tv Cities Tour - Toledo Ohio CSPAN November 29, 2019 6:50pm-8:02pm EST
their relationships with the gulf states. announcer: watch the entire discussion on global security in the persian gulf region with orme u.s. ambassador from the clinton, bush, and obama administrations. tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span. the impeachment inquiry hearings continue next week, when house judiciary committee chairman nadler holds the first hearing into president trump, focusing on the constitution and the history of impeachment. watch our live coverage wednesday, december 4 at 10:00 a.m. eastern on c-span3. chairman nadler extended an invitation for the president and his counsel to appear before the committee. read the letter on our website, c-span.org/impeachment. and follow the impeachment inquiry live on c-span3, online at c-span.org, or listen live on the free c-span radio app.
announcer: next, a book tv exclusive. our cities tour visits toledo, ohio, to learn more about its unique history and literary life. 40 years now, we have traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the book seen to our viewers. you can view more visits at c-span.org/citiestour. announcer: the c-span cities tour is exploring the american story, as we take book tv and american history tv on the road. with support from our buckeye broadband cable partners, this weekend, we traveled to toledo, ohio. in the next hour, we will speak with local authors about the city's history and how it became known as the glass capital of the world. then, the story of mad anthony wayne and his role in the western expansion into western ohio. later, the toledo bank crash of 1931.
we begin our special feature with the city's mayor. >> i think places like toledo are often taken for granted, and that is a shame because there is such a wonderful history here. over the years, toledoans have built things. we are known as the glass city because the first big break this region got was when the glass pioneers moved from the east coast, primarily boston, to toledo in the 1800s, drawn by rich reservoirs of natural gas, but also sand. drummond libby brought his new england glass company to toledo and opened a plant on ash street. it is on the exact same site today. they invented fiberglass, literally. the glass industry was big and
important. but as the economy changed, as things evolved, we started building other things, too. about 120 years ago, when automobiles started coming to market, toledoans very quickly started doing that. the john willie company was the largest employer for many years. toledoans created and built the world's first atv. federal when the government was looking for the vehicle that general eisenhower felt he needed to traverse the rocky roads to berlin, the willys company in toledo won that contract, and created something we now know as the jeep. it was the first off-road vehicle ever. it is an important part of our history, and it is still a
primary employer. crucial,ring's still but we have diversified into health care and other fields that are more white-collar to protect us from dips in the auto industry. frankly, i think we should market ourselves as the water built. toledo and other cities in the great lakes region are sitting on 20% of the freshwater on planet earth. 20% of all the freshwater on planet earth is located in our backyard in the great lakes. if this region can hang on and look for creative ways to reinvent itself, by the end of this century when water is a desperately sought commodity, scarce not only in this country but across the globe, it will not be a bad thing to be sitting on top of 20% of the earth's freshwater capacity. i think if this region can harness it, we can see a real
growth that can turn the tables and tilt the scales in our direction. toledo has been called the glass capital of the world. it is referred to as the glass city. that is because of the influence of four major international corporations all producing some aspect of glass, and that has been the case since 1888, when libbey brought the first glass factory to toledo. who868, jessup w scott, owned much of what is today downtown toledo -- he was a real estate broker investor -- wrote an article for a magazine. "therticle was titled, future great city of the world."
at that time, toledo was really struggling. toledo was founded in 1837. the state of ohio was created in 1803, so there was a 30 year period where nothing was going on in northwest ohio. it was an arrested development thing. of -- scott built up lots bought up lots of the real estate when it was cheap. he decided he would write this article which would define where the next future great city of the world would be located. it would be bigger than london and rome and new york. it would be the biggest city ever. and not surprisingly, mr. scott decided that the future great city of the world was going to be toledo, ohio, where he just happened to own a great deal of real estate. so they started looking for, what is that magic bullet? what is that thing that is going to take the city which is struggling and make it the biggest city in the world?
