted on both sides with the greatest skill 
and courage, the garrison was forced to capitulate, and the 
town and district of Bassein passed into the hands of the 
Peshwa. Under the Marathas, Bassein became the chief place 
in their territories between the Bankot river and Daman ; but 
they did not long keep possession of the city. In 1780, after 
a siege of twelve days, Bassein was captured by a British army 
under the command of General Goddard. By the Treaty of 
Salbai (1782) it was restored to the Marathas ; and in 1818, on 
the overthrow of the last of the Peshwas, it was resumed by the 
English and incorporated with Thana District. Here was con- 
cluded, in 1802, the treaty by which the Peshwa agreed to 
maintain a British subsidiary force, thus virtually dissolving the 
Maratha confederacy 

Of Old Bassein, the walls and ramparts remain in a state of 
good preservation. Within the enclosure, the ruins of the 
cathedral, of the Dominican convent, of the Jesuit Church of 
St. Paul, and of St. Anthony’s Church, built as early as 1537, 
can still be identified. 

[Dr. Da Cunha, Antiquities of Bassein (Bombay, 1876).] 

Bhiwandi Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the 
same name in Thana District, Bombay, situated in 19 0 18' N. 
and 73 0 3' E., 29 'miles north-east of Bombay. Population 
(1901), 10,354. Together with the neighbouring village of 
Nizampur, Bhiwandi forms a municipality, constituted in 1865, 
with an income (1903-4) of Rs. 20,700. It is supplied with 
water by means of an aqueduct constructed by the inhabitants 
with the aid of a Government contribution. The population 
and mercantile importance of this place are on the increase. 
The chief industries are weaving and rice-cleaning, and the 
principal articles of trade are rice, dried fish, cloth, grass, and 
wood. The largest steam rice-husking mill in the Presidency 
is situated here. The town contains a Sub-Judge’s court, 
a dispensary, and four vernacular schools for boys with 444 
pupils, and two for girls with 146. 

Borivli. — Village in the Salsette tdluka of Thana District, 
Bombay, situated in 19 0 14' N. and 72 0 51' E., on the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway, about 22 miles north of 



THANA DISTRICT 


375 


Bombay. Population (1901), 182. Borivli is a convenient 
centre for visiting several places of interest. The Kanheri 
Caves lie up the Tulsi valley about five miles to the east. 
At Mandapeshvar, called Monpezier or Monpager by the Por- 
tuguese, about 2 miles north of Borivli, are situated a notable 
white Portuguese watch-tower, and a set of Brahmanic caves, 
over a thousand years old, one of the latter being specially 
interesting from having been used as a Catholic chapel. On 
the top of the rock in which the caves are cut stands a large 
and high-roofed Portuguese cathedral, lately repaired, and exten- 
sive ruined buildings belonging to a college and monastery. 
In a mango orchard, at Eksar, in rich wooded country about a 
quarter of a mile south of Mandapeshvar and a mile north-west 
of Borivli, are some great blocks of stone about ro feet high by 
3 feet broad. They are memorial stones richly carved with 
belts of small figures, the record of sea- and land-fights pro- 
bably of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. About half a mile 
to the east of Borivli station, close to the border-lands of 
Poinsar and the deserted village of Magathan, are some 
Buddhist rock-cut cisterns and some half-underground Buddhist 
caves. A few hundred yards to the east lie some Buddhist 
tombs and the remains of a Buddhist monastery, probably of 
the fifth or sixth century. At Akurli, about 2 miles to the 
south-east, in rugged bush-land, rises a large mound of black 
trap, on the top of which are some quaint rough carvings and 
Pali letters, perhaps two thousand years old. Two miles 
farther south, in thickly wooded uplands, is the great Jogesh- 
vari cave, a Brahmanic work probably of the seventh century. 
The railway can be joined at Goregaon station, which is about 
3 miles north-west of the Jogeshvari cave. 

Dahanu Town. — Seaport in the taluka of the same name 
in Thana District, Bombay, situated