they found natural gas just south of toledo, about 30 or 40 miles away. that was the way the toledo city fathers said, this is our destiny. available formy of energy is going to be how we form our future. there was a committee, and they started advertising this gas to all kinds of industries around the country, like an economic development promotional campaign. they particularly targeted glass companies because glass requires a huge amount of energy. melt it at 2400 degrees to make it malleable. class seem to be the industry that could make use of -- glass
seem to be the industry that could make use of this natural gas. they sent out brochures, they contacted last industries, and -- glass industries, and one of the industries they contacted was in massachusetts. that company was owned and operated by a man named libbey. he had inherited the company from his father. libbey glass was known for its brilliantly colored glass. bright reds. they had this colored glass which was marina, gold and slowly turned to bright red. was really popular with the consumer. they made tumblers, vases high-end glassware products. the toledo businessman's committee approached mr. libbey with this incredible offer, at a
time when his company was struggling to deal with the cost of energy and his workers. and they said, we will give you money, we will give you land. you bring your company to toledo, ohio. we have cheap natural gas you can take advantage of, and we welcome you with open arms. mr. libbey took him up on the offer, closed his factory in cambridge, loaded up his workers and equipment and himself on a train, and came to toledo in august of 1888. and things did not go well. the first two years of the libbey glass company, the company really struggled. in new england, they were known for their brilliantly colored glass. and glass depends upon a recipe, certain amounts of this chemical and that chemical to get those colors and to get that brilliance,
and it wasn't working in the furnaces in toledo and they were struggling with quality issues. strugglinglso because the workers, who lived near boston, were suddenly stuck backwards town of toledo, ohio, with none of the culture and none of the andgs they were used to they weren't happy and a lot of them went home. the cheap natural gas that promised didn't come through. it was much more expensive and witht into disagreements the people who promised him the cheap natural gas. struggling.ally while the company was struggling, edward drummond this great idea that he was going to open an world'son at the colombian exhibition in chicago world's fair in chicago. and his board of directors thought this was the craziest thing in the world. it was going to cost $250,000. the company was in debt at the thought if it was
successful, this would make a national brand for libby glass be the thing that propelled the company forward. of people came to the fair, millions of people that exhibit hall and millions of people went back to where they came with these that said,kets "libby glass." and so it was a brilliant marketing scheme in retrospect because it'sy did the thing that saved his company. exhibition saved libbey glass, made it into a national brand and libbey came out of there with $100,000 in profits expenses.ng off his so that brought him back to cemented thend of company here, secured it here. whereas if it had failed, he might have got bankrupt, might
have moved elsewhere. and i think that was really the identifyt began to toledo as the glass capitalful world. that savedthing libbey's company and set in motion a whole series of things to three other corporations with the roots in mr. libbey's company. mr. libbey decided that, first of all, he had to replace his workers. virginiat down to west to the glass manufacturers down in west virginia to recruit people to work in his factory. and there destiny did happen, i think. mr. libbey met a young man who glassen working in the industries in west virginia since he was 10 years old. andname was michael owens owens had started out at 10 being the person who shoveled the coal into the glass furnaces, worked two shifts a day. childs the life of the worker in the glass industry at the time. so he knew glass from the bottom
up. he had done every aspect of glass production. a difficult person to get along with but he was very demanding. so he offered to become mr. libbey'st of factory in toledo but his real waysest was in automating to make bottles, because the whate industry, which was michael owens was most familiar labor intensive and not only that, it required young boys working in conditions, tofe make bottles. basically what it was is you had one skilled glass blower and three or four boys working with him, so the glass blower would pick up the glass on his blow pipe. stand at the around the a mold hot molten glass and the glass
blower would blow into the mold boy would have to open up the mold, the boy would take thered-hot bottle out of mold, go over to the kneeling layer where it would cool. labor incredibly intensive and at that time it's 24% of thehat employees in the bottle making were children. so almost a quarter of the people working were children and conditions were abominable. they were just dangerous and hot treated poorly by the skilled blowers. there was little chance to move up in the hierarchy of the industry. was -- having known that much as a child, was very figureed to trying to out a way to automate the bottle so that these young boys didn't have this kind of life. some of theok
world colombian exhibition and gave it to owens, created a new company called the toledo glass company in 1895 and exclusive reason for the company was to exploit some of the technological innovation of owens so michael owens was given his own company and on this forward, work automation and design new technologies that will change glass is produced. did.at's what mr. owens the two of them teamed up to bottles, automatic bottle machine, which is called biggest improvement in the production of glass in 2,000 years. once they started making flat glass, that became libbey owens ford. once people began experimenting fibers of glass in the 1930's and that spun off as owens corning, those four
companies shaped this city in a partat will always be of who we are. i say that toledo never at being the future great city of the world. we all recognize that. we chuckle about it. it's a good joke. vision ofe ways that jessop scott, of this destiny its perfectly situated geography, the fact that we were able to attract the glass industry here i think in that.ays did fulfill was antoledo war interesting boundary dispute between ohio and michigan, which took place -- well, it began, its early roots began in the 1800's and that really problem,a surveying
because there were different surveys as to where the boundary line would be. would the boundary line be north of toledo? it be south of toledo? obviously michigan wanted to toledo sos south of it could claim toledo as the prize. ohio wanted it, as well. was such awhy toledo prize and why both states wanted it was, if you think about the geographic location of it, it was at the very western end of and the confluence, the rivers. largest tributary on the great lakes. seen as a real economic plum, strategically and geographically. that was the genesis of this thing. ton it really began percolate and came to a crescendo in about 1834 it when michigan, of course which was a territory at that time, and ohio was a state. and what happened was is that
michigan got a little bit more decided, we're going to start arresting people anything ando do claim that it's in ohio, that toledo's in ohio. a militia.med then ohio decided it's got to form a militia, as well, to defend itself. so they formed a militia. that's when they decided, we to get the federal government to step in because we really don't want anyone to get hurt here. so what happened was, andrew jackson was president at the time. remember, this is -- this is in 1835. andrew jackson was looking for re-election some day. ohio was a state. ohio had electoral votes. territory, it had no none. so guess who won. ohio was eventually given toledo monme bay,and the
which you see behind me, this would have been in michigan had for that move in 1835, very possibly we would have been standing in michigan. as it turned out, ohio was michigan wasand given the upper peninsula. but, because it really wasn't over at that point. ohio-michigan war, the toledo war, which really 1835, 1836 is when it was settled, really wasn't settled until 1973. wasthe reason for that was, the boundary -- it happened with erie,undary on lake because lake erie, michigan and on lakere shore line erie, on the western end of the lake. where does the boundary go when it hits the lake? does it go straight across the lake? or does it curve? well, as they eventually
decided -- and it took the it, in 1973, to do decided that it actually curved. so there's a little tiny island called turtle island out in lake erie which for many years had been half in michigan and half in ohio. 1973,the court ruling in it all became part of ohio. there are probably people in that,an who would dispute but that's the story, anyway. >> when people hear the name area, it'sne in this a combination of, well, we know him, his name is everywhere, we the his big highway into city, but knowing specific who he is, if you stop people, what do, who was he, the only thing they can probably say is was mad anthony. that's my inspiration to begin writing this book. wayne to life in a historians haven't done
before. anthony wayne was from pennsylvania, born outside of philadelphia, new year's day, 1775. american the revolution as a politician and 1775 joined the continental army and bounded into the camp on long island on april 1776 and washington said, well, he's enthusiastic. he fought in battles in canadian. in ticonderoga. he fought at washington's side yorktown.ywine to he had to learn to be a general. we think of these men as oh, won this battle or that battle. when the american revolution started, most men had no experience in war. thing anthony wayne knew about war was what he read it done.sar
he drove washington mad, saying if we do this or that, it will be like caesar and we'll beat british. people said about him, on the battlefield, as soon as it began, he came to attention and almost never lost his cool. he could retreat better than which washington needed a lot but he had a terrible campaign. had a sent to georgia and complete physical and mental breakdown there, pulled himself back to together. after that.ned life he could not go back to his family. years ofd with a best our lives, i can't settle back into the routine of living. plantation in georgia that was a failure, almost bankrupted his family. he had been thrown out of congress for having his friends stuff ballot boxes to get him elected in georgia. this was 1791. his life was ruined. no longer felt
anything for him. george washington was desperate to raise an army and come to the ohio country and against the wishes of his cabinet he picked anthony wayne. course, the 13 original colthese on the atlantic. this is now the 13 states. but the british have given us all the land from the appalachians to the mississippi river including north of the ohio, this valuable ohio country that we're at today. indians had signed four major treaties allowing the ohio and to cross the go up to about halfway in what is now the state of ohio. americans would settle to the south, the indians would remain to the north. werge washington said, if don't cross the appalachians, if we don't cross the ohio, if we nationtart building a with opportunity, especially economic opportunity and land, survive?we crossing the appalachians, crossing the ohio is the future. we are now surrounded by the
spanish the french, the and the indians who despise us so his plan was simple -- we'll cross the mountains, negotiate indians, we'll recognize that they own the land notwe'll buy it from them, just once, but every year. they were call annuities. up trading posts. we'll trade and eventually we'll the unitedy people, states of america. and a chief by the name of little turtle rises up and says these treaties and he puts together this massive confederation of all the indians ohio and he tells washington's administration, you thatyour young men across river, it will run red with their blood. and little turtle is able to armies and george washington has to make a decision, do i try again or do i give up. he does not give up on his policy but he needs another army. to hold it in check. it has to be perfectly trained failed,he negotiations
then that army has to move against the indians. washington, when he's trying to who am i going to pick, he has a list of the 16 generals still alive from the american revolution and he said i need someone active, brave and sober and he goes these men are all sick, old and tired. years since yorktown, where will i find someone? he could not remember anything good anthony wayne had done on the battlefield. he remembered his mistakes, at paoli, mutiny of his men, taking too many chances in virginia. his cabinet, they say wayne was too much,r, drinks almosts sick, wayne lost all of his money. wayne just got thrown out of congress. a gentleman. pick lee. had to go through his own mind and say what do i remember good about wayne. well, he's devoted to me.
he wrote me letters before every the revolution cheering me on. wrote a letter to me telling me it doesn't matter, we are going to win. me toeen advocating for be president of the united states. he wrote letters to everyone saying we need a washington. i've got that. and he also said he loves his country. so with a combination of things, that loyalty, that dedication, wanting the job and begging for anything to help the washington ignores his cabinet and he takes a chance. he was given the job in the of 1792, appointed the commander of the new thing the legion of the united states. he's told we'll give you 5,000 soldiers. beenrevious army had slaughtered in the fall of 1791. train theseyou must men coming your way. all the officers of the army are dead, still lying
unburied from the last battle with the indians. so you must raise up the officers. he sent first to outside sent down river to fort washington outside cincinnati. finally he's sent north and builds fort greenville, 120 miles north of cincinnati. all the while he's told to train new men perfectly in this strange organization henry max came up with of the legion of the united states, which is like to train four separate armies. you have to train them so perfectly, that if washington says go, you go and you win, but you can't be so aggressive in your training that you frighten indians, because the negotiations continue. until -- from the spring of 1792, he's not ordered the summerhere until 1794. the battle of fallen timbers ofes about in the summer
1794 after george washington has negotiated with the indians for two years. they have told him no, we want the ohio river as the border between us. ohio country. wayne never knows that george washington is so worried that we not win that he even offers the ohio river to the border. one point with the indians says, you can have it all. no, no.ll say there's great hostility. we've got the backing of the british, stay out of our country forever. what really sets george washington off is this place. in the spring of 1794 when he's still negotiating with the downns, the british come from detroit. they shouldn't be in detroit. that's american soil but they get off of american soil. they come here and build fort miami here. you can still see at least the the remnant of their fort. come down here claiming we're protecting detroit. arm andcoming down to ally with the indians and
support them in the coming and that upsets washington and he said failed,ions have anthony wayne, take your army, begin marching from fort don't go go to turtle.tal of little come up towards the monme river and make a right and head for the british fort. somewhere between greenville and the british fort we're almost will attackindians and you have to win decisively keep marching to that fort and if you get there, take the fort. so he was given quite an assignment. wayne momps -- marches north. they keep marching. defiance.o fort wayne keeps sending out runners, come in, make a deal, a treaty. fight.t have to and finally they're marching all the way up here. they know they're going to get fort. british
it's august 20, 1794. it's only a few miles and they're marching, marching, marching. get up to the bluff, about four miles from here and they the gorgeous rapids down to william harrison, wayne,id, the aide to rides up to wayne and he says i think you're going to get so a battle does begin, to give me the orders and wayne says orders of ses with aarge the bayonet. shot ringsent, a out. 1,000 warriors have lined up front to stop a wayne and wayne was astounded still somen, who were scared and trained so carefully panicked at first but then did hectly what he said and trained his men at the first
attack, line up parallel to that army and his men in five up across thened half mile front and the battle did not long. theasted about an hour and indians came first on the american right, then on the uprican left, and they tried the middle but given the training of his men and his artillery, and the kentucky back,en who came on horse they pushed the indians back from these fallen timbers from a pushed them back all the way back across the river. the indians fled the battlefield they run to this fort thinking the british, who built it to protect them, will allow to come into the fort. and instead they close the doors -- in the indians' faces. militia front close the doors in their faces and say have know you, we don't
problems with the united states of america, and off they run. the aftermath of the battle is for half a year doesn't think he has succeeded. he suffers from depression and goes back to fort defiance. he builds fort wayne as he was ordered to do. oft was keek younga, capital little turtle's confederation. he sits and waits at fort the anxiety is almost overwhelming. he's a beautiful letter writer. he's feelingything and he's rocking back and forth saying i can't do this again. icannot raise another army, cannot face another enemy. we beat them once, we will never where are they? and finally blue jacket, the leader of the shawnee, he is the true leader. little turtle doesn't run this battle. it's blue jacket. blue jacket of the shawnee comes greenville and says it's over, you've won. we've turned our backs on the british. we're going to accept that line.
americans can settle across the ohio. we'll be on the other side. with you.e the fighting's over. and in the summer of 1795, one the battle of the rapids, he negotiates this treaty at greenville. wayne, that was his victory. peaced, i've got to bring and i've got to get my people to settle across the ohio or there america.ted states of and he thought, too, there would be peace with the indians. this would do for america, door, across the the ohio river come the poorest of the poor. here come people from new england, they come up from virginia. people in virginia finally and africane slaves americans come and live along the western part of the state. from theherners come back country. people start trickling in from great britain. beginning of this huge
migration. what he has won is really 10 of peace. in 10 years, ohio will enter the union, america will start looking west but in 10 years the young man, shawnee, who runs away from that battlefield and runs to this fort and gets the gate slammed in his face, said we're going to try again. together theput biggest confederation in history. birth than little turtle, bigger blue jacket. in 1885 heeh and confederation and who has to defeat him? william henry harrison. peace before the war of 1812 where it's finally settled. belongs to america and the british let go and the given uset go so he's time to build our nation. wayne, still the
commander of the army. december,'s november, 1796. he wants to come across the lake, get back to pittsburgh. headquarters.his and he says he had been a surveyor in his youth. giants, there's a triangle between pittsburgh, cincinnati and detroit. mythe anything goes wrong, nation needs me. in a week, i can be at one of points and that was his goal and he thought he'd be general for another year. coming across the lake he gets an attack of gout. he has gout. malarian suffering from and all kinds of diseases and the gout goes through him and he dies in december 1796 and what's interesting is again, it's not like the nation says, oh, how are, we've lost anthony wayne. anthony wayne in many ways was revolution and he opened the door to the west but it will all be forgotten in the coming of first the war of 1812
and then the dash out west and the civil war. tos going to take a while remember that this country was itd fought and we didn't win inevitably. there's no map of destiny in the country. it's a brutal fight and he won. where we're standing right now used to be the site of the plant, oneto light automotive part manufacturers. why thisficance of parkis here is that this represents really a crescendo point in the great labor toledo. in in 1934, what happened was there was a strike. a lot of the unions were trying organize and to get recognition from factories so you had this strike that began a part of the af of l
1,000 workers went on strike because they wanted better wages, better working conditions. you have to remember, this is set in the middle of the have thousandse and thousands, maybe one of three workers out of work in city so there was a lot of tension, there was a lot of pressure. if people went on strike, it was easy to find strike breakers and back in those days, because there was no union, was nothing to stop that, the strikers themselves. they would come out and in this case with the auto light plant, they did, they would amass at the gates and try to stop the from going in so we had some difficult and tense games and it kept getting worse. getting any better. the strike lingered on. 1934 andd in april of
lingered well into may. may, it gotend of to the point and without getting too deep into the weeds as to did what, thousands of joine turned out here to in sympathy with the strikers. unemployed people turned out on this street and to basicallynt battle the police that were sent here and actually the police were not even part of trying to keep peace because sympathy with the strikers. many people involved with the toledo didn't want the police here so they brought in the sheriff's department. there were also private deputies that were hired and finally the national guard was called in and they didn't even call in the guard from the local area because they, too, were in sympathy with the strikers. in fromhad to call them
other parts of the state. so the national guard people from placesought in 100, 200 miles away to try to was the calm here but it very difficult. there was -- there was an incredible amount of violence going on. there were bricks thrown. there were punches thrown. there was tear gas. there were what they called vomit bombs. days, this continued. first day they got 2,000 people that came out to sympathize with the strikers. the next day they got another 5,000 and thenor it's said as many as 6,000 to 10,000 people showed up and it scene of mass confusion, of great violence. the national guard was trying to keep the peace but it was very difficult and finally the national guard was given orders, started torikers move on the national guard, the national guard was given orders and they could fire
did and they opened fire on the sympathizers.he two people were killed in that asfire and probably as many 15 were wounded. there were hundreds more that thatinjured in the melee ensued. prevailed and they were able to tamp down the violence and tamp down the tensions that had ensued and in many ways the violence of that believe it was may 25 of everybody of stopped in their tracks and said, hey, there's got to be a better way. eventually the plant recognized the union and eventually they got the bargaining rights they wanted. they recognized the union and it a win for the labor movement and that's what this represented probably as many labor historians will tell you, this is probably one of the most important strikes in labor union
history in america because it then, opened the door, for the united auto workers to unionizing in other factories as they did with chevy 1935, the great strike against chevrolet which opened the doors there. significant impact on the power and the strength of labor unions, what happened here this auto light factory in 19 34. >> there is so much myth and oftery about the death tecupsy primarily because there about what accounts transpired. the history books say that richard m. johnson was the man that took out tecupsy. with a slogan for him, the first official
presidential campaign slogan of the day. rumsy dumpsy, rumpsy dumpsy, .olonel johnson killed tecumseh for someone to take him out in the midst of a battle in combat when he was considered so adept, it was a feat. ohio,eh was born in believed to be chillicothe, ohio. he was part of two significant that transpired in northwest ohio area. in 1794 in the battle called the battle of timbers. result of that battle, the greenville treaty was signed a later and they ended up giving away to the americans is ohio4 of what today except for ironically this northwest corner of the state. called the great swamp at that time. that treatyning of
and tecumseh did not sign the treaty. tribeher chiefs in his and a dozen other tribes did sign the treaty to give the away butty ittecumseh didn't the sale of lands. he believed land belonged to all and tecumseh was getting more angry that other tribes were selling huge blocks of what became indiana and illinois and other areas whistle they -- when theelt they didn't have authority to do so. that's when he started building and he had been successful in joining a couple dozen tribes from basically all over the continent to take up this fight. we are currently standing in the miegs which was built in the winter of 1813,
january-february time period. 20 tecumseh came back here years after the battle of fallen timbers but this time it was in the war of 1812. the british, with particular the british led by henry proctor. tecumseh was leading the indian coalition and they made two fortress. this both unsuccessful. after the second attempt, they over to about 40 miles south of here to what today is fremont, ohio. was a small fortress called fort stephenson and they should have easily taken that fort tres. were 200 men and only had one cannon and they were still even though there were probably 1500 british and so theyorces together base, return to their temumsy and proctor, to fort
south ofhich is windsor, ontario. full retreat along the tems river and it took five days but harrison caught up with them and they turned to fight and that is where the battle known as the battle of the tems took place where tecumseh was killed, october 5. we don't know for sure. we have 150 different versions of what happened. but he certainly was killed because he never showed up. fact, harrison commented he wasn'tway that going to make a definitive identification because if he said we got him and three weeks later he showed up somewhere else, he would have egg on his face. you have to understand that there were -- no one in the american forces could recognize tecumseh. only harrison had met with him a few times over the years to try to negotiate
discuss things. they fought against each other at fallen timbers when they were younger. so aside from harrison, there was only one key person that wasd identify him and that a guy named anthony shane, a white man who was kidnapped by the indians when he was young and coincidentally he was the exact shawnee tecumseh belonged to so they grew up together and were best friends, fought alongside each other and he interpreter with the americans for a a long time. that was his position at the battle of tems. when tecumseh was killed, they him, and harrison, the only two people that could make an identification of the body. problem comes in is that most of these reports say that, with anthony sheen when he
as beingut this body tecumseh or with harrison and the conflict comes in because say that body that he pointed out the was shot in the chest with two bullets, he was a tan buck skin outfit, that he was scalped. another report says, no, he was wearing blue leggings, he was bare chested and he had three knives and a tomahawk. another one says, no, he had a of pistols on his side and he was -- whatever the case these reports,f whether it was his dress, his else, hisanything changedr his location, all the time. so that's where the conflicting stories come in. kind of a study in human really, because you have so many people looking at andretically the same event coming away with different
interpretations. tecumseh, the ultimate significance of it, is that the indian coalition died with him. one came up, stepped up to place.s tribes dissipated. they went their own ways. they started arguing amongst themselves again. some decided to go with the elders. basically, the elders were right, let's acquiesce to the american lifestyle. and others moved on as they would trying to hope they would least some reservation or something within the land that free reigno have over. i have a theory that if he had survived, he may have kept the indian nations together. he was legitimately trying to land his culture had had for centuries and he was doing so and he did it
legitimately, he did it at first and if it meant going to war, he was not afraid to do so. >> where we're standing right whats actually the site of was probably one of the oldest america.e plants in for well over 100 years, this automobilee of an factory that produced many different models of cars, but importantly, and most famously, this was the home of jeep. jeep started the and rolled off the assembly line worldp america win war ii. in about 1940, the u.s. avernment wanted to have utility vehicle and so they went to three different auto companies. willie's here in toledo. they went to ford motor company in detroit. bantham motor company in pennsylvania and they said here are the specs, give us vehicle that you think would
meet these specs to become an utilityose sort of vehicle to be used by our military. with was came back ford had some good ideas. willie's had not only a good had what was called the willie's go devil engine was a very powerful little engine. and they also had a great design from bantam motor company out of pennsylvania. government -- essentially this became automobile by committee and the jeep was born. the fordused a lot of design, part of the bantam design for the body and much of designhanical and engine from willie's and willie's got the contract. willie's became the birthplace of jeep. toledo is where the jeeps were and were churned out by the thousands. jeepsds of thousands of were built here for world war ii and then after world war ii, of course, the jeeps turned to
civilian use and this was the many,f jeep for many, many years. this factory remained a viable factory,a working where frech every jeep that ever through here, whether it was the wrangler series or cherokees, were all built in this town at this particular factory, this location, the factory and the smoke stack behind us still remains. it's well over 100 years old and it's really the symbol of what took place here. willie's would sell to kaiser and kaiser would sell to motors, american motors chrysler and then to fiat. that's where we are today. still made in toledo. we still make the wrangler and make a jeep pickup truck. it's still very much the pride of the city. this is, of course, where it at this spott
where we're standing. >> in the 1920's, toledo was the fastest growing manufacturing city in america. like theays it was silicon valley of today. auto industry, cutting edge technology, were centered here at the time and the goingcturing base was gangbusters and toledo seemed to be one of the brightest economic spots on the american map during a decade that was a decade of prosperity. in 1931, the entire inse of cards collapsed all one week and five of the six largest banks in toledo all failed at the same time which made it the largest banking failure of the great depression. banking industry here was perhaps more corrupt than other and that contributed to its catastrophic collapse.
toledo was the 27th largest city in america and its economy was diversified for a city of its size. major an up-and-coming producer of automobiles. largestne of the automobile companies, the willie's overland company cars here but it also had a large manufacturing base in the glass industry. it have probably the most glass production of any its in the country, companies owned all the important patents to glass technologies. any bottle and any window pane that was made in the world, some of those royalties came back here to toledo. system in toledo is similar to the banking system ohio and the country in that the banks were mostly chartered by the state government, not the federal government. that means the federal government didn't regulate or inspect them. inspections and
regulations were done by the state of ohio. and that unfortunately allowed much pursue ay wild west atmosphere of investing. they really didn't have many constraints on the type of loans they would give out and they really didn't have many constraints on any business decisions that they made. what eventually happened is that the banks pretty much escaped even state regulation. know this because just on the eve of all these banks state inspectors certified them all as being the bankand, in fact, that's right next door, the put ony home bank, was the honor roll of ohio banks even though it hadn't made a over a year and even though the inspectors discovered least $300,000 short on their accounting and the bank directors had given dividends illegally.
in spite of all that, they still the honor roll of banking. that's how weak the banking regulations were here. we're standing in the former toledo trust building, which was the only bank that survived that survivedd it largely because it was part of the and wasreserve system federally independent which meant it had to have good and it wasn't able to escape the regulations put upon it. the bank crisis occurred, when the other banks began failing, this bank could call upon the federal reserve in cleveland and have an armored millionlled up with $11 in cash and driven out here at a high rate of speed and so fast, it got into an accident and had to transfer its into a different armored car to make the trip so depositors at ease that it had money. other banks in the city were by local investors and
controlled by local directors and the major problem that leads failures is that these directors and these owners were also involved in other so they were oftentimes the owners of some of the big manufacturing companies in town. oftentimes bank directors would threeectors on two or banks at the same time. they would also be involved, all heavily directors, were invested in real estate companies because one of the primary contributors to the bank crisis here in toledo in the as it was in america in 2007, was the in real estate. reachedate speculation a mind boggling rate in the 1920's. 1925, there was 435 real estate companies in this small city. and they developed 67 subdivisions which could hold
over a million people for a city of a quarter million people. clearly over-leveraged and over-invested. and the reason these real estate could dog that is because they were largely owned by the directors of the banks loong them money, were essentially giving themselves and the interlocking directorates of the different estate companies and manufacturing companies meant there were all these bankers to give out loans when there wasn't dolateral or good reason to so and by 1931, that overhang loans, finally the bill came due and on june 6, 1931, rumors began swirling that banks were about to fail and depositors began lining up outside these doors demanding their money. that when they know they lined up outside the doors, the people inside the bank, the directors and the owners and the
people invested, were already removing their money ahead of the depositors, leaving them very little. bank crisisfter the of 1931, went from being a city city insion to being a a catastrophe. by the winter of 1932, it's that as many as half of all the workers in toledo were laid off. the cityt so bad that of toledo which went quickly bankrupt itself, couldn't afford new light bulbs for the streetlights so every day the city got darker. they couldn't replace the fire trucks so the number of fires that burned uncontrolled increased every year through the great depression. out of six people in the city were on federal soief and federal relief was tight for toledo that dietitians minimumlculating the number of calories needed to maintain life and that's what allocated to individuals so
it couldn't have been much worse from that sense. the city was very much closed by 1932 as a result of the bank crisis. so toledo was very much in this of economic catastrophe through most of the great depression. wasn't until 1935, 1936, that the programs of the new deal began to have an effect. by the late 1930's, a very high the work force in toledo was actually federally employed. so it was federal new deal relief that eventually got the its feet and of course as is true throughout the great depression, the coming the war in the 1940's invigorated the economy. toledo retooled for the war. it began making the famous war-time willy's jeep, it began
verting -- converting many hardware factories into munitions factories and toledo fulloon running on employment again but the economy would never rebound to where it was in the 1920's. the 1920's, it was one of the fastest growing cities in the the 1930's, it lost population. 1950's,the 1940's and it fell behind the national average so it never really recovered from the great depression. the banking crisis of 1931 has had a long-term effect on toledo that i think it converted a city which was on the way to being one of the economic region intoof this being an economy that's not very theerent from the rest of region. the reason the realtors and real estate companies were willing to this city toany in the point where they overbuilt is because 400%
their projections were that this was going to be a major metropolitan area in the very werefuture and those hopes not unrealistic but they were destroyed by the very investments being made to realize them. standing right now is sort of the confluence of the monme river just before it thes into lake erie, up in northern part of the city, close to lake erie. of represents the -- i guess the maritime city.s of the and for all intents and purposes, shipping, and the maritime interests, are really the oldest industry in toledo, none. this city started as a port city. settlers, the first
pioneers, the first explorers came here by boat and the shipping industry grew from there because this was a waterway and when the first settlers came into this area, they realized not this a good waterway, but there were plenty of trees here. was the great black swamp. so what did they do? they set up saw mills and they started to make lumber and they started to build ships here so also became a major point for ship building. was always a dream to be toe to open up the lake port ocean freighters. eventually that happened. they were able to finally, by 1959, develop the saint lawrence and open up the welling ocean goingllowed freighters to come in. so toledo at this time is still a major port city.
we have general cargo terminals along the river. we have grain terminals along the river. we have, of course, overseas terminals here. lot that happens on this river in toledo, ohio, monme, as a shipping port that many people probably aren't aware of, even people who live here. if you don't see these boats and forget that you can we're really a port city and we're an important port city on great lakes. >> i think the biggest misconception about the first applies ins that it all situations across the board whether you're talking about speech, public speech, at work, something that involves government. but the first amendment only applies to government actions. shall make noss law abridging freedom of speech which means somehow or another the state has to be involved for be a first amendment
issue. i think there's definitely a difference between free speech amendment speech and i think that first amendment speech is covered by the the constitution, the precedence from the supreme passed by states and federal government and legal factorsand that tell us this is what the first amendment does, i can make in courtmendment claim against somebody or against the government. morespeech is much diffuse. make a freee might speech claim. thesays stop singing at supper table. mom, it's my free speech. no first amendment there but the feels a grievance about not being able to sing at the supper table. clear example, relevant to a lot of debates going on right now, bound byiversities are the first amendment because they're part of the state. public universities
cannot keep speakers off campus relativelyome limited situations. we've seen a number of controversies about controversial speakers and whether they're going to be allowed to speak on campus or not and they're able to raise claims.endment they can go to court and sue a onversity for infringing first amendment rights. private university, same speaker, same kind of talk, excepting is the same, it's a private university instead of a public university. there's no first amendment claim. there's no way -- so you might speaker kicked off of this public campus and their next talk is at a private campus across town. one is a first amendment claim and the other is not. faulty example of a first amendment claim would be to say that facebook or twitter is censoring you. they might be censoring you but not in a first amendment way because twitter and facebook are not part of the government. they're not owned by the government. amendment doesn't
really apply there. you can still complain about what's going on. there are lots of valid complaints to make about the way mightrivate companies restrict your speech but those are free speech claims that amendmentger first analysis. i think there's two main areas, the president's speech on particularly, raises. himself indefending court now because he's blocked a bunch of people on twitter and they're claiming that's a first amendment violation, that as president, as principal agent of restrictinge is their ability to engage in debate with him because he's blocked them. an important first amendment case. that one's directly first amendment because he's the president, right. he's definitely part of the government. so that's one thing that is very seenesting and we've never that before. we've never had to deal with that. then the other thing is the consequences of his speech in terms of what have it does. walk into class and
just repeat some of the things that the president says, i'm in h.r. half an hour later really catching hell for that. so he is being held to a different standard than a lot of us in work places and the public to.maybe going to be held and it's difficult to figure out mean, he does have free speech. he has more free speech than any the rest of us. the president is always the center of attention for media and pretty much the president wants to get a message out -- whichever president we're about -- president can get a message out. but the rest of us have things the presidenthat says so part of what we're wrestling with is how do we respond, what are the consequences of the things the president says. influential person. president obama was an influential person.
president bush was an influential person. speecheffects of that may be difficult to nail down directly. hard evidence or proof that this tweet led to that'snsequence, ok, very, very difficult to do just in terms of how we know things that somethingve follows from something else. tendencynk there's a towards some things that are consequences -- violence or discrimination or something like that? we think, yeah, there's a there's a that relationship but proving that's very difficult and then, again, thinking about, ok, speech often has harms or often has negative consequences. we protect it anyway. so we have to factor that in, as well. pretty hard time thinking about free speech without thinking about first amendment rules. think sort of overall it's just we're going to get to a point where everybody understands this distinction or
this difference because we all like free speech. you're hardly ever going to find somebody who says i'm opposed to free speech or i'm opposed to you will amendment but find lots of people who are opposed to free speech about issue y or first amendment protection for this group of people or that group of end up arguinge a lot, right. but we agree to the umbrella. we love and support free speech. about whicheech issues, that's where all the action is. toledo, ohio, is a book tv exclusive. and we showed it today to you to c-span's cities tour. for eight years now we've traveled to u.s. cities bringing the book scene to our viewers. our visitsch more of c-span.org/citiestour.
[captions performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] >> you can make up your own mind, created by cable in 1979. c-span is brought to you by your local, cable or satellite provider. c-span, your unfiltered view of government. >> coming up tonight on c-span, a panel of former u.s. ambassadors from several administrations to talk about security in the gulf region and u.s. relations with iran. hen democratic candidate joe sestak talks about his platforms and goals. after that, newsmakers with peter ambler.
>> former u.s. ambassador to persian gulf countries from several administrations talked about security in the gulf region and u.s. relations with iran. the wiser security center and the american academy of diplomacy hostsed this event at the university of michigan form school of public policy. [applause] >> hello, everybody. and welcome. i would like first to add my thanks to the wiser family as well as to the academy of diplomacy which we've been fortunate to partner with to bring today's topic. today's topic is timely and extremely important. we're going to talk about u.s.-iran negotiations, politics and security in the gulf more generally. and of course, those issues are linked to a whole range of other regional issues relevant to u.s. foreign policy in the middle east from israel and